Concepts of Materiality and Aesthetics in Architecture

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8th Feb 2020 Architecture Reference this

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One of the problems contended by the author of the book Materiality and Architecture revolves around materiality aesthetics. Materiality or materials used in architecture for the purposes of erecting structures have undergone a lot of developments and enhancements, thanks to the changes in technology that is cutting across the board2. Technological advancements and changes have not left the field of architecture behind leading to the introduction of not only new ways of designing and construction but also a lot of improvements when it comes to the building materials. The nature and placement of a material on a building have been made to be perceived as the element of its aesthetics[1]. While some people perceive aesthetics to be the manner in which the materials have been used in a building and the kind of modifications they have been taken through to get to the final observed nature, aesthetics in the ancient times was about using a material in its natural form on a building without introduction of foreign or dissimilar substances onto it2.

The aesthetics of a building should be visible beyond the standing structure and its façade and confined within the edges and walls of a building and its roof. Human art played a fundamental role in the ancient times when it comes to achieving the aesthetics of a building3. This was mainly attained through creative art that was meant to embody the various social norms and beliefs of a community into a building, making the building appear to sprout from the society and hence attaining a long lasting aesthetic value as long as the building stands3. However, this has turned out not to be the case anymore, especially with the introduction of digital fabrication. Not so much attention if any if given to the capability of human art in enhancing the aesthetics of a building. Instead, computers and computer-aided software have massively been used in the manipulation of the materials of a building, combining various materials in an attempt to achieve the ancient aesthetics[2]

The author in one of the presentations of the book attempts to address the issue of aesthetics of building as an issue beyond the modernist white cube. With the introduction of modernism, the concept of function follows form tends to be dominant in most of the designs which are mainly revolving around the combination of numerous building materials in a building with an assumption that this would attain the desired aesthetic values5. Aesthetics is basically the outcome of a certain architectural approach as opposed to attempting to mount a new concept on an already existing building.

Advanced innovations have opened up a tremendous cluster of conceivable outcomes as for building plan and manufacture[3]. Designers must be vigilant, be that as it may, of not just the potential outcomes yet, in addition, the constraints inalienable in computerized manufacture strategies, especially the proceeded with the requirement for experimentation and art as basic parts of the development procedure. We have a tendency to expand the exactness of computerized creation to all parts of structures that fuse these innovations and overlook that, in any event until further notice, the building procedure is as yet subject to the caprices of climate, human mistake, and site conditions6.

Imperative connections that keep on existing what’s more, subsequently ought to be recognized and comprehended by modelers incorporate how carefully composed structures are converted into material segments, how computerized data can be conveyed, how establishment techniques ought to be resolved, and how unpredicted changes can be obliged7. The more planners can foresee these components and incorporate them with their outlines and determinations, the more easily and viable the last task can be figured it out[4].

The capacity to transmit numeric information from a three-dimensional PC model to manufacture hardware permits structures of for all intents and purposes boundless many-sided quality to be completely figured it out8. In any case, a 3D configuration show isn’t sufficient to deliver real building components[5]. One peril of the obvious simplicity of computerized creation is that it gives modelers the plausibility of getting to be unadulterated shape producers without thought of the complexities of materiality7. The absence of thought of the truth that the lines of the plan-model would, at last, speak to genuine material with genuine measurements and properties drove, on account of the Zlote Tarasy rooftop, to false impressions that caused delays, extra expenses, and perhaps reinterpretations of outline plan.

The undulating type of the Zlote Tarasy rooftop was at first created by hanging a virtual “fabric” more than eleven circles to make an undulating, unpredictable surface in 3D Studio. The creators compared the type of the rooftop in the mix with its expanding “tree” segments to a woods covering that would “consolidate nature with retail and amusement” and reproduce the atmosphere of an outer mall in a completely atmosphere controlled condition 8.

While its frame was being produced by the architects, the rooftop was spoken to exclusively as a set of lines without measurement. Whenever the three-dimensional model was assumed control by the undertaking’s basic outline builds, the just criteria given by the draftsmen was that the net keeps up its unique design as nearly as would be prudent and that the surface is ceaseless, without development joints[6]. As a consequence of dialogs amid plan improvement, it was resolved that the rooftop would be a net of steel individuals that went about as a solitary basic component, permitting development just where the steel net met the solid structure of the encompassing structures. In a request to figure the powers in the different individuals, the lines of the outline show needed to be converted into dimensional steel13.

