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Biography and Architectural Style of Zaha Hadid

5099 words (20 pages) Essay in Architecture

18/05/20 Architecture Reference this

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Contents

Biography

Hadid’s Early life and career.

Stardom and Controversies

Awards and Achievements

Theoretical framework

Architectural style

Characteristics of Zaha Hadid Architecture

Case study

Case study 1

Introduction

Architectural concept

The architecture of the MAXXI

Structural concept

Case Study 2

Introduction

Design Concept

Spaces within the building

Structure and materials of the Phaeno Science centre

Comparison of two case studies and critical discussion

Conclusion

References

Websites

STEVENS, P.

ZAHA HADID (1950-2016) – PEOPLE – ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS

HADID, Z.

STOUHI, D.

WORLD, A.

BIANCHINI, R.

BIANCHINI, R.

PHÆNO SCIENCE CENTER, WOLFSBURG – VERDICT DESIGNBUILD

Books

HADID, Z. AND BETSKY, A.

MÁRQUEZ, F. AND POVEDA, P.

Illustration

HAYES, L.

BINET, H.

Biography

ZAHA HADID

31st October – 31st March 2016.

Born in Baghdad, Iraq in 1950, Zaha Hadid finished her studies in mathematics at the American University Beirut, that was before she moved to London in 1972 were, she attended the “Architectural Association (AA) School” (Zaha-hadid.com, 2016) where she received the diploma in architecture.

At the Architectural Association School where she studied, she met Rem Koolhaas and Elia Zenghelis, were she started working with them as partner at the office of metropolitan Architecture.

She opened her London-based architecture office, Zaha Hadid Architects in 1979. The Iraqi born architect was known for her fundamental deconstructive architectural designs. In 2004 she became the first female architect to win the Pritzker prize (equivalent as the Nobel prize of architecture).

Hadid’s revolutionary vision redefined architecture for the 21st century and caught the globes imagination. Every project that she produced transformed the concept of the work that can be achieved in concrete, steel and glass, merging her firm confidence for the future

.

Figure 1; the peak building design stage (Hadid and Betsky 1998)

Hadid’s Early life and career.

Zaha Hadid gained world-wide fame and recognition in 1983 were, she produced her competition-winning entry for the peak, which is a leisure and recreational centre in Hong Kong.

Her design for The Peak was never realized, neither were most of her other work that she produced during the 1980s and early 90s, including her designs for Kurfurstendamm in Berlin.

Zaha Hadid’s first big built development was the Vitra Fire Station (1989-93) in Weil am Rhein, Germany. The building is made up of a series of sharp angled planes, the structure tries to resemble a bird in flight and when looking at it head on it can be seen that the front tip is the head, as it widens up toward the back the wings appear.

Her other projects within in this period were, IBA housing project in Berlin, the Mind zone Exhibition space in Greenwich, London and the Land Formation One exhibition space in Weil Rhein. Throughout all these designs she tried to explore the creation and connecting spaces and dynamic sculptural form of architecture.

“Zaha’s Style of is very abstract and uses curves and bends and different sizing of structures to play with light and shadow play.” (fernley 2019)

 

Stardom and Controversies

The MAXXI Museum of contemporary art and architecture in Rome gained Zaha Hadid the RIBA Sterling Prize, because of her bold and imaginative approach towards the design of the building. She continued to win the Sterling prize the year after because of her sleek structure for the Evelyne Grace Academy building. Looking at figure 3 she has used a certain technique/ style of working which is going back to the theme of deconstructivism. Also figure 3 and 2 have a distinctive style of finishing, specially with the clean lines and sharp trajectories give the buildings a unique shape and style to it.

Awards and Achievements

  • Zaha Hadid was awarded ‘Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire’. 2012
  • During her lifetime she won over 100 prestigious awards and achievements, the first award that she received was in 1982, which was the ‘gold medal architectural design’ for her British architecture.
  • “in 2004, she became the first woman and one of the youngest recipients of the ‘Pritzker prize’ for architecture” (“Who Was Zaha Hadid? Everything You Need To Know” 2019)

Theoretical framework

Architectural style

Zaha Hadid love for free-flowing lines, made it something that would be used in her design stage. In the last 30-40 years she gone from paper architect to a world-renowned architect. Her extraordinary architecture doesn’t just stand but rather it melts, slides, it whooshes, it projects out and it moves, her buildings makes the public feel in the future rather than the present more like a Zaha World.

Deconstructivism, or deconstruction, is an approach to a building design which, attempts to view architecture is its smallest forms. The fundamental aspects of architecture/ design are dismantled. Deconstructivism is not a new style of architecture nor is it an innovative movement against the architecture.

