Development of Zero-carbon Industrial Building

10419 words (42 pages) Essay in Architecture

18/05/20 Architecture Reference this

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Executive Summary

The scope of this design project is to provide a 0% carbon emission development, which exceeds the requirements as set out by building regulations Part L. As part of the design, a RIBA Stage 4 electrical design and RIBA Stage 3 mechanical design shall be provided

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The scope of this design project is to provide a Part L 2006 compliant solution for a new school building at a site in Maidstone, Kent. The requirement is not only to meet the Part L 2006 requirements but to exceed the target value by at least 50% in an economically viable way. In order to achieve this renewable or low and zero carbon technologies are required to be used.

A baseline building was modelled using IES; implementing basic efficiencies of building services and an undeveloped thermal envelope was used as a comparison to benchmarks collected from industry sources. The building then underwent in-depth thermal modelling to look at the reduction of CO2 emissions and energy usage and to provide a compliant solution.

The buildings U-values and air permeability levels were improved to reduce the loads on the building before lighting control and building metering was implemented to further reduce the building loads. A ground source heat pump and a large photovoltaic array where then used to give the required reduction over the target level for the building.

Further measures where then trialled for the building including LED lighting and rainwater harvesting to further reduce CO2 emissions and to ascertain if a saving in running costs for the building would be available. Following the investigations into these measures the final CO2 emissions level was calculated as 71.2% below the Part L 2006 target level, exceeding the main aim of the project.

This report considers the energy and sustainability measures to be incorporated within the proposed Project Novus development in Knutsford. This document reviews the requirements at both national and local level, as set out in the National Planning Policy Framework and East Cheshire Council Planning Policy.

The recommended sustainability features for the development, resulting from a dynamic energy model, will allow for a 15.52 % energy saving from a base Part L 2013 compliant build. In compliance with local policy, which requires the development to secure at least 10% of its predicted energy requirements from decentralised and renewable or low carbon sources, a 11.74 % reduction in energy usage is anticipated through the incorporation of a 105.05 kWp Photovoltaic (PV) array (across units 2-8 and 10-14) and the use of air source heat pumps (in unit 1 and unit 9), which results in a 7.92% and 3.82% reduction, respectfully. The sustainability features will allow for a 86.34 tonne reduction in annual CO2 emissions. The energy and carbon savings are to be achieved through passive design, energy efficient measures incorporating design features such as energy efficient lighting, sub-metering of relevant areas, upgrading of ‘U’ values and occupancy sensing in relative areas, as well as the incorporation of the PV array and ASHP.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Aims and Objects

1.2 Site Location

1.3 Building Summary

2.0 Literature Review

Design Criteria

Benchmarking

Energy & Sustainability Strategy

Sustainability Drivers

Local Policy Review

National Policy Review

Sustainability Features

SBEM Calculations

Energy Usage and Carbon Emissions

X.0 Building Service Design

X.1 Electrical Services System Design

X.2 Mechanical Services System Design

Photovoltaic Array Capital Cost

Photovoltaic Array Payback

Conclusion

Appendix A – Electrical Layouts

Appendix B – Mechanical Layouts

Appendix C – Calculation 1 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix D – Calculation 2 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix E – Calculation 2 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix F – Calculation 3 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix G – Calculation 4 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix H – Calculation 4 Carbon Calculations

Appendix I – Lighting Calculations (Dialux)

Appendix J – Cable Calculations (Amtech)

Appendix K – Photovoltaic System Quote

Appendix L – Photovoltaic System Payback Calculator

Bibliography

1.0           Introduction

With the Kyoto Protocol aiming to reduce gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels, before 2012, in addition to, the Cancun Agreement investigating clear objectives for reducing greenhouse emissions, deploying clean technology, and implementing successful set objectives. And, the Climate Change Act setting UK targets of Co2 reductions of 26% by 2020 and Co2 reductions of 80% by 2020. It has become apparent that since the beginning of the industrial revolution, there has been a significant increase in fossil fuel usage, which consequently has contributed to significantly increased Co2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Issues surrounding carbon emissions have been defined per sector within the United Kingdom, specifically industry Co2 emissions account for 21% of the total emissions, which accounts for nearly a quarter of the total Co2 emissions across all sections. Whilst the industrial sector does not have the largest Co2 factor, it does have a large contribution. The Project ‘Zero, Knutsford’ development as reviewed in this document will be a new build industrial scheme, located in Cheshire. The land where the proposed development will be sited, is a ‘Green Field’ area, which is part of a larger development.

Figure 1.0 – Co2 emissions by sector (obert L. Wilby, 2017)

1.1 Aims and Objects

The overall aim of the project is to produce a zero-carbon industrial building, whilst also reviewing the feasibility of available renewables, and investigating the cost associated.

Further aims and objectives of the project are to provide a building whic, improves upon Part L2A of the Building Regulations, at the same time as utilising renewable & zero carbon technologies and efficient building service equipment.

