Comparing the Passive Ventilation Style of Modern and Traditional Malay Houses

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Comparing the Passive Ventilation Style of Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort With the Common Traditional Malay House in Malaysia .

Table of Content Page

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………..… 1

  1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………....2
  2. An Overview of the Modern Malay House in Belum

Rainforest Resort , Perak , Malaysia …...…………..…………….…….…4

  1. What are the Comparison of Passive Ventilation

on the Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort

with Common Traditional Malay House in Malaysia ? ……………….……5

  1. How does the Passive Ventilation System Works for

Modern Malay house in Malaysia and Common

Traditional Malay House in Malaysia ? ……………………….…………...

  1. How does the orientation of the building affect the passive

Ventilation ? ............................................................................................

  1. Conclusion ……….
  2. Appendix
  3. Referrences

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the research is to compare the passive ventilation style of Modern Malay

House in Belum Rainforest Resort with the common Traditional Malay House in Malaysia .The

research questions are what are the comparison of passive ventilation in Modern Malay House

in Belum with the common Traditional Malay House . Secondly , how does the orientation of

building affect the passive ventilation . Finally , How does the the passive ventilation system

works for Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort and Common Traditional Malay

House in Malaysia​These are the list of methodology that being used to help my research . Site

observation at Belum Rainforest Resort , internet research , articles and books . My analysis of

methodology is by studying and comparing the details of these two houses that are related to

the passive ventilation . The result is i found that Modern Malay House in Belum is lack of

details that contribute to passive ventilation system . Common Traditional Malay house is still

the best since it gives spotlight more on the passive ventilation .In a nutshell , house that focus

more on the passive ventilation are much better since it reduce the humidity and produces a

good thermal comfort in a building . In future , i hope that people will design buildings that

concentrate more on the passive ventilation rather than design .

1.0 - INTRODUCTION

What is Architecture ? The definition of Architecture is the art or practice of designing and

constructing buildings . Architects are the one who runs the world. They create an enjoyment

story in every building that they design so that the world would not be as boring as it is . When it

comes to architecture world it is super wide and it consist of many different styles and

techniques . Every country have their own styles of designing to express their country ‘s

uniqueness. One of the best design in the world is the building that meet the need and pretty

much response to the climate . Also , It needs to know about the microclimates and the climate

zone , know the basic physiology of human thermal comfort , reduce the loads and enhance

visual comfort by controlling the sun . Thermal mass are used to improved the comfort efficiency

and to pick a space-conditioning strategies that are climatic responsive . Vernacular architecture

is one of the architecture style that take seriously on all of this criteria when designing a building ..

Vernacular Architecture is being refer as a traditional buildings that are designed to meet

the local climate and culture . They design with using a deep understanding together with a

respect towards the nature . Vernacular architecture can be called as a sustainable architecture

as well since it are also built to sustain the environment without destroying it . Vernacular

architecture tends to evolve time after time to reflect the technological , reflect the historical

context in which it exist , reflect the cultural and also reflect the environment . This style of

architecture used the local resources and available energy and materials , so it can refer

accordingly to the climate , site and culture . The most common basic function in vernacular

architecture is to shield and protect from the weather conditions .

Passive cooling system can not be separate from the vernacular architecture as they are

greatly related together . Passive cooling is a building design approach that targets on the heat

gain control and heat dissipation in a building in order to improve the indoor thermal comfort

with lower or zero energy usage . A good orientation of a building , proper design layout and

system used in a building will allow the passive ventilation system be in the building .Ventilation

is the main criteria in passive cooling system as it is the one that move the air from outside

building to the inside so that it can improve the thermal comfort of a building . And my case

study is to compare the passive ventilation of Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort ,

Perak with a common Traditional Malay House in Malaysia .

2.0 - An Overview of the Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort , Perak , Malaysia

As stated on Malaysia’s online website , Malaysia is a country that being classified as

a country that have a hot climate and humid tropical climate with all months above 18 degree

Celcius . Belum Rainforest Resort is the place which I picked for my case study . Belum

Rainforest Resort is located on the northern part of Malaysia and just below the boundary of the

other country which is Thailand . Belum Rainforest Resort is located in the middle of

jungle which is surrounded by the water element from the Lake of Banding or Tasik Banding .

This make the place a great become as a great place for the passive cooling design .

12.JPG

Extracted from http://lensahijau.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-establishment-of-air-house-standard_18.html

The Malay House in Belum was design to be modern but yet still maintaining the basic

element of Traditional Malay House . The photo below is one of the Modern Malay House in

Belum Rainforest Resort .

Picture1.jpg

Extracted from http://www.maplandia.com/malaysia/perak/gerik/hotels/belum-rainforest-resort/

The similarity of this modern malay house with the traditional malay house in Malaysia is they

used completely 100 per cent wood as the main material for construction .

