Effects of Technology on Modern day Architecture and Design

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Effects of Technology on Modern day Architecture and Design

Architecture has revolutionized and changed in the twenty-first century compared to the nineteen century due to technology. Even though many factors have played major roles in the changing of architecture, technology has played the most important role for architectural change. Architecture and technology will be two terms that will be used throughout this paper. According to the Webster dictionary, architecture is defined as the art or science of designing and creating buildings while technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry. Technology nowadays plays an important role in our societies since most buildings especially condos and houses are way different compared to the ones that were built in the nineteen century. Today’s buildings/condos in our societies are now built mostly through the use of digital visualization technologies that are purposely planned to create certain kinds of impression and atmosphere in our society. Technology and architecture goes hand in hand as both terms benefit from each other due to the fact that technology has helped architects in drawing their designs more effectively and efficiently instead of using their hands. This essay will aim to analyze how modern technologies are operating as a key part of architecture and design, whether technology is having a positive or negative impact on architecture and architectural work methods. There will also be a discussion on Computer-aided design (CAD). In relating it to the course, this paper will mostly touch on hyper change since its evident that technology is indeed changing how individuals perceive and understand objects and structures. The most important technology/software that this essay will look at is the Computer-aided design (CAD) and Geographic Information System (GIS) and how both have affected architecture and design. At the moment, technology has totally revolutionized our city we live in and our way of living. Walking around downtown Toronto and seeing buildings such as the OCAD building and the Royal Ontario museum indicates how far buildings have change due to technology. Looking at how far technology has brought architecture, it’s safe to say that technology will open new worlds by assisting in the making of new materials to construct buildings.

Notes on modern architecture by Antoine Picon shows that architecture has been closely related to technology since the nineteen century and argues that modernism’s tendency towards architecture has made it possible to elevate the living settings of the masses. Scholars such as Banham have argued that technology certainly has shaped architecture throughout history. Examples such as the creation of the Flying Buttress in Europe allowed Master Builders to restore the enormous walls of Romanesque churches, the Etruscan keystone arch allowed the Roman Empire to make tough and strong bridges. The most outstanding example is the development of skyscrapers which was made possible by the invention of mass produced steel and safety elevators. In the world, the tallest skyscraper is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai while in Toronto, the highest skyscraper is the CN Tower but the tallest inhabitable is the First Canadian Place. Banham looks at how technology should be considered as an essential part of architecture but does not really discuss the effects and impacts technology is having on modern day architecture. This essay will tackle this issue and expand on the ideas Banham out forward in his book and other scholarly works by different authors.

This research paper will have an introduction where major terminologies that will be used throughout the paper will be defined. The introduction will also have the thesis and the arguments supporting the thesis. The next section of this paper will solely discuss Computer-aided design (CAD), the types of CAD and the contributions that this software has made to architecture and design. The next section will look at will be the advantages and disadvantages of technology on architecture. Research shows that indeed technology has had a positive effect on architecture so these advantages will be explored further. Lastly, this paper will look at what technology can do for architecture in the future. In conclusion, this paper will summarize all the arguments and points put together and opinions of scholars will also be touched upon.

Annotated Bibliography

Banham, R. (1984).The architecture of the well-tempered environment(2nd ed). London: Architectural Press.

In this book, the author points out that technology, human needs, and environmental concerns are all interconnected and all of them play a vital part in the development of architecture. He argues that technological and mechanical advancements in simple areas such as ventilation, heating and other 20th century designs needs more attention since architecture is not just about designs and buildings but also the mechanical systems that makes them work..

Crouch, D. P. (1985).History of architecture: Stonehenge to skyscrapers. New York: McGraw-Hill.

In this book, Crouch tackles architecture from a historic point of view from the Stonehenge in England to the skyscrapers which are seen around the world mostly in developed countries. Crouch talks about basically how far architecture has come as she explores architecture in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Crouch argues that architecture is now developing into a science-based due to the progression of technology.

Donald, Watson (1984). Architecture, Technology, and Environment. Journal of Architectural Education Vol. 51, No. 2 (Nov., 1997), pp. 119-126 Published by:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.on behalf of theAssociation of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Inc. URL: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/stable/1425452

In this journal, Donald argues that a small number of architectural educators dismiss the fact that technology is part of architecture and he insists that both architecture and technology are dependent on each other. Donald also argues that technology puts greater emphasis and higher expectations on architecture due to the fact that technology in architecture is not just about simply the beautiful structures and buildings we see but it is about the knowledge and information the society as a whole gain in the making of these structures.

Encarnação, J. L., Lindner, R., & Schlechtendahl, E. G. (. G. (1990).Computer aided design: Fundamentals and system architectures(2nd ed.). Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag.