Software used shall include HevaComp (energy calculations), Dialux (lighting calculations), and Amtech (cable calculations), the associated outputs can be found in the appendices.

1.2 Site Location

The Proposed development, Project Zero, is located at Parkgate Industrial Estate in Knutsford, Cheshire. The site will be served by Haig Rd from the west, with the neighbouring properties being of a similar industrial use, the proposed site plan can be seen below in figure 1.2.1. The single unit which is being investigated is Unit 6, the other industrial units are not included within this document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.2.1 – Site Layout

The site is served by bus routes which stops on Mobberley Road, approximately 0.7 miles from the development. The bus stop serves the 88 and 300 route, which provides a route to Knutsford town centre. Knutsford railway station is approximately a 25 minute walk (c. 1.3 miles) from the site, which provides services to a wider range of destinations including Manchester Piccadilly and Chester. The site position can be found in figure 1.2.2, and figure 1.2.3 respectively.

Figure 1.2.2 – Site Position

The surrounding development has an existing industrial park to the west, railway to the south, golf course to the north, and sewage treatment plant to the east. The development is generally flat with heavy foliage to the east.

Figure 1.2.3 – Existing site (google maps)

1.3 Building Summary

Project Zero Knutsford, is a new build industrial warehouse (classified as B2 or B8), with approximately 10% office space with an overall area of approx. 2270 sq.m / 24,438.6 sq.ft. The office is positioned on the first floor, within ancillary rooms; kitchenette, toilets & corridors. The ground floor comprises warehouse, with under mezzanine storage, entrance lobby and core areas.

The building will have incoming gas, electric, water, telecommunications, in addition to heating & cooling to the offices, lighting, small power / lighting to cores stairwell, and warehouse.

Renewables shall be utilised where possible, and this shall comprise photovoltaics and Air Source Heat Pumps (ASHP), in addition to battery storage.

1.4 Mechanical & Electrical Service Outline

Mechanical Services

The main office be heated, and comfort cooled by Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat recovery air source heat pump systems.

These will comprise horizontal fan coil units located in the ceiling voids and will deliver treated air into the occupied space through ceiling mounted high-induction diffusers. Air will return to the units through dedicated extract air grilles. Supply and fit suitably sized weather louvres for the intake and extract connections to the heat recovery systems including the fitting of these onto the external elevation of the building.

Fresh air will be supplied into the office areas via ceiling-void mounted packaged type heat recovery units drawing air in through louvres in the façade, recovering the heat from extract air which is exhausted through the façade and delivering the fresh air into the back of the VRF indoor units.

Heating to ancillary areas, toilets, staircases will be provided by wall mounted electric convector heaters. Heater to be complete with 7-day, 24-hour time clock with thermostatic control frost protection thermostat, and LST covers where applicable.

 

Electrical Services

Floor boxes shall be provided based on a 1 person / 10m² occupancy in all office areas. Each floor box supplied with 2 twin switched power sockets and a further two compartments fitted with blank plates for future voice and data fit out by the occupier. General Sockets for use by cleaning equipment shall be provided at a density and spacing such that a socket is always within a maximum of 9 meters of any point with the room/space. Drawings detailing this information can be found in Appendix X.

The fire detection and alarm system shall be designed in accordance with BS5839-1:2013 and will comprise an open protocol analogue addressable fire alarm panel located at the main entrance. The system will provide up to L2 cover to the offices but be capable of being expanded to a ‘Type L1’ later.

A lightning protection system along with transient voltage surge suppression will be provided to the building in accordance with BSEN 62305-1.

Renewables shall be provided in accordance with the requirements as set out with the BRUKL as detailed in appendix XX, in addition to battery storage.

2.0 Literature Review

There are a wide range of documents which could be identified under literature review, firstly, a ‘Sustainable Development’ is defined by the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs as: ‘… making sure people throughout the world can satisfy their basic needs now, while making sure that future generations can also look forward to the same quality of life. It recognises that the “three pillars” – economy, society and environment – are interconnected.’

(Department for Environment, 2019) 

For us to achieve the objective of a ‘sustainable development’, strict regulations have been put into place through European Union Directives, from the Client Change Programme, to Acts, such as the Climate Change Act 2008, to Local Policies implements by local Planning Authorities.

The important drivers are;

Kyoto Protocol

In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted as part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to which the UK is a signatory. The key feature of the protocol was the binding targets that were set for industrialised countries to reduce their Green House Gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. (Wiki, 2019)

Cancun Agreements

Since the initial adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, extensive research has been put forward as to the causes and markers of climate change from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which has led to new targets and objectives being made. In 2012, the international community met to discuss new directions for responding to climate change by adopting new agreements. The key objectives of the Cancun Agreements are:

  • Establish clear objectives for reducing human-generated greenhouse gas emissions over time to keep the global average temperature rise below two degrees;
  • Mobilise the development and transfer of clean technology to boost efforts to address climate change, getting it to the right place at the right time and for the best effect;
  • Assist the particularly vulnerable people in the world to adapt to the inevitable impacts of climate change;
  • Protect the world’s forests, which are a major repository of carbon;
  • Establish effective institutions and systems which will ensure these objectives are implemented successfully.

