In this research, I want to deliver a clear and more profound explanation of Human Resource Management. I would like to be able to provide information explaining what (HRM) is and how it works within most organizations throughout the workforce. Let’s start out with the definition of Human Resource Management (HRM) it is defined simply as management of an organization’s worker’s. That also includes employment and arbitration in accordance with the law, and the business's directives. I will attempt to recognize majority of the level of studies behind Human Resource Management, whereas to include Affirmative Action, Compensation & Benefits, Safety and Health, Employee and Labor relations, Equal Employment Office Commission (EEOC) and Human Resources planning, recruitment, selection, and Human Resources Development (HRD).
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According to Armstrong (2006), as mentioned before Human Resource Management (HRM) is the management of an organization’s employees. This includes employment arbitration in line with the law, and with the organizational leaders. Human Resource Development (HRD) is here to shape the personnel in developing their personal organizational knowledge skills, and capabilities. (HRD) enables such opportunities for career development, employee training, and performance management development. It also provides mentoring programs, succession planning, key employee identification, sometimes tuition assistance, and organizational development. (Kelly, 2006).
The importance of all phases of human resource development is to help workers to develop the necessary training and development of their business/company. This can be any type of company, government, or organization that employs people. I think that HRD can be a value to all employees. Companies that take pride in their employees and provide them with the necessary skills and knowledges they need tend to keep them for longer periods. Incentives help to motivate the workers and make them more competitive, which results in the company being profitable.
Human resource development markets a vital role in most companies or organizations around the world. Being on top of competitor’s can be very crucial in the market world today. First, in order to stay on top one must keep their employees gainfully employed. Second, they should continue to keep their employees skilled. Third, other companies are keeping their employees trained and when one company stops, that company has the potential to be mediocre. HRD as a theory is an outline for the growth of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual to achieve performance improvement. Adam Smith states, “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. The same statement applies to organizations themselves, but it requires a much broader field to cover both areas.
Businesses or companies have many opportunities for human resource or employee development, around the world. Human resource development can be formal such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organizational planned change effort. Or, human resource development can be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organizations believe in human resource development and cover all of those basis.
Benefits for unemployment insurance are available for unemployed workers at no fault of their own. Each state varies with eligibility requirements for collecting unemployment compensation. So, if a person is unaware if they qualify or not for unemployment benefits, they should check eligibility within their State Unemployment Office. All depends on how long a person has been working and the amount they have earned will determine their unemployment compensation. Additionally, there are certain eligibility requirements a person must meet in order to qualify for unemployment compensation. One example, a person must have been employed a certain amount of weeks to be eligible for unemployment. In some instances, if a person(s) for whatever reason is not eligible for unemployment benefits there is an appeals they can file, and challenge the determination. This process may be done possibly online, by phone, or in person. In most circumstances, they can open an unemployment claim online, or over the phone, as well as file for weekly benefits and check the status of their unemployment claim.
Once a person becomes unemployed, it is very crucial that they file a claim for unemployment as soon as possible. Hopefully, with the technology today, one would be able to fila a claim online and also be able to file their weekly benefits as well online. If an individual claim was contested or denied, would that individual know what to do in that instance? For someone who wants to file unemployment benefits, there's a lot of unemployment compensation information, including how to file for unemployment compensation, how to appeal unemployment claim denial, extend unemployment benefits, unemployment qualifications and disqualifications, and common unemployment questions and answers all available online or at the local unemployment office. For whatever reason a person becomes unemployed, it could be from loss of production, a person being fired or let go for not performing to the standards, may be eligible to receive unemployment compensation. In the United States a worker who is out of work due to no fault of their own are eligible for unemployment benefits for up to 26 weeks. Unemployment rates during certain periods may be high, and because of that additional weeks of benefits may be paid.
Throughout my research, I learned about three federal statutes that regulate employment discrimination in this country for most Americans. First, there is the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This act forbids discrimination in any aspect of employment. No employer shall discriminate in any form or decision making when it comes to hiring or firing; an individual may not be discriminated against because of their race, sex, national origin, or religion. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against someone who has asserted their rights under Title VII. This act also applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including governmental employers. Let’s say if someone works for an employer who has less than 15 employees, it may be wise for them to consult with an attorney first to help them to determine a state statue in their situation.
