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Architectural Analysis of Villa Savoyre by Le Corbusier

2902 words (12 pages) Essay in Architecture

18/05/20 Architecture Reference this

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A critical Architectural Analysis of Villa Savoye by LE Corbusier –Functionality, Structure, Geometry, Expressivity

Table of Contents

Introduction

Villa Savoye

Structural Analysis

Functional Analysis

Geometrical Analysis

Le Corbusier ‘5’ points

Project EIR

Conclusion

References

Introduction

The architecture for a landmark is very much crucial as it helps to design and construct the necessary requirements while concerning a construction. In this present context, the application of Le Corbusier’s Architecture is more responsive that any other implementations. While concerning this present critical evaluation about the architectural context, the involvement of 5 principles by Le Corbusier’s is having the responsive attributes for delivering a well-designed architecture. The following assessment is with the inclusions of structural analysis, functional analysis, geometry considerations and providing a new structure for Villa Savoye (Poissy). On the other hand, there is the involvement of Employer Information Requirement (EIR), which is effective to have the information about the respective employees while working in Villa Savoye. However, the assessment is effective for providing an efficient and advantageous design or architecture for Villa Savoye.

Villa Savoye

In the year 1927, Le Cobusier has proposed some architectural designing framework that is effective for providing the necessary design as per the necessity for a specific construction. The present concern is with the enhancement of Villa Savoye for having an attractive design for the success in future. The 5 principles by Le Corbusier are very much effective that are illustrated below for better instance.

The Pilotis: The terminology Pilotis is specific for the awareness of a particular grid that is replacing load-bearing walls and is becoming the basis of new building. In this context, the substance of Villa Savoye has been elevated by the ground level and has the support by “pilotis” or some concrete stilts that were reinforced before.

The free designing of the ground plan:

The free design of the façade:

The horizontal window:

Roof gardens:

Structural Analysis

Figure 1: Structural Design

Figure 2: Roof Plan

Figure 3: Floor plan

Figure 4: Part and Frame Section

Live Load

4.0 kN / m2 at the typical floor

1.5 kN / m2 at the terrace

Floor Finish

1.0 kN / m2

Water proofing

2.0 kN / m2

Terrace Finish

1.0 kN / m2

Place

Villa Savoye (Poissy)

Load of wind

According to IS – 875, it is not designed for the wind load, as earthquake load always exceed the wind loads.

Earthquake load

According to the IS – I893 (Part 1) – as per the year 2002

Foundation’s depth under ground

2.5 m

Soil type

Type II, and it should be medium, as per IS – 1893

Boiling pressure that is allowed

200 kN / m2

Avg. thickness of the footing

0.9 m, which can be assumed as the isolated footings

Floors

G.F.+ 1 upper floors

Storey height

Typical Floor of 5 m, and G.F. will be 3 or 4 m

Ground beams

Should be provided at 100 mm under G.L.

level of Plinth

0.6 m

Walls

It should be 230 mm thick brick and the masonry walls will be only at the periphery

Table 1: Structural Analysis

(Source: Created by the learner)

In case of material properties of this building, the following calculations should be taken into account-

Concrete

All the components should be specified unless the design will be M25 grade all

Ec = 5 000 (sqrt(fck))  N/mm2 = 5 000 (sqrt(fck)) MN/m2

= 25000 N/mm2

= 25000 MN/m2

For the central columns, which are up to the plinth, including ground floor and first floor, M30 grade will be applied-

Ec = 5 000 (sqrt(fck))  N/mm2 = 5 000 (sqrt(fck)) MN/m2

= 27386 N/mm2

= 27836 MN/m2

Functional Analysis

Weight Calculations

In this planning, the seismic weight can be calculated in an appropriate manner based on the gravity loads (Devadiga, 2017). The columns and walls’ weight for any storey must be equal to the distributed floors up and under the storey. The following minimized live loads can be applied for the analysis of Zero terrace and it is 50% above other floors.

Storey 2

 

 

DL + LL

From Slab

22.5 * 22.5 * (3.5 + 0.5 * 4)

1 772 + 1 013

Walls

0.5 * 4 * 22.5 * (21.6 + 0)

972 + 0

Walls

0.5 * 4 * 22.5 * (17.2 + 0)

774 + 0

Secondary Beams

18 * 7.5 * (2.5 + 0)

338 + 0

Main Beams

8 * 22.5 * (4.5 + 0)

810 + 0

Columns

16 * 0.5 * (5 + 4.1) * (6.3 + 0)

459 + 0

Total

5 125 + 1 013 = 6 138 kN

Table 2: Storey 2 weight calculation

Storey 1

DL + LL

Walls

0.5 * 4 * 22.5 * (17.2 + 0)

774 + 0

Walls

0.5 * 4 * 22.5 * (3.5 + 0)

158 + 0

Main Beams

8 * 22.5 * (4.5 + 0)

810 + 0

Column

16 * 0.5 * 4.1 * (6.3 + 0)

16 * 0.5 * 1.1 * (9.0 + 0)

79 + 0

Total

2 027 + 0 = 2 027 kN

Table 3: Storey 1 weight calculation

Therefore, the seismic weight for the entire building = 6 138 + 2 027

       = 8 165 kN

Designing the Seismic Load

In the upper floors, the infill walls should contain a large opening though the solid walls can be considered as the most crucial part of load calculation. Therefore, the basic time T can be obtained thorough applying the following formulae-

 Ta = 0.0075 h0.75 [according to the IS 1893 (part I): 2002, including the Clause 7.6.1]