(unfccc, 2019) 

COP21: Paris Global Climate Agreement

In December 2015, a global climate deal was reached in a summit involving all of the world’s nations. The targets of this aimed principally to curb the dangerous levels of climate change and drive an increase low-carbon infrastructure investment. Numerous organisations and corporations also committed to helping create a greener future by making their own pledges through the course of the summit. The key elements of the agreement are:

  • To keep global temperatures “well below” 2.0C above pre-industrial times and “endeavour to limit” them even more, to 1.5C
  • To limit the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity to the same levels that trees, soil and oceans can absorb naturally, beginning at some point between 2050 and 2100
  • To review each country’s contribution to cutting emissions every five years so they scale up to the challenge
  • For rich countries to help poorer nations by providing “climate finance” to adapt to climate change and switch to renewable energy.

(unfccc, the paris agreement, 2019) 

BRE’s COP21 Climate Pledge (December 2015)

“We commit to continue to drive best practice and carbon reduction, as we have through the use of BREEAM for the past 25 years. By reaching over 9,000 BREEAM rated buildings we predict emissions savings will be in excess of 900,000 tonnes of CO2, compared to regulatory minimum performance requirements, by 2020. Saving not only carbon, but bringing wider benefits to both the owner and occupiers.” (BRE, 2019)

 

Energy Hierarchy – Lean, Clean, & Green

 

The Energy Hierarchy is designed to prioritise the energy options and assist the progression of a more sustainable development. The definition of the hierarchy is;

Be Lean – In the first instance, use less energy by improving building fabric, glazing, and structures. This would include, improved U-Values, and air permeability, in addition to active energy system efficiency.

Be Clean – Secondly, further reduce carbon emissions through the use of high efficiency systems, decentralised, renewable or low carbon sources.

Be Green – Lastly, once the ‘Lean and Clean’ Design measures have been exhausted, further supply energy should be sought through renewable technologies/Sources. i.e wind turbines, PV panels, ground source heat pumps.

Part L2A – Building Regulations

 

Part L2A:2013 (conservation of fuel and power in buildings other than dwellings) of the building regulations are also a key driver, as it provides guidance for compliance with Building Regulations for new buildings in the United Kingdom. For the purposes of this document, Part L2A provides guidance on;

  • Building Fabric
  • Equipment efficiency & suitable controls
  • Defining the proposed Target Emission Rate (TER) and Building Emission Rating (BER)
  • Provide compliance by using a modelling software

3.0 Design Criteria

Winter external design temperature -5°C saturated Winter Internal design temperatures:

  • Office 21°C +/-2 °C control band
  • Toilets 19°C
  • Stairs 18°C

Summer external design temperature 28°C db. 20°wb Summer Internal design temperatures:

  • Offices 22°C db.+/-2 °C control band All other areas uncontrolled
  • All temperatures will be controlled within a control band of +/-2°C.

Occupancy

  • Office 1 person/10m2
  • Ventilation
  • Offices 12L/S/person
  • Toilets 10 AC/h extract

Lighting to be designed in accordance with CIBSE SLL Code for Lighting 2012. The lighting will comprise the following;

  • Offices – 400-500 lux at 750 mm above finished floor level (AFFL) in accordance with the SLL Handbook.
  • Tea Room/Kitchen – 300 lux at 750mm AFFL
  • Toilets and Ancillary – 200 lux at 0mm AFFL
  • Reception/Main Entrance – 200 lux at 750mm AFFL
  • Stairs 150 lux at 750mm AFFL
  • Store and Plantrooms: 200 lux at 0mm AFFL

Emergency Lighting: self-contained non-maintained three-hour emergency luminaries to all fire exits, corridors, toilets, staircases both internal and external, reception and to the office areas all in accordance with Fire Officers’ requirements BSEN 1838 and BS 5266: Part 1 and 2.22 emergency lighting will be integrated into the main lighting fittings wherever possible.

Air tightness:

  • 5 cum/hr/sqm @50 Pa Positive Air Pressure

EPC Rating

  • ‘A’ Rating

BREEAM Rating

  • Not applicable

Incoming electrical Supply

  • 75w/m2 (at 0.95 P.F)

Incoming Gas Supply

  • 80w/m2

Incoming Water Supply

  • 0.7L/S

4.0 Benchmarking

Benchmarks have been taken from several sources; the key sources are BSRIA Rule of thumb  (BSRIA, 2011), CIBSE Guide F, Energy Efficiency in Buildings (CIBSE, 2004) & CIBSE TM46:2008 (CIBSE, 2008).