“It does not follow “rules” or acquire specific aesthetics, nor is it a rebellion against a social dilemma. It is the unleashing of infinite possibilities of playing around with forms and volumes.” (stouhi 2018)

Zaha Hadid is the designer of many significant structures, which comprise of the Bridge Pavilion in Zaragoza (Spain) and the Phaeno Museum in Wolfsberg (Germany), dedicated to technical commercialisation. Like many other Deconstructivist architects, including Frank Ghery and Manuel Herz, Zaha Hadid works with metal and concrete a lot.  Her style is recognisable using overlaid planes and sharp angles. One of the most distinctive buildings of this style is the Vitra Fire Station in Germany, which shows the correlation between brittleness and its complexity within Hadid’s style. She also works on irregular curves and traditional straight lines, e.g. structure of the Innsbruck ski jump.

An incredibly talented architect, she was a significant figure in the women’s liberation crusade of the second half of the 20th century: she was the first ever women to win the Pritzker prize, (2004) were she was given the award for a significant revolution to the world of architecture.

Zaha Hadid specified that her architectural works were not envisioned as a personal brand on the world, or an act of self -tolerance. Rather, addressing 21st century tests and chances is the foundation to her style and creations. “must contribute to society’s progress and ultimately to our individual and collective wellbeing.” (Living, philosophy and Blog 2019).

She studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture (AA) under the famous Rem Koolhaus, even then he commented on her ability “a planet in her own orbit” (stewart 2018) which shows that she had her own identity in the field which she wanted to explore.

Characteristics of Zaha Hadid Architecture

Zaha Hadid being known as the “queen of curves” (world 2018), her architecture isn’t easily gathered with one architectural style. Zaha Hadid was determined, since Hadid preferred not to limit her practice to a specific movement. Zaha Hadid is recognised for her training of geometric shapes to create dynamic and fluid structures. Much of her influence stems from her love of abstract painting and drawing. It’s well documented that she was particularly fond of avant-garde Russian painters such as Kazimir Malveich and even re-interpreted Vladimir Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International for an exhibition at the Guggenheim.

Working particularly with concrete and glass, Hadid took these industrial materials and bent them into forms that subtly recall natural shapes. By deconstructing these forms, she was able to present cutting-edge work that also induces human emotion.

­­­­

“this painting represents the culmination of a seven-year exploration into architectures unchartered territories that began with my work as a student at London’s Architectural Association.” (Hadid and Betsky 1998)

Figure 4:(Hadid and Betsky 1998)

Case study

Introduction

The 2 projects that have been chosen as case studies are the ‘Museum of Art, XXI (MAXXI), Rome, Italy, and Phaneo Science Centre, Wolfsburg, Germany.

Case study 1

Place: Rome, Country: Italy

Client: Italian Ministry of Culture

MAXXI – Rome

Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects

Design: Zaha Hadid with Patrik Schumacher

Project architect: Gianluca Racana

Introduction

The introduction of the MAXXI Museum in Rome marked a rotating point for the Italian Cultural Scene. This was designed by Zaha Hadid Architects and it was their first major public owned museum which was dedicated to contemporary art.

Figure 5 (Márquez and Poveda 2004)

Page 415

The opening of the MAXXI museum was a breakthrough in the path of Italy towards a more mindful attitude about modern nation.

“the building addresses the question of its urban context by maintaining an indexicality to the former army barracks.” (Márquez and Poveda 2004)

 

Architectural concept

The idea behind the design by Zaha Hadid Architects was to sketch a fluid building, going away from the traditional delivery of separate, private, rooms typical of many old and contemporary museums, also taking into consideration the distinction between interior and exterior space.

Figure 6 (Márquez and Poveda 2004)

Page 416

As she explains, “MAXXI supersedes the notion of the museum as ‘object’ or fixed entity, presenting instead ‘a field of buildings’ accessible to all, with no firm boundary between what is ‘within’ and what ‘without’.” (BIANCHINI 2018)

The building is a configuration of bending rectangle tubes, overlapping, interconnecting and piling over each other, which resembles a big piece of transportation structure.

The building acts as a tie between geometrical fundamentals already existing. The building is built on the old army barracks site between the river Tiber and via guido reni, the core of the building is made up of spaces that flow freely and unexpectedly between interior and exterior, where the walls twist to become floors or ceilings. The building engages the landscape structures, change them and gives them back to the urban environment.