This book explains the computer aided design software in particularly how it works, its principles, ways and how it has helped in the development and revolution of architecture. Encarnação and his co-authors identifies the main components of CAD and they concluded by showing the steps involve in making this machine

Heynen, Hilde. (1999).Architecture and modernity: A critique. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

This author suggests a remarkable outline of investigation that explains the history of modern movement's and difficulty it has faced. Hilde tries to connect modern movement and cultural theory of modernity. Hilde argues that architecture and modernity relies relatively greatly on the kind of modernity being created. Hilde asks the question “what relations exist or ought to exist between architecture and modernity?” .So with this asked, she explores how architecture and modernity is connected.

Karl D. Stephan. (2005). Masterworks of Technology: The Story of Creative Engineering, Architecture, and Design. Technology and Culture, Volume 46, Number 3 Retrieved from

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v046/46.3stephan.html

According to this journal review by Karl, technology has always been part of human society. The author talks about technological creativeness and vision throughout the years. Karl argues that science and engineering has come together and its pushing architecture to a new and different level never imagined before from the pyramids of Egypt to now skyscrapers seen around the world. Karl talks about the framework involve in skyscraper developments especially that of the Chicago’s Sears Tower as he builds on the ideas of F. R. Khan’s influence important on skyscraper design.

Le Corbusier. (1952). Towards a new architecture. London: The Architectural Press.

In this book, Le Corbusier book talks about architecture and the society as he wrote about new advancements that we see today in our communities today. He parallels the speed of which architecture is growing with that of the advancement in the society. Le Corbusier also addresses five principles of modern architecture, mass production and industrialization.

Rivard, H. (2000). A Survey On The Impact Of Information Technology On The Canadian Architecture, Engineering And Construction Industry. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), v.5, p.37

In this survey, researches aim in determining the impact of technology on architecture, construction and engineering. This survey proved that all architects now have access to computer and only one percent of the architects that answered the questionnaire study indicated that they do not use computers to help them with their work. The survey proved that truly most when it comes to the drawing of design most architects use CAD. This survey showed technology is an essential part of architecture, construction and engineering field now and almost every individual that works in these fields rely on them to help him/her work efficiently.

Stephenson, S. (2007).The integration of technology into a landscape architecture graduate program: A case study.(Order No. NR39441, University of Toronto (Canada)).ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 232. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/304757618?accountid=15182

This is a case study show the ways in which technology is contributing to the landscape of architecture and the difficult process involved in it. The study mostly touches on design process and studio culture while it looks at how technology has affected this area either in a positive, neutral or negative way. Throughout this paper, it’s clear that technology has change landscape architecture especially when it comes to how materials are produced and how designers all over the world are able to contact each other in a matter of seconds due to technology.

Saeideh Feizi Azarshahr, Alireza Motamadniya, Mostafa Basiri (2013). New Technologies in Modern Architecture and its Interaction with Traditional Architecture. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences Vol 1 Issue 3: 70-80 In this article, Azarshahr et al argues that the use of technology results in the establishment of flawless and perfect buildings and technology has always been a part of architecture as Azarshahr et al describes two types of technology: traditional technology and modern technology. According to these authors, traditional technology has not been documented as much compared to modern technology and this modern technology has led to the computerization and industrialization of architecture.

REFRENCES

Banham, R. (1984).The architecture of the well-tempered environment(2nd ed). London: Architectural Press.

Crouch, D. P. (1985).History of architecture: Stonehenge to skyscrapers. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Donald, Watson (1984). Architecture, Technology, and Environment. Journal of Architectural Education Vol. 51, No. 2 (Nov., 1997), pp. 119-126 Published by:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.on behalf of theAssociation of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Inc. URL: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/stable/1425452

Encarnação, J. L., Lindner, R., & Schlechtendahl, E. G. (. G. (1990).Computer aided design: Fundamentals and system architectures(2nd ed.). Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag.

Heynen, Hilde. (1999).Architecture and modernity: A critique. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Karl D. Stephan. (2005). Masterworks of Technology: The Story of Creative Engineering, Architecture, and Design. Technology and Culture, Volume 46, Number 3 Retrieved from

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v046/46.3stephan.html

Le Corbusier. (1952). Towards a new architecture. London: The Architectural Press.

Rivard, H. (2000). A Survey On The Impact Of Information Technology On The Canadian Architecture, Engineering And Construction Industry. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), v.5, p.37

Stephenson, S. (2007).The integration of technology into a landscape architecture graduate program: A case study.(Order No. NR39441, University of Toronto (Canada)).ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 232. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/304757618?accountid=15182

Saeideh Feizi Azarshahr, Alireza Motamadniya, Mostafa Basiri (2013). New Technologies in Modern Architecture and its Interaction with Traditional Architecture. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences Vol 1 Issue 3: 70-80

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