The initial load assessment is as detailed in the table below

Guide / Reference

Electric

W/m2

Gas

W/m2

Water

L/s

BSRIA Rules of Thumb

Offices

Warehouses

Not available

Not available

87

17

CIBSE Guide F

10-12 – Lighting

15-45 Small power

60 air conditioning

80

Not available

Electrical Load Assessment

Initial electrical load calculations carried out based on BSRIA Rules of Thumb document;

W/m2* Area /office (m2) = 227 m2 (office) * 87 W/m2 /1000 / 0.95 (PF) = 19.53kVA

W/m2* Area /warehouse (m2) = 2043 m2 (warehouse) * 17 W/m2 /1000 / 0.95 (PF) = 36.56kVA

Sum = 19.53 + 36.56 = 56kVA (total load)

From an initial assessment, this is load would be significantly undersized.

A second electrical load calculations carried out based on CIBSE Guide F, would assume the following;

W/m2* Area /office (m2) = 227 m2 (office) * 12+35+60 W/m2 /1000 / 0.95 (PF) = 25.57kVA

W/m2* Area /warehouse (m2) = 2043 m2 (warehouse) * 35 W/m2 /1000 / 0.95 (PF) = 75kVA

Sum = 25.57 + 75 = 100.57 (total load)

Whilst this load is more realistic, it does not allow for any future development and/or expansion. Therefore, we would assume as part of the design development, 75 W/m2 , which would equate to;

W/m2* Area /office (m2) = 2270 m2 (office/warehouse) * 75 W/m2 /1000 / 0.95 (PF) = 179.2kVA, which would be a more realistic figure in a speculative industrial development.

Based on the kVA allowance above, the ampage would be calculated by;

Amps=kVA*10*3root3*V

258.36=179*10*3root3*400

Therefore, the final calculation of 258 amp allowance. On this basis, the Amtech calculations and diversified load in appendix xx., should be reviewed given a final load of 308amps has been calculated.

The annual energy consumption for industrial units is taken from the from BSRIA Rule of thumb  (BSRIA, 2011) Table 28, CIBSE Guide F, Energy Efficiency in Buildings (CIBSE, 2004) & CIBSE TM46:2008 (CIBSE, 2008) as detailed in the table below;

Guide / Reference

Annual Electricity Consumption kWh/m2

Annual Electricity Consumption kg CO2 m2

Annual Fossil Fuels kWh/m2

Annual Fossil Fuels kg CO2 m2

CO2 emissions kgCO2/m2.annum

Total

BSRIA Rules of Thumb

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

CIBSE Guide F

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

CIBSE TM46

35

160

19.3

34.2

53.5

BSRIA Rule of Thumb Guidelines (table 28), or CIBSE Guide did not define any specific values for industrial developments whereas, CIBSE TM:2008 did. Initial calculations for the baseline of the development detail a total CO2 emissions (kgCO2/m2.annum) of 61.98 (as found in appendix xx), CIBSE TM46 requires a 53.5 kgCO2/m2.annum, therefore the initial baseline design is 14% greater than the guidelines set by CIBSE.

This will need a subsequent further review under section 5.0, by reviewing additional passive and low/zero carbon measures.

5.0 Energy & Sustainability Strategy

This section considers the energy and sustainability measures which are to be incorporated within the proposed development, ‘Project Zero’ Knutsford. As part of the review, the requirements of local policy level as set out in the National Planning Policy Framework, and East Cheshire Council Planning Policy are taken into account. As detailed in section 4.0, the initial calculation of kgCO2/m2.annum, are greater than that as set by CIBSE Guide F.

The Local East Cheshire Council Local Plan Strategy 2010-2030, Policy SE 8, requires the development to secure at least 10% of its predicted energy requirements from decentralised/renewable or low carbon sources. The aim is to target 100 % reduction in energy usage through the incorporation of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, air source heat pumps, and further passive measures.

The energy and carbon savings are to be achieved through passive design, energy efficient measures incorporating design features such as energy efficient lighting, sub-metering in accordance with Part L, improving ‘U’ values and occupancy sensors in occupied spaces, as well as the incorporation of the photovoltaic panels and air source heat pumps (ASHP).

To reduce the energy usage of the development and to help to conserve water resources within the local area, the fit-out works will provide for sanitary fittings which will be water efficient through measures such as, dual flush toilets and low flow taps.

By incorporating these sustainability measures within the sustainability strategy for Project Zero, Knutsford, it is deemed to be compliant with the local and nation policy requirements.

Figure XX – HevaComp Model Snap Shot

5.1 Local Policy Review

The section highlights the requirements as set out by Cheshire East Council’s Local Plans Strategy Policy (2010-2030) in respect to energy:

Policy SE9

 

Policy SE9 (from the Cheshire East Councils Local Strategy Policy), states ‘any non-residential development over 1,000 sqm will be required to secure at least 10% of it’s predicted energy requirements through decentralised, and renewable or low carbon sources.’