The architecture of the MAXXI

There are two architectural principle elements that characterize the project:

  • The concrete walls that define the exhibition galleries and regulate the linking of volumes;
  • The transparent roof that modulates natural light. The roofing system compiles with the highest standards required for museums and is composed of integrated frames and louvers with devices for filtering sunlight, artificial light and environmental control

The building has a total floor area of 310,000 square feet, the collaborative considered by Zaha Hadid Architects which, assimilates some of the old military structures with a new, L-shaped, building. A full height lobby creates the core of the museum, from which gives access to the galleries, auditorium, cafeteria and shops.

A big stairwell and a series of bridges connect the different parts of the building. The old military structures house a restaurant, a library, and various staff offices. The external areas between the buildings for a welcoming collection of outdoor spaces, provided with chairs, tables, concrete benches and green zones.

Figure 7 (Bianchini 2018)

Figure 8 (Bianchini 2018)

Figure 9 (Bianchini 2018)

Structural concept

Material such as glass were used for the roof, steel for the stairs and cement for the walls, it gives the display spaces a neutral presence.

The structure of the building is made of curved side walls in bare self-consolidating concrete (SCC); to attain the anticipated surface appearance and have more control of it, a concrete invention facility installed on site. The horizontal structures are mostly made of black-painted steel beams, some cladded with glass fibre reinforced concrete panels, as in the case of the roof trusses.

Case Study 2

Introduction

Phaeno Science Centre,

Location: Wolfsburg, Germany

Architect: Zaha Hadid

Built in: 1999-2005

The Science Centre is dedicated to attracting the youth to the world of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) work is housed in a futuristic building designed by Zaha Hadid Architects. The building opened in 2005 after 6 years of designing and building the structure. The building is part of a sequence of cultural building that were built in the 50s which were used to produce collaboration and urban media to rescue the manufacturing city of midpoint in which it mired, as it happened with the Guggenheim Bilbao.

Figure 10 (Márquez and Poveda 2004)

Page 444

Design Concept

The MAXXI Museum building appears on the landscape as an assembly between the two areas of the city, which establishes a direct relationship with the city. Multiple paths of pedestrian and vehicle drive are issued instead of the artificial field and inward though the building, forming an interconnected route of travel.

The buildings shape bears a resemblance to a boat. The materials used are; steel, glass and concrete. Sharp lines become more winding and malleable, so that walls, ceilings and floors are mixed to expand, creating a sense of constant transformation.

The building is composed of two architectural properties, a large part of the building is suspended 8 meters from the ground horizontally and their support is consistent of 10 cones of concrete that sustain and continue to face upward to meet the roof.

The MAXXI Museum captures the dynamics of the surrounding landscape in its elongated shape that is off the ground, in the openings, and the walls that give the illusion that the building is in motion.

Spaces within the building

The ground falls below the size as an artificial landscape with the rolling hills and dales that stretch around the square. The building allows people to walk under and up by the pavement alongside it to get inside. Elsewhere, the lower floors, takes visitors. The Ground floor is an open space, making it the context of the city, between the concrete cones.

Most of the building stands on a court with a series of a large reversed cone-shaped columns with rounded corners that act as the feet and bring an effect of lightness to the structure. Among them are various functions such as library, conference room and auditorium. The largest of the cone shaped pillar is accessed via a staircase to the main exhibition floor, where the ceilings are slanted, and walls seem to combine with the emphasis on appearance.

Figure 11 (binet 2019)

A central dip at the base of the building gives a view into the different levels at a diagonal angle, giving high volume sponginess and transparency. This void is created within the open space for exhibitions into the main aspect of the building. The other parts like overhangs that are projected on the inside, create other functions.

The interior of the Phaeno science centre is characterised as uneven and articulation of space, where there is a clear division of spaces, unexpected openings between a wall. On the other hand, large glass panels offer a panoramic view of the landscape.

Structure and materials of the Phaeno Science centre

The building is made of reinforced concrete. The front part of the building has large amounts of concrete. In some areas large glazed glass curtains. The skylights can be seen, respecting the drawing of rhombus as was done int the concrete.

The building is the largest construction from self-compacting concrete in Europe. Without the new type of concrete, the diverse forms of Phaeno- its sharp angles impending curves, fractured planes and bold protrusion.

Comparison of two case studies and critical discussion

Similarities

The similarities between the two buildings are very plain straightaway, for example both buildings have unique deconstructivism properties, each building has its own unique style of design and working with spaces. On the other hand, the buildings both use large amounts of concrete, glass and steel.

Another similarity would be that both buildings both use curvature within the buildings, also its used on the exterior of the buildings.

Principles used on both buildings

As an architect she has certain rules/ principles that’s she like to follow when designing a building for example:

  1. Testing new technologies
  2. Bending the rules within architecture

She had a certain deconstructivism style in her architecture as she graduated in an era were deconstructivism was becoming a new style in the architecture field. The idea of breaking away from traditional straight and rectangular buildings, got her a lot of criticism, but she pushed through and came up with her own unique style of designs.