Were the lines in 3D Studio the joints between glass boards? Or on the other hand the centerlines of the steel individuals? Or on the other hand the centerlines of the base or top surfaces of the steel individuals? 14 At last, as the plan of the coating framework had not yet been considered and along these lines couldn’t be given measurement and as the auxiliary engineers were essentially worried about the steel segments, they chose that the lines in the model would speak to the centerlines of the steel individuals10.

A three-dimensional model of the rooftop was at that point built and basic plan figuring continued likewise. It was confirmed that the rooftop would be comprised of rectangular steel segments 50 mm wide by 100 mm high[7]. Now, the structural architects ended up worried that the translation of their model as speaking to the centreline of the steel individuals would lead to a contortion in the geometry of the net16. They had thought of the net as the portrayal of the visual nature of the rooftop at the point when seen from the outside (or the inside, contingent upon the view being considered) and in this way the lines would be the joints between glass boards. It was impractical, be that as it may, to update the model to speak to this in light of the fact that the coating framework had not yet been composed and the thickness of the glass and its help framework were obscure[8].

The model was hence reconsidered with the goal that the lines of the unique 3D Studio net spoke to the centerlines of the highest point of the steel individuals. This essentially affected the basic figuring and required their total modification. Had the plan planners considered their plan as a material thing with measurement instead of only a unique shape made of lines, much disarray could have been wiped out? [9]

The substances of the manners by which components are created utilizing computerized strategies likewise require reconsidering of development documentation and development organization, especially the submittal and survey of manufacture and establishment records. The Zlote Tarasy contracts necessitated that all basic counts and shop illustrations were to be audited by the plan engineers and official engineers[10]. In a pre-advanced task, sets of records demonstrating the nitty gritty designing, material characteristics, and measurements of each sort of part would have been submitted for survey and remark and in the end, closed down for endorsement. At Zlote Tarasy, every single one of the roughly 10,000 steel segments had closes that were dimensionally one of a kind, each associating hub was geometrically interesting, and every component had an interesting mix of powers[11]. To pass on this data in the customary documentation would have required countless illustrations and in any event the same number of pages of figures.

To get ready and process this sort of documentation would have required untold reams of paper and long stretches of audit time. Besides, such reports would not be utilized in the genuine manufacture process in light of the fact that the information contained in the designing model could be specifically transmitted to the creation gear14. Therefore, the survey of contractual workers’ records moved to a survey of techniques, electronic correlations of computations, and various quality controls put set up amid both creation and establishment. This procedure exhibited a few favorable circumstances. For instance, the time before spent investigating shop illustrations could be diminished to a base by restricting such audit to strategy proclamations depicting manufacture what’s more, establishment forms and an insignificant number of illustrations required for development coordination15.

Besides, the creation of these archives by the temporary workers required intensive thought of their development techniques and point by point coordination with subcontractors to guarantee that all proposed techniques were in actuality attainable before the beginning of development[12]. Since the audit procedure contrasted from the prerequisites of the agreement archives, the details must be altered to mirror the amended procedure. As computerized manufacture turns out to be more ordinary, these adjustments in audit prerequisites will without a doubt turn out to be more pervasive and mid-venturer legally binding changes less continuous[13].

Quality Control & Samples

The survey of control tests has for quite some time been a critical piece of the development organization. With computerized manufacture, it is significantly more basic to audit tests not just for their material characteristics yet in addition as a check of manufacture forms22. Besides, given the many-sided quality of computerized creation forms, it is pivotal for planners to join extra prerequisites for quality control into their determinations to guarantee that issues are found early[14].

Tests of all glass units were required for submittal and survey. Tests were most certainly not required, be that as it may, of full coating units and just a single example of each glass compose was required20. This empowered the planner to check the visual nature of the glass yet did not consider manufacture issues that could result from the absence of geometric redundancy17. Amid glass creation, a noteworthy quality control issue emerged because of the conflict between the geometric uniqueness of every unit made conceivable by computerized manufacture strategies, what’s more, the material substances of the frit application process[15]. To apply the earthenware frit to the glass sheets, the glassmakers utilized a run of the mill silk-screening process where earthenware paint was connected to the glass utilizing a rectangular screen that could oblige the full scope of glass sizes.