Another major concern is the Age Discrimination in Employment Act that prohibits against Age. The purpose of ADEA was to promote hiring persons based on their ability to work rather than their age. The ADEA applies to employers with over 20 employees and also to governmental employers. From my understanding if an employer does not have at least 20 or more employees, that person would need to make sure to check with a local attorney to determine if a state statute applies in their situation.
Who is responsible for enforcing these rules? It is the federal agency responsibility to enforce these employment statues. Those agencies are listed under the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. If someone believes discrimination has occurred that is a violation of the three federal statutes previously listed. For instance, if an employer has the requisite number of employees, that employee must contact their proceedings through their EEOC before they can initiate any proceedings in court.
In the United States when you hear people talk about Affirmative Action, do you know what they are speaking about? Affirmative Action supports disadvantaged groups. Affirmative Action improve employment or educational opportunities for the minority groups and women in the United States. To help overcome the discrimination acts of the past resources for members of a specific groups, like minorities and women. There is a policy that was implemented during 1964 by the federal agency enforcing the Civil Rights Act, and there were also two executive orders written. Any government contractors and educational institutions receiving federal assistance had to implement those types of programs. there are programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women. It states that this policy was implemented in 1964 by federal agencies enforcing the Civil Rights Act, and two executive orders, which provided that government contractors and educational institutions receiving federal funds develop such programs. In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunities Act set up a commission to enforce such plans. In the late 1970’s, the establishment of racial quotas in the name of affirmative action brought charges of so-called reverse discrimination.
Although the U.S. Supreme Court accepted such an argument in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), it allowed existing programs to remain stand and approved the use of quotas in 1979 in a case involving voluntary affirmative-action programs in unions and private businesses. In the 1980s, the federal government's role in affirmative action was considerably diluted. In three cases in 1989, the Supreme Court undercut court-approved affirmative action plans by giving greater standing to claims of reverse discrimination, voiding the use of minority set-asides where past discrimination against minority contractors was unproven, and restricting the use of statistics to prove discrimination, since statistics did not prove intent.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 reaffirmed a federal government's commitment to affirmative action, but a 1995 Supreme Court decision placed limits on the use of race in awarding government contracts; the affected government programs were revamped in the late 1990s to encompass any person who was “socially disadvantaged.” In the late 1990s, in a public backlash against perceived reverse discrimination, California and other states banned the use of race- and sex-based preferences in state and local programs. A 2003 Supreme Court decision concerning affirmative action in universities allowed educational institutions to consider race as a factor in admitting students as long as it was not used in a mechanical, formulaic manner. In Europe, the European Court of Justice has upheld (1997) the use in the public sector of affirmative-action programs for women, establishing a legal precedent for the nations of the European Union.
Strategic planning is first in the series of steps for an effective recruitment and selection process. Developing a strategic plan for recruiting and selecting internal and external candidates creates a process that enables recruiters and employment specialists to engage in fruitful searches and competent interviews. Strategic planning is a key element in making hiring decisions that are consistent with the company's short-term and long-term employment goals. Strategy includes constructing a recruiting budget, evaluating staff resources and conducting a workforce needs assessment.
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Many businesses should realize one of their most important assets is their workforce. Developing a strong, capable employee roster requires a recruitment and selection process that identifies strong candidates both inside and outside the company. Routine evaluation of the methods, procedures and strategies used in retaining new employees and selecting employees for advancement can improve employee retention and the quality of interview candidates. The best evaluation methods identify successful processes that can be enhanced and ineffective processes that need modifications.
Once a person has identified the technical skills and job attributes they are seeking in a new employee, they should consider the most effective way to identify and assess these in candidates. They should go over the position description, point by point, and ask themselves, "How best can I learn about the applicant's ability to perform this function?"