Looking at both case studies and assessing the different or similar approaches taken by Zaha Hadid and looking back at the different design processes and how she looks at the site in context with the design process.

Looking at case study 1 and case study 2 and the materials used within both the buildings have exactly similar materials, such as glass panels, steel and concrete. The differences between the case studies is the approach taken on each design aspect, as the MAXXI Museum already had an existing structure which was an old army base, and the Phaeno Science Centre was created/ designed to help the growing community, city of Wolfsburg, Germany.

Looking at both buildings and the deconstructivism which, is evident in both buildings as the way she has a certain type of process, for example, she uses abstract paintings as a design process for some of her famous buildings and is used a conceptual idea.

She wanted to get away from modernism, and away from the whole idea clean lines and sharp modernist lines. The idea of deconstructivism was to help modernist architects break the traditional rules and try to break boundaries in architecture. This is exactly what she did, and it worked for her because going away from traditional architecture and trying to keep all designs in a neat straight line.

Even looking at other work that she has created and worked on, they all have similar curvy lines and getting away from the whole abstract lines. She has used similar materials for all them which is, concrete and steel which she is well known for.

If one looks deep into both buildings that have been chose for the case studies, it can be evident that her work is developed using abstract paintings which, is a step used as a design process. The reason for this statement is the fact that she has used abstract paintings for both her buildings, she has used deconstructivism as a style for her work. Another strong characteristic for her work is that they all make a certain type of significant statement, as if saying that these are the future, and that architecture has advanced a lot over certain period. Also, the fact that they are so extravagant compared to the surrounding buildings makes them look futuristic rather than something contemporary.

Conclusion

Zaha Hadid is a world renowned architect who gave the world a certain style of architecture that was probably needed to give an insight of how to breakaway from the norm of just designing for purpose but actually try to break rules and go beyond traditional norms to make a statement in the field. She created a new style of post-modern architecture something that says, ‘the future is here’ and it was needed to inspire people/ architects. Her work as become a part of a history that is known internationally, and her work is something of extravagant.

Having analysed her two case studies and the way she approached them made it clear that she really delved into her own style of architecture and really took inspiration from abstract artist to influence her work. Art was a way to showing her the natural fluidity of movement within a building design rather than trying to stay close to one style to movement.

References

 

Websites

STEVENS, P.

zaha hadid timeline of architectural work

In-text: (Stevens, 2016)

Your Bibliography: Stevens, P. (2016). zaha hadid timeline of architectural work. [online] designboom | architecture & design magazine. Available at: https://www.designboom.com/architecture/zaha-hadid-timeline-career-projects-03-31-2016/ [Accessed 17 Jun. 2019].

ZAHA HADID (1950-2016) – PEOPLE – ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS

In-text: (Zaha-hadid.com, 2016)

Your Bibliography: Zaha-hadid.com. (2016). Zaha Hadid (1950-2016) – People – Zaha Hadid Architects. [online] Available at: https://www.zaha-hadid.com/people/zaha-hadid/ [Accessed 17 Jun. 2019].

HADID, Z.

Zaha Hadid (1950-2016) – People – Zaha Hadid Architects

In-text: (hadid, 2016)

Your Bibliography: hadid, z. (2016). Zaha Hadid (1950-2016) – People – Zaha Hadid Architects. [online] Zaha-hadid.com. Available at: https://www.zaha-hadid.com/people/zaha-hadid/ [Accessed 17 Jun. 2019].

ZUKOWSKY, J.

Zaha Hadid | Biography, Buildings, & Facts

In-text: (zukowsky 2019)

Your Bibliography: zukowsky, john. 2019. “Zaha Hadid | Biography, Buildings, & Facts”. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zaha-Hadid/media/1/914179/15938.

 

BIOGRAPHY: ZAHA HADID | THE PRITZKER ARCHITECTURE PRIZE

In-text: (“Biography: Zaha Hadid | The Pritzker Architecture Prize” 2019)

Your Bibliography: “Biography: Zaha Hadid | The Pritzker Architecture Prize”. 2019. Pritzkerprize.Com. Accessed June 18. https://www.pritzkerprize.com/biography-zaha-hadid.

FERNLEY, A.

ZAHA HADID

In-text: (fernley 2019)

Your Bibliography: fernley, alex. 2019. “ZAHA HADID”. ZAHA HADID. Accessed June 19. https://zahahadidbyalexfernley.weebly.com/.