3.0– What are the Comparison of Passive Ventilation on the Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort with Common Traditional Malay House in Malaysia ?

A traditional Malay House produce the ventilation by applying many of full length

windows and doors at the body level . ( Yuan, 1987: 76 ) . Hassan and Ramli ( 2010 )

conclude that Huge openings on Malay house walls produce high air intakes outside to

lowering the performance of stack effect . The below diagram stated clearly that , most of the

outdoor and indoor temperatures were higher than 28 degree Celcius with the humidity level

in the house is higher than 60 per cent and the wind speed in Malay house flow in about 0.3

m / s to 3.4 m / s .

17.JPG

Extracted from http://lensahijau.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-establishment-of-air-house- standard_18.html

There are several comparison that can be found in Modern Malay House in Belum

Rainforest Resort . The Modern Malay House in Belum were design using a timber

construction . Most of the timber construction are not solid if to compare to a concrete

construction due to being build piece by piece . Since it is build piece by piece so it will

have a small gaps between a piece and a piece of wood .This small gaps is one of the

strategy in passive cooling system . The function of the small gaps is to allow the movement

of air into the house so that it could ventilate and automatically improve the indoor

environmental quality . Most of the traditional malay house have this thing but if to compare

to the modern side of malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort , it does not have this thing , It

does not have small gaps on the wall and floor , the small gaps only can be seen on the

outside of the house which is on the balcony’s floor .This is not good since it blocks the air

from entering into the house . The unique thing about the Malay house is that it is built on

stilts. This approach in many ways has several benefits from a thermal, functional and safety

point of view. The raised floor, which is built higher than the ground, can catch winds of a

higher velocity ( Yuan , 1987 : 71 ) , and the use of timber planks for the floor, which have

gaps between them, can bring the air into the inner space.

IMG_2101.JPGC:\Users\personal\Desktop\New

The Balcony area that contain small gaps for air ventilation purpose .

10424067_10152855148182306_1638627064_o.jpgIMG_2030.JPG

The inner side of the building which does not contain any floor gaps and wall gaps .

Other than that , during my site observation I found that there is no ventilation through

roof joint that can be found in the house . This ventilation through roof joint also contribute

in Passive Cooling Design . It makes the house produce a large movement of air into the

building through the roof joint . Traditional Malay House really focus on the opening so that

they can have a good thermal comfort without producing energy that we do not need such as

electricity . Also , without opening through the roof joint the stack ventilation system will

obviously not happen .

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/--ZuYkjNfQ7M/UIC1ObuHIcI/AAAAAAAAFcM/w0AyuPDDqOM/s1600/18.JPG

Extracted from http://lensahijau.blogspot.com/2012/10/the-establishment-of-air-house-standard_18.html

  1. - How does the Passive

Ventilation

System Works for Modern Malay

house in Malaysia and Common

Traditional Malay House in

Malaysia ?

Capture.GIF

Extracted from http://www.belumresort.com/acco_kampung_house.html

The floor plan above shows the floor plan of the Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest

Resort .

Capturegg.JPG

Common Traditional Malay House Floor Plan

Extracted from https://www.academia.edu/2377416/Chapter_2_Malaysian_Vernacular_Architecture_and_Its_Relationship_to_Climate

Both Modern Malay House and Traditional Malay House are randomly arranged . This is

to ensure that the wind velocity in the houses in the latter path of the wind will not

substantially being reduced . Stack ventilation is the flow of air from outside which enter into the

building and goes out from the upper side of a the building .Stack ventilation use different

temperature to move the air . Hot air increases due to the lower pressure occur .It is sometimes

being called as a buoyancy ventilation . The below diagram shows how the stack ventilation

basically works .

solar_chimney_-_swl.jpg

Extracted from http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/stack-ventilation-and-bernoullis-principle

Stack ventilation is one of the unique ventilation system that happen in a traditional malay

house . Based on my observation on the modern malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort , I

found that there is no stack ventilation happens on this house since there is no opening through

the roof joint for the air to go out . The other problem is this house does lifted up a bit by the

stilt but the other problem is that there is no floor gaps for the air to come in from below . This

modern malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort does not have the stack ventilation effect

compare to the original traditional malay house . The traditional malay house use the stack

ventilation effect to cool the inner side of the house . Stack ventilation makes the movement of

the air flow and enter from the opening on the downside and the side of the house . Then the air

slowly transfer to the upper side of the house and goes out through the openings on the roof

joint .

rumahm1.jpg

Extracted from http://malay101.blogspot.com/2012/08/malay-architecture.html

Even the modern malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort does not use the stack

ventilation system , they use the other system of ventilation which is the cross ventilation system

. Cross ventilation system is obtain when there is windows on the both sides of the room . This

caused the air to flow across the space . Since the wind comes the most on the side of the

building , Openings on the sideway really helps the modern malay house in Belum Rainforest

Resort to give a better thermal comfort. The cross ventilation system is good since it reducing

the energy consumption in a building . The below diagram shows the cross ventilation system

that happens on modern malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort .

The arrows on the diagram above shows the air movement that flows into the house .

Other than that ,the unplanned arrangement of the Traditional Malay House is really

important as it gives contribution in reducing the risk of the strong winds .( Hanafi , 1994 ) .

Settlements that are along the coastal areas experience great wind speed than the inland

religions . ( Hanafi , 1994 ) Traditional Malay House are usually detached and it dispersed the

units with ample external space . This is to allow the fresh air circulation occurs in the building . (

Hanafi , 1994 ) .

14-7ceabad18d.jpg

Extracted from https://www.academia.edu/2377416/Chapter_2_Malaysian_Vernacular_Architecture_and_Its_Relationship_to_Climate

Capture.JPG

Extracted from https://www.google.com.my/maps/@5.5428286,101.341145,187m/data=!3m1!1e3

Photo above is the rough arrangement of modern malay house in Belum Rainforest

Resort .The arrangement are based on the linear concept and which it is applying the same

concept as the traditional malay house in Malaysia .

  1. - How does the orientation of the

building affect the passive

ventilation?

Building orientation are really important in malay traditional house . For religious

reasons , most traditional Malay houses are oriented to face Mecca(east - west direction) ,

which indirectly minimizes the area of exposed walls to direct solar radiation during theday

(Yuan , 2011) . The building orientation also does help in providing good sun shading , and

also a good ventilation system . Normally , the Malay Kampong House will be orientate

according to the east – west orientation . This orientation function as letting you to harness

the daylight and take control of the glare along the long façade of the building . It will reduce

the glare from the setting sun or even from the rising sun . One more reason on why east –

west orientation is the best orientation is because of it ensures the building to get a better

thermal comfort . The photo below show that the not so accurate wind diagram that being

taken from the windfinder.com .

10388369_10152854893507306_1556629601_n.jpg

Extracted from http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/butterworth

Based on my research study I found that most of the wind comes from the Northwest and

Northeast side .There is least air comes from the northern and the southern side . This

orientation system works pretty well since the modern malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort

are orientated using the east west orientation . The window on the modern malay house in

Belum Rainforest Resort that located on the side of the house is openable so this can make the

wind to flow into the building and circulate in good way . The below photo shows the orientation

of the modern malay house in Belum Rainforest Resort .

Capture.JPG

Extracted from https://www.google.com.my/maps/@5.5428286,101.341145,187m/data=!3m1!1e3

Building that are surrounded by the water element are good for passive cooling design .

What I found is Belum Rainforest Resort is surrounded by a big lake which is the Tasik Banding

. This Tasik banding contribute pretty well in making the house cooler and achieve the correct

standard of thermal comfort . The wind which flow from the Northwest side brings the cool air

from the lake and directly enter the building .

  1. – Conclusion

In a nutshell , Malaysia is a country that are meant to be as a hot climate

country with a high humidity level . Houses in Malaysia that will be design or already

been designed by people need to follow the Malaysia ‘ s climate to achieve a good

thermal comfort . Modern Malay House in Belum Rainforest Resort are lack of the

original features that suppose to have in every Traditional Malay House . People that

design the malay house in Belum are not concentrating on the features anymore , in

fact they are more in terms of creating a new building with using a different way to

achieve the thermal comfort .The house might look like a malay traditional house

when you look it from the farthest distance , but it is totally different when you come

closer and study about the details of the house . Modern Malay House in Belum are

lack in terms of passive ventilation contribution . The house pretty much does not

apply the basic elements of a traditional malay house which is to have the wall gaps

and small gaps between the timber for the air to move into the building . This is such

a waste since this small features is actually really make the building to achieve a very

good environmental indoor quality . The ventilation through the roof joint also is a

good thing when it comes to express the stack ventilation system . Since traditional

malay house don’t use the electricity more often than a normal building , this stack

ventilation really works in every traditional malay house because it reduce the energy

consumption and automatically reduce the living cost . Also , stack ventilation

makes the traditional malay house to get a maximum ventilation from almost every

side of the house which the wind are basically come from the bottom , middle and

even from the upper side of the house . Other than that , the layout arrangement in

malay house will contribute in making the place become more comfortable . Layout

arrangement is one of the criteria in vernacular architecture , this layout arrangement

will contribute on the flow of the wind . Last but not least it is important as well to

orientate the building in a proper direction . The proper building orientation will make

the building to receive a good sun shading device , better air ventilation system so

that the building would not be hotter on the inside .

Appendix

Referrences

Referrences

ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 1

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