Therefore, this will be taken into account when modeling the building and carrying out the associated building service design.

Figure XX – Local Policy Requirements (Cheshire East, 2019)

5.2 National Policy Review

National Planning Policy Framework (2018)

Section 14- Meeting the Challenge of Climate Change, Flooding and Coastal Change

To help increase the use and supply of renewable and low carbon energy and heat, plans should:

  1. provide a positive strategy for energy from these sources, that maximises the potential for suitable development, while ensuring that adverse impacts are addressed satisfactorily (including cumulative landscape and visual impacts);
  1. consider identifying suitable areas for renewable and low carbon energy sources, and supporting infrastructure, where this would help secure their development.

Policy SE 9 – Energy Efficient Equipment

The council will look favourably upon development that follows the principles of the Energy Hierarchy, and seeks to achieve a high rating under schemes such as BREEAM (for non-residential development), CEEQUAL (for public-realm development) and Building for Life. For non-residential development, this will be especially so where the standard attained exceeds that required by Current Building Regulations (or as updated).

Non-residential development over 1,000 square metres will be expected to secure at least 10 per cent of its predicted energy requirements from decentralised and renewable or low carbon sources, unless the applicant can clearly demonstrate that having regard to the type of development and its design, this is not feasible or viable.

Figure XX – National Planning Policy Framework- (Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government, 2012)

National policies require energy reductions using Part L of the building regulations; the trajectory set is for new buildings to be zero carbon by 2020. In addition to, the Climate Change Act, setting a CO2 reduction of 26% by 2020 and CO2 reduction of 80% by 2050.

The National Planning Policy Framework, also knows as the NPPF:2018 outlines what the government deems to be an acceptable sustainable development. Generally, a sustainable development is defined as aiming for three objectives;

Economic objective – to help build a strong, responsive and competitive economy, by ensuring that sufficient land of the right types is available in the right places and at the right time to support growth, innovation and improved productivity; and by identifying and coordinating the provision of infrastructure;

Social objective – to support strong, vibrant and healthy communities, by ensuring that a sufficient number and range of homes can be provided to meet the needs of present and future generations; and by fostering a well-designed and safe built environment, with accessible services and open spaces that reflect current and future needs and support communities’ health, social and cultural well-being; and

Environmental objective – to contribute to protecting and enhancing our natural, built and historic environment; including making effective use of land, helping to improve biodiversity, using natural resources prudently, minimising waste and pollution, and mitigating and adapting to climate change, including moving to a low carbon economy.’ (Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government, 2012).

The objectives detailed above, taken from the National Planning Policy Framework, as defined as an ‘Energy Trilemma’.

The above objectives can be described as an energy trilemma, this is demonstrated in Figure 4.1 below. Each dimension is dependent on each other and sustainable development proposals should adhere to each role. This energy statement shall ensure the proposed Development is one that contributes economically, socially and environmentally in accordance with the NPPF, 2018.

Figure XX – The Energy Trilemma (Scottish Energy News, 2019)

Sustainability Features

An initial energy model has been undertaken for this development, taking into account the energy features as described within this section of the report.

The key energy demands within the development are:

  • Lighting
  • General power
  • Heating and ventilation
  • Hot water supply
  • Heating to warehouse

Under the ‘Energy Hierarchy’ as mentioned in section XX the following sustainable features are utilized;

 

Be Lean

 

The following ‘U’ values shall be incorporated, in accordance with the Building Regulations, Part L2A:

Building Element

U-Value (W/m².K)

Other

External Walls

0.22

Exposed Floors

0.25

Exposed Roof

0.18

Glazing

1.5

(light transmittance 61%, shading coefficient 48%, G-value 0.42)

Roof Lights

1.3

U = 1.3 W/m².K; (light transmittance 61%, shading coefficient 48%, G-value 0.42)

Vehicle Doors

1.5

Personal Doors

2.2

Air Permeability

5 m3/hr/m2@ 50 Pa.

Element

Part L2A Requirement

U Value Specified

% Improvement

 

Wall

0.35

0.22

37.15%

Roof

0.25

0.18

28.00%

Floor

0.25

0.25

N/A

Glazing

2.20

1.50

31.90%

Table 10.1 U Value Improvements

In addition to the table above, the proposed energy strategy includes the following efficiency measures within the design: –

  • Energy Efficient Lighting
  • PIR/Occupancy Sensors
  • Zonal Thermal and Lighting Control
  • Enhanced Thermal Insultation
  • Specific Fan Power enhanced beyond Part L2A requirements

The total baseline energy consumption and carbon emissions for the development have been calculated as detailed in table below, full calculations can be found in appendix XX.