= 0.075 * (30.5)0.75

= 0.97 sec

In case of the Zone Factor, Z = 0.16 for the Zone III [following IS: 1893 (part I): 2002, table 2]

In this context, Importance Factor, I = 1.5 (for the public building)

Sa / g = (1.36 / 0.97) = 1.402

Storey

Wi (kN)

hi (m)

Wihi2 * 10-3

Qi (kN)

Vi (kN)

2

6 138

5.2

166

16

1 320

1

2 027

1.1

3

0

1 320

Total

169

1 320

Table 4: Distribution of the Total Horizontal Load to the Different Floor Levels

Sa / g = (1.36 / 0.97) = 1.402

Geometrical Analysis

From the above-mentioned layouts, it can be analysed that the building includes floor beams, FB at the ground floor, which are of 100 mm under the ground. The numbering of geometrical analysis can be explained as follows-

Storey Number

Portion of the building

Storey Number

Ground Floor – Foundation top

1

First floor – ground beams

2

Table 5: Storey Number

(Source: Created by the learner)

Column Number

From the above figure, it can be stated that the columns from C1 to C8 can be numbered in a sequential way from the left to right, as well as it is from the upper to the lower part of the plan (Ciribini et al., 2016). The column C5 is called as the footing of terrace level and it can be differentiated from the column lengths in various stories. The column lengths are known to 105, and 205. The very first digit depicts about the storey number when the last two numbers indicate the column number. It can also be highlighted through the grid lines.

Floor Beams (Secondary Beams)

The floor beams are capable of free revolution, which are known as FB and mentioned in the above figures. All the reactions in this floor beams can be calculated manually and this act as the point load of these main beams. However, all these floor beams cannot be considered as the segment of this space frame modelling.

Main beams number

The beams that are passing through columns can be termed as the primary beams and all of those together including the columns can form the space frame. The basic layout of above-mentioned figure can be numbered, as the primary beams as B1 to B12 are the most convenient process those are in the left to right direction and lower to upper part of the main building. In order to provide a 90 degree based clockwise rotation for this plan, it can be marked sequentially as the beams based in perpendicular direction. For differentiating floor-wise based on the floor plan, the beams can be numbered as 1005 and 2005. In this numbering, the very first digit denotes beam number, which can be found as basic layout of the building. Therefore, 2005 indicates the beams available in 2nd storey.

Figure 5: Accidental Eccentricity consisting of Torsion in the Building

Le Corbusier ‘5’ points

Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye can be summed up including the five points of architecture. At first, Le Corbusier lifted the huge amount of structure off the ground, which can be supported by the piloti, including the reinforced concrete stilts. Before starting the career, Le Corbusier implemented a group of architectural rules, which dictated this specific technique that is called as “Five Points of New Architecture” (Alhava et al., 2015). These all are considered as the most effective evident in his Villa Savoye.

  • Pilot-is: This is considered as the replacement to support the walls through a grid of “Reinforced Concrete Columns”, which bears the main structural load on the basis of this innovative aesthetic.
  • Facade free designing is aimed to separate the building’s exterior from the structural function, which can be set as the facade free from this structural constraints (Taranath, 2016).
  • The basic and free designing of the “Ground Plan” is based on supporting the absence of walls that means the entire house should be unrestrained in for its internal application.
  • In case of the horizontal window, it helps to cut the facade including its entire length for lighting up the rooms equally.
  • In case of the Rood Gardens over a flat roof, it can be served as a domestic purpose for providing the necessary protection for the concrete roof.  

Project EIR

EIR (employer Information Requirements) can be defined as the information needed by the employer from both suppliers and internal team for developing the project and for operating in such a way to create asset (Eastman, 2018). There are several relevant extracts, which help to identify the EIR, including the PD (procedure Documents) for appointing every supplier, who are employed by the employer can include consultants, advisors, contractors and others.  

Conclusion

By evaluating the above analysis, this can be concluded that the use of Le Corbusier’s model for providing an architectural design is very much effective. In this present context, the esteem concern that is to design the architectural design of Villa Savoye is designed with the help of Le Corbusier’s model by maintaining the necessary 5 principles. For instance, the Ground Plan for Villa Savoye can be more responsive by the involvement of Le Corbusier’s model. On the other hand, the Facade free designing is advantageous for having the awareness of structural constraints. Moreover, the Roof Gardens of the building can be possibly constructed by implying the Le Corbusier’s model with proper approaches. Apart from all of these, the assignment is with the inclusions of functional analysis and geometry considerations, which are effective in terms of effective designing of Villa Savoye. 

References

  • Alhava, O., Laine, E. and Kiviniemi, A., 2015. Intensive big room process for co-creating value in legacy construction projects. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), 20(11), pp.146-158.
  • Ciribini, A.L.C., Ventura, S.M. and Paneroni, M., 2016. Implementation of an interoperable process to optimise design and construction phases of a residential building: A BIM Pilot Project. Automation in Construction, 71, pp.62-73.
  • Devadiga, N.M., 2017, October. Tailoring architecture centric design method with rapid prototyping. In 2017 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES) (pp. 924-930). IEEE.
  • Eastman, C.M., 2018. Building product models: computer environments, supporting design and construction. CRC press.
  • Eastman, C.M., 2018. Building product models: computer environments, supporting design and construction. CRC press.
  • Fewings, P. and Henjewele, C., 2019. Construction project management: an integrated approach. Routledge.
  • Taranath, B.S., 2016. Structural analysis and design of tall buildings: Steel and composite construction. CRC press.
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