The issue happened when a bigger glass triangle was printed after a little one. In printing the little triangle, the paint was connected consistently over the whole surface of the screen and afterward moved onto the glass surface[16]. For the following triangle, a similar system was completed in any case, if the second triangle was bigger than the main, the overabundance paint that had not been moved onto the little triangle would at that point be moved onto the bigger triangle, causing the spots of the fruit example to run together and make dim zones on the glass18. To remedy this issue, the request of glass generation needed to be adjusted and extra cleaning prints needed to be made to keep the development of abundance paint on the screen. Around 2300 glass units had been created and a few hundred had been conveyed to site. Since the glass fabricators were not required to keep definite quality control records, the best way to figure out which sheets were imperfect was to investigate every one independently.

It is essential to consider the job of the computerized structure of the venture in such a manner. As a result of the to a great degree complex PC demonstrating used to create the building parts and the insignificant resistances that could thus be accomplished, the task group was comforted by mechanical ability and fail to a few degree the way that the materiality of building is as yet a reality that does not really adjust to the romanticized parameters of the computerized world19.

The coated nook of the Zlote Tarasy chamber rooftop comprises of around 4800 triangular protected units, every one of which has an interesting shape[17]. Likewise, with the steel components, the glass was cut by machines driven by electronic information taken specifically from the PC demonstrate. An earthenware frit design in three extraordinary densities was connected to roughly sixty per penny of the glass units to decrease warm transmission. The precision of advanced manufacture and preassembly of components off-site can essentially increment the exactness of development on location. This does not be that as it may, take out the requirement for talented art in the field. People are eventually doing the establishment work and in view of the tight resiliences achievable carefully it is simply more important that establishment be exact20. Understanding where pre-manufacture can be actualized and where mistakes can happen nearby can be encouraged by model creation and testing. It is especially important that similar site conditions and work force be utilized, as much as conceivable, to build deride ups as to create the real building.

Regardless of how fastidiously a task is composed on the PC, in the event that it is, at last, to be acknowledged in genuine materials it must be tried to avoid huge expenses and deferrals[18]. The gasket arrangement of the Zlote Tarasy chamber rooftop flawlessly outlines this circumstance. The rooftop’s glass boards are carried on silicone gaskets and fixed with fluid silicone to shape a weathertight fenced in area. Like the steel rectangular empty areas and hubs, each direct gasket section and every gasket association is one of a kind22. In view of dimensional differences in the steel establishment and additionally issues with site coordination, the gaskets were not pre-assembled off-site to adjust to the rooftop geometry[19]. Standard components were rather conveyed to the site where they were cut to fit each condition and fixed by hand utilizing fluid silicone.

In light of the shifting points that happened at the hubs, an exceptional star-formed gasket was created by the building originators with accordion folds incorporated with the corners to permit the stars to be bowed and wound to suit each condition. Over the span of building a test deride up, it was found that unforeseen issues were happening with the star gaskets[20]. On account of the changing hub geometries, the creases in a few stars couldn’t be packed firmly enough to accomplish the required design while others must be extended to the point of tearing. Besides, the stars must be incidentally held set up with a vanishing paste since they tended to spring over into their unique design. To tackle these issues, a few new hub stars were produced with folds that decreased in distinctive headings. The brief paste too must be tried and endorsed for similarity with the intumescent paint utilized on the steel structure. To keep up watertightness, each direct section of the two-segment gasket framework must be field estimated, slice to length, and fixed with fluid silicone[21]. To do this precisely required experienced establishment work force. Amid the taunt up development, for instance, it was found that ineffectively created gasket joints prompted the development of abundance silicone that obstructed the waste lines incorporated with the gaskets.

As can frequently be the situation, the chamber rooftop contractual worker did not feel it was important to manufacture, what’s more, test ridicule up of the rooftop as they had manufactured comparable structures previously. Since the specialized designer fused model testing into their details, the contractual workers needed to go along and really spared themselves both time and cash by finding imperfections of both outline and craftsmanship that was definitely not expected due to the exactness of the computerized displaying and creation[22].

Construction

No two universes could be more not quite the same as the perfect states of the PC display and the genuine states of the building site. In the show, each solid pour is flawlessly precise and level, each day has consummate conditions, and each specialist has risen to and perfect abilities. On location, regardless of how complex the outline might be, the substances of material, climate, and human blunder progress toward becoming significant players.