  • 236,349 kWh/annum
  • 61.98 Tonnes CO2/annum

kWh/m²/annum Baseline (no PV)

Typical Unit

Area

Total

kWh/Annum

kgCO2/m²/Annum

Total kgCO2/Annum

Total TonsCO2/ Annum

Development

2,270

104.10

236348.64

27.30

61981.92

61.98

Total

2,270

 

236,349

27

61,982

61.98

Figure XX –

Be Clean

Further to investigation on existing decentralised energy networks near the development, using the Department of Energy and Climate Change CHP database, it was confirmed that there are no suitable existing nearby CHP systems to which a connection may be possible.

Be Green

Means of reducing energy and carbon emissions for the development have been explored, using renewable technologies. The following Table reviews the available options for generation of on-site renewable/ Low or Zero Carbon energy systems.

Renewable Technology Assessment

Viable

Biofuel Boilers

Biofuel Boilers are used to burn solid fuel (biomass) or liquid biofuel, this creates steam or alternatively can heat water. The steam/heated water can be used for Domestic Hot Water services or space heating.

Biofuel boilers are not viable due to;

  1. Generated Nitrogen (NOx) and particulates (PM10) which could contribute to poor air quality.
  2. Large plant space requirements, which are not feasible on this development
  3. Large fuel storage areas are required for fuel
  4. High noise levels. Enclosures would require attenuation and possible further planning restrictions.

No

Wind Turbines

Wind turbines use kinetic energy (wind) to generate mechanical energy, which is consequently converted to electric.

Wind turbines are not viable due to;

  1. Size requirements to provide a enough renewable contribution are not sufficient.
  2. Planning requirements can be onerous due to noise, and aesthetics
  3.  Positioning of the building is not suitable; a suitable position would be a hill with clear exposure.
  4. Small scale installations (50kW-100kW) for this development would not be financially viable, and could be compromised by the efficiency of the motor (c. 30% efficient).
  5. The wind unreliability factor of the development; an average wind speed has been calculated at 4.9m/s at 10 meters AFL. For wind turbines to work efficiently an average speed of >5.5m/s would be required.

No

Ground Source Heat Pumps

A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump use the existing ground temperature (typical constant temperature range of 10oC -14oC) to heat or cool water for Space Heating/Cooling.

Ground source heat pumps are viable due to;

  1. Cost of borehole can be expensive due to ground conditions
  2. Local ground conditions could affect water quality
  3. Further investigation would be required and subject to Environmental Agency approval

No

Solar Water Heating

Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems use radiant heat from the sun to heat water pipes linked to a water cylinder. SWH are usually located on the roof.

Solar Water Heating Systems are not viable due to;

  1. The roof is better suited for photovoltaics panels
  2. Radiant heat from the sun is not always sufficient in the UK

No

Air Source Heat Pumps

Air Source Heat Pumps (ASHP) transfers heat from the outside to the inside of the building, to re-heat the colder air. Or, takes the heat from the inside to the outside. Effectively, absorbing heat from one place, and transferring it to another. Consequently, drawing a third to a quarter of the electricity which a standard resistant heater would.

ASHP’s are recommended for this development, within the office areas.

Yes

Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics panels convert sun light into electricity. Solar module cells comprise semiconductor material. Systems typically have an inverter which converts DC (direct current) electricity into AC (alternating current) which, can either be exported back into the grid, or used within the building.

A 80.08 kWp Photovoltaic array mounted south facing at a 30 degree inclination angle is proposed for the development.

Photovoltaic panels have the following advantages for use on this development;

  1. PV Panels are a renewable energy assisting in the carbon offset
  2. Excess energy can be sold to the grid, generating an incoming
  3. Low maintenance requirements

Yes

As detailed in the renewable technology assessment table above, the viable renewables which have been targeted are; Air Source Heat Pumps (via Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC technology to the offices), and a photovoltaics array to the building roof. Furthermore, a battery storage system would be utilized to optimize the energy harvested from the photovoltaic system.

The figure of 80.08kWP of photovoltaic array has been selected, as this is maximum achievable amount of PV on a building of this size whilst maintaining accessibility for future maintenance/cleaning.

SBEM Calculations

A ‘Simplified Building Energy Model’ (SBEM) has been calculated using HEVACOMP Version V81 SS1 SP4. The SBEM calculation method is used due to the proposed building being ‘other than a dwelling’, as defined by Building Regulations, Part L. The SBEM output, or Building Regulation UK Part L Report (BRUKL) and associated ‘Predicted EPC’ can be found in the Appendices XX.

The initial SBEM has been calculated utilising no photovoltaics, to ascertain the current target C0₂ emission rate (TER), expressed in annual kg of C0₂. In additional to the (actual) building C0₂ emission rate (BER), also expressed in annual kg of C0₂. The BRUKL output can be found in Appendix XX.