WHO WAS ZAHA HADID? EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW

In-text: (“Who Was Zaha Hadid? Everything You Need To Know” 2019)

Your Bibliography: “Who Was Zaha Hadid? Everything You Need To Know”. 2019. Thefamouspeople.Com. Accessed June 19. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/zaha-hadid-5626.php.

STOUHI, D.

What is Deconstructivism?

In-text: (stouhi 2018)

Your Bibliography: stouhi, dima. 2018. “What Is Deconstructivism?”. Archdaily. https://www.archdaily.com/899645/what-is-deconstructivism.

LIVING, L., PHILOSOPHY, Z. AND BLOG, E.

Zaha Hadid’s style and design philosophy

In-text: (Living, philosophy and Blog 2019)

Your Bibliography: Living, Luxury, Zaha philosophy, and Engel Blog. 2019. “Zaha Hadid’s Style And Design Philosophy”. Engel & Völkers. https://www.engelvoelkers.com/en/blog/luxury-living/architecture/zaha-hadids-style-and-design-philosophy/.

STEWART, J.

Zaha Hadid’s Legacy and Her Top 10 Architectural Masterpieces

In-text: (stewart 2018)

Your Bibliography: stewart, jessica. 2018. “Zaha Hadid’S Legacy And Her Top 10 Architectural Masterpieces”. My Modern Met. https://mymodernmet.com/zaha-hadid-architecture/.

WORLD, A.

Why Zaha Hadid, Architecture’s ‘Queen of the Curve,’ Is Poised to Speak to a Whole New Generation of Design Lovers | artnet News

In-text: (world 2018)

Your Bibliography: world, art. 2018. “Why Zaha Hadid, Architecture’s ‘Queen Of The Curve,’ Is Poised To Speak To A Whole New Generation Of Design Lovers | Artnet News”. Artnet News. https://news.artnet.com/art-world/architect-zaha-hadid-legacy-1383145.

BIANCHINI, R.

Zaha Hadid – The MAXXI Museum Rome – part 1

In-text: (BIANCHINI 2018)

Your Bibliography: BIANCHINI, RICCARDO. 2018. “Zaha Hadid – The MAXXI Museum Rome – Part 1”. Inexhibit. https://www.inexhibit.com/case-studies/zaha-hadid-the-maxxi-museum-rome-part-1/.

BIANCHINI, R.

The MAXXI Museum Rome – part 2

In-text: (bianchini 2018)

Your Bibliography: bianchini, riccardo. 2018. “The Maxxi Museum Rome”. Inexhibit.Com. https://www.inexhibit.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/MAXXI-museum-Rome-Zaha-Hadid-ground-floor-plan.jpg.

PHÆNO SCIENCE CENTER, WOLFSBURG – VERDICT DESIGNBUILD

In-text: (“Phæno Science Center, Wolfsburg – Verdict Designbuild” 2019)

Your Bibliography: ”Phæno Science Center, Wolfsburg – Verdict Designbuild”. 2019. Verdict Designbuild. Accessed July 18. https://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/phaeno/.

Books

(Betsky 1998) 

HADID, Z. AND BETSKY, A.

Zaha Hadid

In-text: (Hadid and Betsky 1998)

Your Bibliography: Hadid, Zaha, and Aaron Betsky. 1998. Zaha Hadid. 1st ed. New York: Rizzoli.

HADID, Z. AND BETSKY, A.

Zaha Hadid

In-text: (Hadid and Betsky 1998)

Your Bibliography: Hadid, Zaha, and Aaron Betsky. 1998. Zaha Hadid. 1st ed. New York: Rizzoli.

MÁRQUEZ, F. AND POVEDA, P.

Zaha Hadid 1983-2004: forms of indetermination : landscape as a plan

In-text: (Márquez and Poveda 2004)

Your Bibliography: Márquez, Fernando, and Paloma Poveda. 2004. Zaha Hadid 1983-2004: Forms Of Indetermination : Landscape As A Plan. 1st ed. Madrid: El Croquis.

Illustration

HAYES, L.

Evelyn Grace Academy – Architecture – Zaha Hadid Architects

In-text: (hayes 2010)

Your Bibliography: hayes, luke. 2010. “Evelyn Grace Academy – Architecture – Zaha Hadid Architects”. Zaha-Hadid.Com. https://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/evelyn-grace-academy/.

BINET, H.

Phaeno Science Centre – Architecture – Zaha Hadid Architects

In-text: (binet 2019)

Your Bibliography: binet, helen. 2019. “Phaeno Science Centre – Architecture – Zaha Hadid Architects”. Zaha-Hadid.Com. Accessed July 18. https://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/phaeno-science-centre/#.

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