Modernist Design Styles in Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright
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Modernism appeared in the 20th century. Modernism is simple and with no decoration design style. Although this style was appear early 20th century and have different designers or architect have many spread. But still have too little modern architecture build in early 20th century. After World War II, they become many company and agency. And make this style be the top. Here have some architect is more famous. Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the famous architect in early 20th century. He is a American Institute of Architects, interior designer, Writer and Educators. His design project is over thousand and finish about five hundred. And he believes that design should achieve harmony between humans and the environment. And it become Organic architecture. For example, Fallingwater is the famous on the world. This design can prove his idea. Also this design is one of the best architect on the American. More than 70 years of his career at Architects. He design different architecture. It including Office, Church, Skyscrapers, Hotel and Museum. Also he design some furniture and stained glass. In his life he write over 20 book and article. And he is the famous speakers. In 1991, American Institute of Architects call Wright “The best Architect”.
He designed different architecture. And his design was famous. For example, Robie House, Imerial Hotel, Fallingwater, Taliesin West, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Price Tower and Jonson Wax Headquarters. Also his idea was affected many designer. Someone said how Wright work change American architecture, but someone said “How didn't Frank Lloyd Wright change architecture in America I think is really the way to say it because it is hard to imagine what American architecture would be like or even probably world architecture without Frank Lloyd Wright.
About the Organic architecture, he has a famous works. It called Fallingwater. Fallingwater build in 1934-1937. In 1991, members of the American institute of Architects named the house the “ best all-time work of American architecture” and in 2007 , it was ranked twenty-ninth on the list of Amercian’s Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. About the design, the shape of the building look natural, casual, stretch. Also The main room of the building with an outdoor terrace, platforms and roads, intertwined, also obtained with the surrounding natural landscape with the effect of fusion. About the material, White concrete and stone let this design look merge in the environment. And this design is very special. Because the platform is above the waterfall, this design in that time is intensely. And this design was influence many architect. Also it cause the new design style. About the Taliesin West design, he thinks it has been linked with the desert. So he use local stone and concrete. Also the natural lighting is the main role. Because he believes the natural lighting can let inside the building connect to the outside.
His idea has affected some architect. For example Neville Gruzman, Kendrick Bangs Kellogg, Alvar Aalto, Nari Gandhi and Bruce Goff.
All of them have build Organic architecture. Such as Neville Gruzman. Hills House and Gruzman House is the famous organic architecture. Also Hills House is the work is thought of as a two 20th century houses: “Fallingwater” and “Farnsworth House”. And Gruzman House is use materials such as dark stained timbers and natural brick. His architect is conform Wright method.
About Bruce Goff, he said that his hero is Wright and Sullivan. Then he started to contact the original design. Bavinger House is significant example of organic architecture. The house has no interior wall; instead there are a series of platforms at different height, with curtains that can be drawn for privacy. The design use many natural night, make the inside area connect to the outside.
Kendrick Bangs Kellogg is an innovator of organic architecture. In 1955, he met Wright and the brief meeting provided an inspiration. His design is not fit neatly into the same with Wright, Bruce Goff or other organic architects. His building are studies of layered, segmented and unfolding space. And he design Onion house. It is a landmark of organic architecture. The design use employs translucent arching roof panels. Since with no outside walls, the division between interior and exterior consists of screen or stained glass.
But someone maybe doesn’t know what organic architect is. So Wright explains that, it is term meant from nature, organic architecture was indeed a natural architecture. And now we finally understand what organic architect is. And he think good building is not one that hurts the landscape, but one which makes the landscape more beautiful than it was before the building was built. So he wants clean lines and simplicity. And disliked intricate detail and fussiness of the architectural styles.
In addition to organic architect, Wright steel has affected other architect. For example John S. Van Bergen. And his style is Prairie style homes. About the Prairie style. In 1909, Wright developed what known as the Prairie Style. Typical Prairie style home is distinguished by horizontal lines on the exterior, emphasized by a low-pitched hipped roof. But Wright use different color, and let the ceiling heights and hallway widths to alternately compress and expand the sense of space. His design went beyond the building to the finest details of the interior space, include furniture, art glass and other interior design. And the famous prairie style architect is Robie House. It was designed in 1908.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s designs of home and building have inspired generations of architects, including most of what is called “modern architecture.” His influence is international—many other countries have considered Frank Lloyd Wright’s designs as a major template of their contemporary styles. More than 30 states in the United States possess Frank Lloyd Wright structures and most architectural critics agree with that every state in the country has buildings that reflect Wright’s style.
Nowadays, when human want to develop something else, and they will destroy the natural. So they must remember that Wright has said the human beings and nature can conexist. And it is important, even he is gone, but his architectural theory still affected other designer. But someone think he was arrogant man. Because he want to let his own considerable on his clients. For example, Fallingwater. The design is special and innovative. But despite there may be dangers he still carry out his out his design. I think his behavior is correct. Because if one’s creativity is easily affected by the others, then that one is not a qualified designer.
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