Type of System / Space

Zone 1

(Warehouse)

Zone 2

(Office)

Zone 3

(Toilets)

Zone 4

(Circulation)

Lighting (w/m2/100 lux)

1.1 100 lux

1.82 100 lux

4.85 @ 100 lux

3.4 @ 100 lux

Heating System

Flued Radiant Heater (91% Seasonal Efficiency)

Air Source Heat Pumps (COP 3)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Ventilation

Natural

MVHR (1.6w/l/s / 70% heat recovery efficiency)

MEV (0.5w/l/s )

Natural vent

Lighting Control

Manual switching/Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Occupancy

Occupancy

Hot Water

instantaneous hot water (100%)

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

Table XX – SBEM (No PV) – Parameters

The table above details the parameters as set within the SBEM; lighting figures have been taken from the lighting software, Dialux 4.2 as detailed within appendix xx. Heating system, ventilation, hot water, and lighting control efficiencies have been taken from known equipment. Design drawings detailing the equipment selected can be found in Appendix XX.

As detailed within the BRUKL document, this design does not comply with Building Regulation Part L 2013, as the BER is higher than the TER.

  • TER – 27.1
  • BER – 27.3 (FAIL)
  • Predicted EPC – B (26)

Figure XX – BRUKL Output (No PV)

A second SBEM has been calculated utilising an additional 80.08kwP of photovoltaics, with the same design parameters as in the first SBEM calculation. The BRUKL output can be found in Appendix XX.

Type of System / Space

Zone 1

(Warehouse)

Zone 2

(Office)

Zone 3

(Toilets)

Zone 4

(Circulation)

Lighting (w/m2/100 lux)

1.1 100 lux

1.82 100 lux

4.85 @ 100 lux

3.4 @ 100 lux

Heating System

Flued Radiant Heater (91% Seasonal Efficiency)

Air Source Heat Pumps (COP 3)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Ventilation

Natural

MVHR (1.6w/l/s / 70% heat recovery efficiency)

MEV (0.5w/l/s )

Natural vent

Lighting Control

Manual switching/Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Occupancy

Occupancy

Hot Water

instantaneous hot water (100%)

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

Table XX – SBEM (80kWp of PV) Parameters

As detailed within the BRUKL document, this design does comply with Building Regulation Part L 2013, as the BER is less than the TER.

  • TER – 27.1
  • BER – 13.1 (Pass)
  • Predicted EPC – A (13)

Figure XX – BRUKL Output (80.08kWP of PV)

Whilst the BER = < TER, and the building is now compliant, the scope of this document is to achieve a zero-carbon building with a BER of 0 kgCO₂/m₂.

The third SBEM has been calculated with 80.08kwP of photovoltaics, additional passive /energy efficient measures, and an unheated warehouse. The additional passive/energy efficient measures are;

  • Improved lighting (w/m₂/100 lux)
  • Improved ventilation efficiency
  • Improved heating COP

In addition to the above, heating has been removed from the warehouse as the large area required to be heated by gas radiant heaters requires a significant amount of energy.

The BRUKL output can be found in Appendix XX.

Type of System / Space

Zone 1

(Warehouse)

Zone 2

(Office)

Zone 3

(Toilets)

Zone 4

(Circulation)

Lighting (w/m2/100 lux)

1 100 lux

1.1 100 lux

2.5 @ 100 lux

2.5 @ 100 lux

Heating System

Flued Radiant Heater (94 % Seasonal Efficiency)

Air Source Heat Pumps (COP 5)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Ventilation

Natural

MVHR (1.6w/l/s / 85% heat recovery efficiency)

MEV (0.3w/l/s )

Natural vent

Lighting Control

Manual switching/Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Occupancy

Occupancy

Hot Water

instantaneous hot water (100%)

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

Table XX – SBEM (80.08kWp of PV + Passive measures) Parameters

As detailed within the BRUKL document, this design does comply with Building Regulation Part L 2013, as the BER is significantly less than the TER.

  • TER – 27.1
  • BER – (-)5 (Pass)
  • Predicted EPC – A+ (-9)

Figure XX – BRUKL Output (80.08kWP of PV + Passive Measures)

As the BER is calculated as -5, there is some capacity to value engineer (VE) the proposed systems to achieve a BER of 0.

A final SBEM has been calculated to achieve a BER of 0 kgCO₂/m₂, whilst taking into account the financial viabilities. It has been calculated that a 51.2kWP photovoltaic system can be utilised (saving 27.98kWp of photovoltaic array), in addition to the passive measures previously mentioned under the third SBEM calculation.

Type of System / Space

Zone 1

(Warehouse)

Zone 2

(Office)

Zone 3

(Toilets)

Zone 4

(Circulation)

Lighting (w/m2/100 lux)

1 100 lux

1.1 100 lux

2.5 @ 100 lux

2.5 @ 100 lux

Heating System

Flued Radiant Heater (94 % Seasonal Efficiency)

Air Source Heat Pumps (COP 5)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Electric Panel (100% Efficient)

Ventilation

Natural

MVHR (1.6w/l/s / 85% heat recovery efficiency)

MEV (0.3w/l/s )

Natural vent

Lighting Control

Manual switching/Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Photoelectric/Occupancy (0.1 parasitic power)

Occupancy

Occupancy

Hot Water

instantaneous hot water (100%)

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

instantaneous hot water

Table XX – SBEM (51.2kWp of PV + Passive measures) Parameters

  • TER – 14.6
  • BER – 0 (Pass)
  • Predicted EPC – A (0)

Figure XX – BRUKL Output (51.2kWP of PV + Passive Measures)

The fourth SBEM as detailed in Figure XX will be adopted for the development. This also achieves the targets as set out by Cheshire East Council, Nation Policies, and the objectives of this document.