At Zlote Tarasy, the start of steel establishment was postponed for two months as a result of postponements in designing the solid chunks. Extra fortifying had been included close numerous section edges, bringing about clashes with the stay jolts for the vertical chamber rooftop bolsters. Luckily the steel establishment framework could oblige such errors. Around 66% of the steel individuals and hubs were pre-gathered off-site into 129 steel stepping stools. These were introduced on impermanent props nearby and the holes between them loaded up with free steel individuals[23]. This progression was basic since it was here that alterations were made to suit establishment resiliences. The free individuals were chopped down if too long or plates were included at weld focuses if too short. Each site weld at that point must be examined and tried by a progression of conventions. This framework enabled the last constructed geometry to mirror the planned geometry as nearly as conceivable in that it conveyed dimensional disparities over the whole net21. Had the stepping stools been welded to one another or the whole net amassed with individual pieces on site, the resiliences would have aggregated from one side to the next, influencing interfaces with encompassing development.

In light of the postponement at the beginning of steel establishment, the establishment of the coating framework was additionally postponed. Initially planned to be in mid-June and wrap up before the finish of October, gasket and glass establishment did not start until late August. This prompted genuine issue later in the year on the grounds that the fluid silicone determined couldn’t be utilized beneath 0° C also, must be connected under dry conditions. As fall and winter in Poland have a tendency to be very chilly with extensive precipitation, this rapidly turned into an issue conceivably postponing not just the rooftop development however whatever is left of the venture also. While the genuine establishment time was at last broadened fairly, major issues were maintained a strategic distance from by the establishment group. Their chiefs, experienced skilled workers who had quite recently originated from the Swiss Re tower in London, knew about a silicone that would fix appropriately at lower temperatures. They additionally built up a framework of covers for the rooftop that secured the establishment from precipitation and permitted work to proceed[24]. These arrangements were the direct aftereffect of the experience of the work force on site and all things considered ought to positively be considered as a component of the specialty still required in development in spite of the accuracy of advanced manufacture.

Conclusion

The utilization of three-dimensional PC demonstrating has enabled planners to grow the complexities of building structure and spatiality not just by making the outline of complex structures what’s more, conditions more available be that as it may, maybe all the more critically, by making their development furthermore, along these lines their utilization and inhabitation a reality. On the off chance that an engineer feels, nonetheless, that he or she can presently direct over concentration toward development subtle elements furthermore, forms solely to the fabricators furthermore, temporary workers, he or she will be distressfully disillusioned. In the case of anything, the comprehension of the development strategies and level of create required by carefully decided ventures are much more basic to crafted by the designer. Until the point that we figure out how to erect structures with robots in totally controlled conditions, the inventiveness of human art furthermore, the experience will remain a principal part of the building procedure. Were we to give this up, we would lose the key humanness of plan and development.

 

 

 

References

  • Allaf, N. J., and A. W. Charleson. “Seismic retrofitting and the integration of architecture and structure.” In Proceedings of the Conference of the New Zealand Society for Earthquakel Engineering. 2016
  • Bauer, Susanne. “Southern Modernisms Default Materiality of Whiteness and Its Connection to the International Style.” Southern Modernisms.(2015): 49
  • Be, Solveig, Solveig Bøe, and Hege Charlotte Faber. Raw: Architectural Engagements with Nature. Routledge, 2016
  • Bergmann, Sigurd. Theology in Built Environments: Exploring Religion, Architecture and Design. Routledge, 2017
  • Bille, Mikkel, and Tim Flohr Sorensen, eds. Elements of architecture: assembling archaeology, atmosphere and the performance of building spaces. Routledge, 2016
  • Blok, Anders, and Ignacio Farias, eds. Urban cosmopolitics: agencements, assemblies, atmospheres. Routledge, 2016
  • Böhme, Gernot. The aesthetics of atmospheres. Routledge, 2016
  • Bruno, Giuliana. Surface: Matters of aesthetics, materiality, and media. University of Chicago Press, 2014
  • Cruz, Marcos, and Richard Beckett. “Bioreceptive design: a novel approach to biodigital materiality.” Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 20, no. 1 (2016): 51-64
  • De Neergaard, Maja, Lasse Kofoed, and Kirsten Simonsen. “Purpose-built Mosques in Copenhagen: Visibility, Publicity and Cultural Dispute.” NA 29, no. 1 (2017)
  • Eldridge, Luci. “Book Review: Giuliana Bruno, Surface: Matters of Aesthetics, Materiality, and Media.” (2016): 278-280
  • Elinoff, Eli. “A house is more than a house: aesthetic politics in a Northeastern Thai railway settlement.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 22, no. 3 (2016): 610-632
  • Femenías, Paula, Liane Thuvander, Anna Gustafsson, Sofia Park, and Peter Kovacs. “Improving the market up-take of energy producing solar shading: A communication model to discuss preferences for architectural integration across different professions.” In 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization 13-14 June, 2017 at Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, SWEDEN, vol. 13, p. 140. 2017
  • Gastrow, Claudia. “Aesthetic dissent: Urban redevelopment and political belonging in Luanda, Angola.” Antipode 49, no. 2 (2017): 377-396
  • Hartoonian, Gevork. Architecture and Spectacle: A Critique. Routledge, 2016
  • Israel, Jonathan. “Review of Peter de Bolla, The Architecture of ConceptsPeter de Bolla, The Architecture of Concepts, Bronx: Fordham University Press, 2013. 308 pp.” (2015)
  • Jeffrey, Alex. “Legal geography 1: Court materiality.” Progress in Human Geography (2018): 0309132517747746
  • Jewkes, Yvonne. “Aesthetics and an-aesthetics: The architecture of incarceration.” In The Arts of Imprisonment, pp. 41-60. Routledge, 2016
  • Meier, Lars, and Lars Frers. “Encountering Urban Places–Visual and Material Performances in the City.” In Encountering Urban Places, pp. 17-24. Routledge, 2016
  • Ripley, Renee L., and Bharat Bhushan. “Bioarchitecture: bioinspired art and architecture—a perspective.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, no. 2073 (2016): 20160192
  • Seamon, David. “Architecture and phenomenology.” The Routledge (2018)
  • Chan, Jeffrey. “Moral agency in architecture? The dialectics of spatializing morality and moralizing space.” In Architecture, Materiality and Society, pp. 198-214. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015.
  • Suk, Jae Yong, Marc Schiler, and Karen Kensek. “Reflectivity and specularity of building envelopes: how materiality in architecture affects human visual comfort.” Architectural Science Review 60, no. 4 (2017): 256-265
  • Thomas, Edmund. “Balsdon Fellowship: The materiality of Egypt in Roman architecture.” Papers of the British School at Rome 84 (2016): 341-342
  • Tolia-Kelly, Divya P. Visuality/materiality: Images, objects and practices. Routledge, 2016
  • Yaneva, Albena. Mapping controversies in architecture. Routledge, 2016