The job interview will be a primary source of information about applicants. However, it may not be the best source for some information. A job reference may be the most effective way to learn about dependability, follow through, and ability to get along with coworkers written application materials may provide insight into educational background and general written communication skills.
Consider using work samples to ascertain specific job skills. For an office position, applicants can be asked to complete a word processing exercise in which they prepare, edit, and/or print documents. The supervisor evaluates and documents the quality and quantity of work completed in the time allotted. Other examples include setting up a spread sheet, creating a database, preparing correspondence, or prioritizing a list of tasks to complete a project. For welder positions, applicants could be asked to weld certain parts needed on a part or to actually perform a repair. One supervisor, hiring a Sheet Rock Worker, asked applicants to mix and apply plaster to a wall. The supervisor evaluated and documented the results and used this information in determining the most qualified candidate. In setting up a work sample exercise, as with other parts of the selection process, they may need to make reasonable accommodations for applicants with a disability. The Employment Manager can assist them with the reasonable accommodation process. As you review applicant qualifications, eligible veteran and disabled veteran applicants must be given a 5% (veterans) or 10% (disabled veterans) preference.
As stated, employees should have orientation training that covers safety and health policies, safety rules, and procedures for responding to emergencies. They need to conduct new employee training before they begin work. Employees should be trained before they are assigned to jobs that expose them to new hazards. They should choose a designated qualified person to train employees at a level appropriate for their skills and in a language they can understand. Then the employees should be able to demonstrate correctly the safe practices associated with their jobs before they work alone.
I learned that employer’s should keep written records of each employee’s training that includes the employee’s name, the training date, the training received, and the trainer. Their employees, including supervisors, must have a clear understanding of the consequences for failing to perform their safety and health responsibilities. One could strengthen accountability by doing the following: Develop and enforce a written disciplinary policy that has clear workplace safety expectations for all employees. Management should hold supervisors responsible for developing proper attitudes for workplace safety and health, for enforcing safety and health rules, and for the safety record of those they supervise. Also, include employees’ safety and health responsibilities in their job descriptions and performance evaluations. Make it known to them that they need to ensure that they understand fulfilling those responsibilities is a condition of employment.
Safety cannot be managed effectively unless employees are involved in the day-to-day effort to keep the site safe. One of the best ways to get them involved is by having them attend safety meetings. Their suggestions can help determine the resources necessary to achieve safety goals, develop training topics, identify hazards, and assist in program development such as lockout-tag out procedures.
Safety starts with commitment from the top. Managers must be committed to safety and health and hold supervisors accountable for enforcing safe practices. Examples that show management commitment: A written safety and health policy that clearly states expectations for supervisors and employees. There’s identification and allocation of resources to achieve safety and health expectations; Job descriptions that define safety and health responsibility. This needs to ensure employees understand that fulfilling those responsibilities is a condition of employment;Procedures to evaluate employees’ safety performance and methods to correct unsafe work practices. There should be a designated competent person to supervise employees. Hold supervisors accountable and responsible for enforcing safety and health rules and safe work practices.
Human Resource Management is vital to today’s organizations. It brings structure to the organization so the daily operation runs consistently. Through my work experience expressed and in-depth research that lies within this paper, I have shown how HRM brings about fairness amongst organization’s employees. Employment Office Commission (EEOC) and Affirmative Action; Human Resources planning, recruitment, selection, and Human Resources Development (HRD), Compensation & Benefits, Safety and Health, as well as Employee and Labor relations are the areas of study that gives support to Human Resource Management. All of these areas provide information for employees that they may not have been aware of. Through the job handbooks provided, orientation and training administered, an employee will be fully aware of all rights that he or she has. For any events that may arise, the employees will be knowledgeable of the situations that may ultimate lead up to unemployment benefits.
- Armstrong, Michael (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London: Kogan Page.
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, [EEOC,]. (2011). “Unemployment Compensation.” Retrieved from www.eeoc.gov./Unemployment_Compensation.
- Ivancevich, J. M. (2010). Human Resource Management. (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Kelly D. (2006). Human Resource Development: For Enterprise and Human Development Accessed on November 4, 2019
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