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Project Risk Appraisal and Identifying Strategic Management Tools

Paper Type: Free Assignment Study Level: University / Undergraduate
Wordcount: 3804 words Published: 21st Oct 2020

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In a world of complex and constant change comes various risk factors, Frigo, M. L, Laessoe, H, (2012) write that in organizations that are implementing a risk strategy find it paramount for improving business performance. The writer also explains that combining an ERM framework such as the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), “Which maps out the risk management process as five steps; Governance and Culture, Strategy & Objective Setting, Performance, Review & Revision, and Information Communication & Reporting, (COSO, 2018). And the ISO 31000 processes include; “General (that encapsulates an integrated management that embeds a risk management culture and that ties into the business processes and organization, Communication and consultation, Establishing the external and internal context, Establishing the context of the risk management process, Defining the risk criteria, Risk assessment, Risk Treatment, Monitoring and reviewing, Recording and reporting”, (ISO, 2018).  While the Project Management Institute extrapolates their process; “Template specification”,” Basic identification”, ”Detailed identification”, “external cross-check”, “internal cross-check”, “statement finalization”, (Crispin, 2003). I find, if I combine the two process, I can obtain a sense of  balance within the uncertainties and risks,” (Hayes, 2019).

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Management tools

Crispin, (2003) extrapolates the PMI, (2017) risk management identification lifecycle as a fortified process to monitor and control the various acknowledged risk events. Rockwood, (2016) conveys that clearly defining the finish line to the stakeholder proves the evidence to the stakeholders that the endeavor is on track.  Crispin, (2003) also agrees with developing a risk statement to define the tasks that need to be executed throughout the risk identification process improves the success rate of a project.

As the risk statement is defined Crispin, (2003) further explains the ‘basic identification’ and ‘management’ ‘tools’ that can be utilized, such as the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats, (SWOT) and Analogy analysis. The author Crispin, (2003) drills down deeper to the second step of the process that involves more investigation that utilizes tools such as Interviewing, Assumptions analysis, Document reviews, Delphi technique and brainstorming.

In the project case scenario that was subject of the case study, I used the Assumptions Analysis and interviewing the stakeholders, as the vendor did an in-depth risk analysis prior to the ‘cloud printing solution rollout’.  According to Crispin, (2003) an assumptions analysis considers two rationales ‘ conscious’ and or ‘unconscious’ for decision making.  While King, (2016) explains in further detail that the strenghts of this analysis is that it ascertains the uncertainity of the risk and is able to factor the degree of incompleteness or inaccuracy. Within the early stages of the risk and impact identification awareness, which becomes apparent as early as the project scope phase of the project. Another advantage is that this method of analysis is a bottom - up approach that contributes to the stakeholder’s due dilegence in verifing ‘consequences’, (King, 2016).  The addional  weakness of this process according to King, (2016) is with complex projects and risk events, project practitioners usually become overwhelmed with the upkeep of the stakeholder variances. 

Authors Virine & Trumper, (2015) write that project schedulling is identified as either a qualitative or quantitative they found that utilizing the Monty Carlo simulations to gage their varied project schedules. In this project scenerio, I did not need to use this type of management tool to manipulate a timeline or schedule. In my experience, I used a formal and informal interview techniques to establish a deadline. As this project was long -time, many department directors and managers either left or where promoted to other departments and lost track of this project. While King, (2016) states that project professionals need to ask open-ended questions, and include fact finding measures to breakdown the congnative bias and have the stakeholders develop new innovative ideas to mitigate risks within the project. In my experience utilizing the same impact and probability matrix which is detailed in the stakeholder section of this article, is very flexible to shape to fit the business process.

Risk Register and Response Plan 



Risk Identification - Risks affecting design, implementation and use at a system-wide level


Category Lead: Noel Hayes


Risk ID



Risk Impact Description




Mitigation Strategy\ Action Plan






department managers requesting additional printer

department managers requesting additional printer




develop a change control board to approve the requests.

CTO and IT Director




printer procurement lead time

printers arrival delayed due to backlog and out of stock




Understanding of procurement guidelines and processes; increase communication


Users are promised new printer hardware 



Director changes from the various departments

consistent overview of the project due to the person just coming into the position. And not aware of the nuances of the project




the person(s) not understanding the effect or outcome of the project

President and CTO and other directors

 New director hires and HR communications



Rooms location and wayfinding is incorrect

The existing blueprints repick one office but may be a bathroom.




incorrect locations for the printers as blueprints may change during the construction build

CTO, It Director

construction builder




It support not troubleshooting printer issues

Impact is that staff, customer and community expectations for innovation may be reduced




user calls in to the helpdesk for a printer issue, badge swipe does not release print job

IT Manager

Network or power outages, defective badges.  


Table 1.1 Risk Register (Hayes, 2015)

Risk Response and Mitigation Strategy

Williams, (2017) writes that once the risk appetite is established the next step to the risk strategy is to response to the risk at hand, the author indicates that the risk pratitioner can choose either;

Avoid: Avoid the Risk entirely

Transfer: Transfer the risk.

Mitigate\ Reduce: Approach to reduce the probability/ impact.

Accept: Accept and develop contingencies.