Energy Usage and Carbon Emissions

The sustainability features will allow for a 61.98 tonne reduction in annual CO2 emissions.

The 51.2kWP photovoltaics system & ASHP for this development, and it generates the following saving;

Site PV Requirement

Energy Saving kWh/ annum

Carbon Saving Tonnes CO2/ annum

51.2 kWp system – C. 187 panels / 297 sqm (area)

61,982 kWh/annum

61.98 Tonnes CO2/ annum

The incorporation of these sustainability measures allows for the proposed ‘Project Zero’, Knutsford development to be considered sustainable whilst also targeting compliance with national, and local policy.

Applying renewable and passive design measures into the SBEM model produced for the site, the energy savings generated by the introduction of these measures can be calculated.

These equate to the following reductions for the development, the full calculations can be found in Appendix XX.

Carbon Savings Graph

As defined in the graph detailed in figure xx, it can be seen that a the baseline energy usage is defined as 61.982kwh/annum, when a 51.2kWP system, along with energy saving measures are applied, there is a 0.00 tonnes CO2/ annum Carbon emission (100% saving).

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Conclusion

Nearly at the end… Draw together the problem, the selection criteria, the investigated solution, the benchmark figures, originally X and Y W/m2 and how this was achieved in the optimised solution, combination of improved fabric, optimised heating/cooling solution and renewables, so simple arithmetic. Finish with selected renewables, savings, payback. It should all fit into two pages.

Appendix A – Electrical Layouts

Appendix B – Mechanical Layouts

Appendix C – Calculation 1 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix D – Calculation 2 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix E – Calculation 2 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix F – Calculation 3 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix G – Calculation 4 BRUKL & Predicted EPC

Appendix H – Calculation 4 Carbon Calculations

Appendix I – Lighting Calculations (Dialux)

Appendix J – Cable Calculations (Amtech)

Appendix K – Photovoltaic System Quote

Inserted PDF.

Appendix L – Photovoltaic System Payback Calculator

Year

Efficiency

Electricity Generation Potential kWh/annum per kWp

Total Electricity Generated

Electricity Sold 8pkWh

FIT Saving / Annum 11.71pkWh RPI (3% per annum)

Total Saving £

Pay Back

1

1

696

55,735.68

£3,344.14

£4,458.85

#######

£95,197.00

2

0.995

696

55,457.00

£3,327.42

£4,569.66

#######

£88,299.93

3

0.990

696

55,179.72

£3,310.78

£4,683.21

#######

£81,305.93

4

0.985

696

54,903.82

£3,294.23

£4,799.59

#######

£74,212.11

5

0.980

696

54,629.30

£3,277.76

£4,918.86

#######

£67,015.49

6

0.975

696

54,356.15

£3,261.37

£5,041.09

#######

£59,713.03

7

0.970

696

54,084.37

£3,245.06

£5,166.37

#######

£52,301.60

8

0.966

696

53,813.95

£3,228.84

£5,294.75

#######

£44,778.02

9

0.961

696

53,544.88

£3,212.69

£5,426.32

#######

£37,139.00

10

0.956

696

53,277.16

£3,196.63

£5,561.17

#######

£29,381.20

11

0.951

696

53,010.77

£3,180.65

£5,699.36

#######

£21,501.19

12

0.946

696

52,745.72

£3,164.74

£5,840.99

#######

£13,495.46

13

0.942

696

52,481.99

£3,148.92

£5,986.14

#######

£5,360.40

14

0.937

696

52,219.58

£3,133.17

£6,134.90

#######

-£2,907.68

15

0.932

696

51,958.48

£3,117.51

£6,287.35

#######

#########

16

0.928

696

51,698.69

£3,101.92

£6,443.59

#######

#########

17

0.923

696

51,440.19

£3,086.41

£6,603.71

#######

#########

18

0.918

696

51,182.99

£3,070.98

£6,767.82

#######

#########

19

0.914

696

50,927.08

£3,055.62

£6,936.00

#######

#########

20

0.909

696

50,672.44

£3,040.35

£7,108.35

#######

#########

INPUTS

 

Roof Area

554.9

m2

 

80.08

kWp System

 

income over 20 years

########

 

0.08008

MWp System

 

FIT

8

p

Electricity Sold to Tenant at

6

p

Electricity Generated per kWp

696

kWh/annum

Cost of System

102000

£

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