[1] Allaf, N. J., and A. W. Charleson. “Seismic retrofitting and the integration of architecture and structure.” In Proceedings of the Conference of the New Zealand Society for Earthquakel Engineering. 2016

2 Bauer, Susanne. “Southern Modernisms Default Materiality of Whiteness and Its Connection to the International Style.” Southern Modernisms.(2015): 49

3 Bergmann, Sigurd. Theology in Built Environments: Exploring Religion, Architecture and Design. Routledge, 2017

2 Bauer, Susanne. “Southern Modernisms Default Materiality of Whiteness and Its Connection to the International Style.” Southern Modernisms.(2015): 49

[3] Be, Solveig, Solveig Bøe, and Hege Charlotte Faber. Raw: Architectural Engagements with Nature. Routledge, 2016

4 Be, Solveig, Solveig Bøe, and Hege Charlotte Faber. Raw: Architectural Engagements with Nature. Routledge, 2016

5 Bille, Mikkel, and Tim Flohr Sorensen, eds. Elements of architecture: assembling archaeology, atmosphere and the performance of building spaces. Routledge, 2016

6 Blok, Anders, and Ignacio Farias, eds. Urban cosmopolitics: agencements, assemblies, atmospheres. Routledge, 2016

7 Böhme, Gernot. The aesthetics of atmospheres. Routledge, 2016

8 Bruno, Giuliana. Surface: Matters of aesthetics, materiality, and media. University of Chicago Press, 2014

[5] Bille, Mikkel, and Tim Flohr Sorensen, eds. Elements of architecture: assembling archaeology, atmosphere and the performance of building spaces. Routledge, 2016

6 Cruz, Marcos, and Richard Beckett. “Bioreceptive design: a novel approach to biodigital materiality.” Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 20, no. 1 (2016): 51-64

10 De Neergaard, Maja, Lasse Kofoed, and Kirsten Simonsen. “Purpose-built Mosques in Copenhagen: Visibility, Publicity and Cultural Dispute.” NA 29, no. 1 (2017)

11 Eldridge, Luci. “Book Review: Giuliana Bruno, Surface: Matters of Aesthetics, Materiality, and Media.” (2016): 278-280

[7] Böhme, Gernot. The aesthetics of atmospheres. Routledge, 2016

13 Gastrow, Claudia. “Aesthetic dissent: Urban redevelopment and political belonging in Luanda, Angola.” Antipode 49, no. 2 (2017): 377-396