While (Roseke, 2015) Monitor and prepare to the mitigation strategy, which Williams, (2017) agrees as she stated that risks need to be actively monitored to maximize the mitigation response to the event,

Stakeholder Matrix and Threshhold Analysis

The writer Weaver, (2008) extrapolates that the human dynamics are the source of most risk factors. Thus developing a stakeholder management plan that includes analysing the best stakeholders and map them to the risks events that suit their professional focus. As the author draws out a stakeholder method; ‘Identification’, ‘Prioritisation’, ‘Visualisation’, ‘Engagement’, ‘Monitoring’ and ‘reviewing’, are key-essential to a stakeholder analysis. As Moura, (2015) details that measuring the risk appetite and tolerance of a stakeholder is similar to that of measuring the risk appetite and tolerance of an entity, as the risk appetite or (impact and probability) matrix below is used. This impact and probability matrix can also be used to develop a risk matrix.


Fig. 1. Impact and Probability Risk Matrix, (Hayes, 2019).

Determining the priority of the stakeholder based on Probability\ Impact or risk tolerance would in my experience would be very demaning and I would have to focus a lot of time to manage this aspect of the process. That being said Rockwood, et al., (2016) concluded that engaging with the stakeholders and developing a bilateral channel of communication will create a collabration to combat the human resouce side of the risks.Below is a copy of a stakeholder matrix that measures the impact and influence that the stakeholder has within this particilar project.   

Stakeholder Matrix

Stakeholder Name

Contact Person

Phone, Email, Website, Address


How much does the project impact them? (Low, Medium, High)


How much influence do they have over the project? (Low, Medium, High)

What is important to the stakeholder?

How could the stakeholder contribute to the project?

How could the stakeholder block the project?

Strategy for engaging the stakeholder

Deb Web

Director of Emergency

Debra Web




Maintaining working conditions for nurses

Manages the ER nurses

Going on strike or quiting

Monthly round-table discussions

Director of

Diagnostic Imaging

Mary Lou




Maximize quality of care for patients

Communicate with other stakeholders to express their support for reforms

Making complaints about quality of service after the reports

Information and feedback meetings every month

Director of

MDR – Sterile - Clean

Jane Smith




Team performance

Prints monthly performance reports

Complains about how the surgical tools are not clean to expectations

Quarterly meetings

Director of ICU

Jenny White




Maintains working conditions for the nurses and manages patient flow



Sandy Saggar




Oversee the entire IT department and activities

Strong leadership and management influence

Makes sure the entire IT infrastructure is working

Every meeting and communication


Denise Charles




Oversee the entire hospital setting

Strong leadership and management influence

Oversee the patient safe aspect of the hospital

Monthly meeting

IT Manager

Cam Yates




Manages the entire IT department

Influences the IT department Staff

Oversees all the IT related projects

Every meeting and communication

Director of IT

Sandy Sands




Oversee the IT infrastructure

Influences all the directors from the other departments

Ensures smooth operations throughout the hospital setting

Monthly directors’ meetings and selected communications

End users

Anybody that is using printing for their daily functions



End user

Complain about not printing or paper jams



Josh anybody




Planned the entire printer rollout

Influences his staff on what needs to be done

Ensures that the hardware is on hand or is ordered and delivered on-time

Monthly progress meetings

Table 1.2 Stakeholder Analysis Matrix, N, Hayes ; Bisits, (2019, 2014).

Current Issues in Project Risk Management

Risk Registers and Project Failures

As the landscape of business is becoming more competitive and organizations are utilizing planned project process by the PMI, Project Management Institute, (2017). With this knowledge base, entities are able to establish a more competitive edge, according to Othman, et al., (2018). The wrters Othman, et al., (2018) also explain that even with the PMI ITTOs (Input, Tool and Techniques and Outputs), there is still a high project failure rate amongst orgainizations. The author explains that companies, having an early warning sign may mitigate the issues that may lead to a project failure. In my experience working with inputs and outputs such as a risk register,  it may act as a beacon or early warning signal for the tasks that may cause issues, (Othman, et al., 2018).

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As reasearch shows that with the various Risk management methods, have a simpilarity in their  systemic process (Dikmen, et al., 2004). While Dikmen, et al., (2004) write dividing the RM (Risk Management) processes into four categories;  ‘Development of a conceptual frameworks and process models for systemic risks’, ‘investigation risks, risk management trends’ and ‘perceptions, application of risk identification and analysis techniques in specific projects’ and ‘development of integrated risk management support tools’, to clarify the risk events that may occur throughout the project scope phase. But, (Duggan, 2019) reminds us of the limitations of a risk register such as, the lack of data input, or time to correctly analysis the project scope and risks. Nor the correct trained personnal to conduct the research and document the findings. In past experiences, the project practionier had a difficult time tracking the risk events in the risk register, do to the lack of stakeholder communication.

In the project scenerio, utilizing the PMI, Project Management Institute, (2017), Plan Risk Management analysis process. I was able to establish a strategic plan, Which was fairly simple to execute. The vendor that was rollingout the cloud printing solution did the first phase of the risk analysis plan. Since this project was kickedoff 8 years prior to the opening day. Agreeing with (Duggan, 2019) that a continous risk assessment is needed to be done for reason such as employee illnes, physical layout changes in a new building, not changed order recorded within the blueprints.

Taking over the project from the vendor, I reassesed the project scope and reviewed the layout plans that changed several time throughtout the endeavour. 


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