14 Hartoonian, Gevork. Architecture and Spectacle: A Critique. Routledge, 2016

15 Israel, Jonathan. “Review of Peter de Bolla, The Architecture of ConceptsPeter de Bolla, The Architecture of Concepts, Bronx: Fordham University Press, 2013. 308 pp.” (2015)

16 Jeffrey, Alex. “Legal geography 1: Court materiality.” Progress in Human Geography (2018): 0309132517747746

[9] Cruz, Marcos, and Richard Beckett. “Bioreceptive design: a novel approach to biodigital materiality.” Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 20, no. 1 (2016): 51-64

[10] De Neergaard, Maja, Lasse Kofoed, and Kirsten Simonsen. “Purpose-built Mosques in Copenhagen: Visibility, Publicity and Cultural Dispute.” NA 29, no. 1 (2017)

17 Jewkes, Yvonne. “Aesthetics and an-aesthetics: The architecture of incarceration.” In The Arts of Imprisonment, pp. 41-60. Routledge, 2016

[11] Eldridge, Luci. “Book Review: Giuliana Bruno, Surface: Matters of Aesthetics, Materiality, and Media.” (2016): 278-280

14 Hartoonian, Gevork. Architecture and Spectacle: A Critique. Routledge, 2016

15 Israel, Jonathan. “Review of Peter de Bolla, The Architecture of ConceptsPeter de Bolla, The Architecture of Concepts, Bronx: Fordham University Press, 2013. 308 pp.” (2015)

[12] Elinoff, Eli. “A house is more than a house: aesthetic politics in a Northeastern Thai railway settlement.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 22, no. 3 (2016): 610-632

20 Seamon, David. “Architecture and phenomenology.” The Routledge (2018)

21 Chan, Jeffrey. “Moral agency in architecture? The dialectics of spatializing morality and moralizing space.” In Architecture, Materiality and Society, pp. 198-214. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015

22 Suk, Jae Yong, Marc Schiler, and Karen Kensek. “Reflectivity and specularity of building envelopes: how materiality in architecture affects human visual comfort.” Architectural Science Review 60, no. 4 (2017): 256-265

[14] Hartoonian, Gevork. Architecture and Spectacle: A Critique. Routledge, 2016

15 Israel, Jonathan. “Review of Peter de Bolla, The Architecture of ConceptsPeter de Bolla, The Architecture of Concepts, Bronx: Fordham University Press, 2013. 308 pp.” (2015)

23 Thomas, Edmund. “Balsdon Fellowship: The materiality of Egypt in Roman architecture.” Papers of the British School at Rome 84 (2016): 341-342

Yaneva, Albena. Mapping controversies in architecture. Routledge, 2016

[16] Jeffrey, Alex. “Legal geography 1: Court materiality.” Progress in Human Geography (2018): 0309132517747746

18 Meier, Lars, and Lars Frers. “Encountering Urban Places–Visual and Material Performances in the City.” In Encountering Urban Places, pp. 17-24. Routledge, 2016

[17] Jewkes, Yvonne. “Aesthetics and an-aesthetics: The architecture of incarceration.” In The Arts of Imprisonment, pp. 41-60. Routledge, 2016

20 Seamon, David. “Architecture and phenomenology.” The Routledge (2018)

[18] Meier, Lars, and Lars Frers. “Encountering Urban Places–Visual and Material Performances in the City.” In Encountering Urban Places, pp. 17-24. Routledge, 2016

[19] Ripley, Renee L., and Bharat Bhushan. “Bioarchitecture: bioinspired art and architecture—a perspective.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, no. 2073 (2016): 20160192

[20] Seamon, David. “Architecture and phenomenology.” The Routledge (2018)

[21] Chan, Jeffrey. “Moral agency in architecture? The dialectics of spatializing morality and moralizing space.” In Architecture, Materiality and Society, pp. 198-214. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015

[22] Tolia-Kelly, Divya P. Visuality/materiality: Images, objects and practices. Routledge, 2016

21 Chan, Jeffrey. “Moral agency in architecture? The dialectics of spatializing morality and moralizing space.” In Architecture, Materiality and Society, pp. 198-214. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015.

[23] Yaneva, Albena. Mapping controversies in architecture. Routledge, 2016

24 Tolia-Kelly, Divya P. Visuality/materiality: Images, objects and practices. Routledge, 2016

[24] Tolia-Kelly, Divya P. Visuality/materiality: Images, objects and practices. Routledge, 2016

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