Perceptions of Health, Disability, Illness and Behaviour: Legislation for Caring for Specific Needs

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Task 1  (Report)

1 Understand perceptions of health, disability, illness and behaviour

Introduction

AC 1.1 Analyse concepts of health, disability, illness and behaviour in relation to users of health and social care services demonstrating coherence and logical development of concepts

AC 1.2 Assess how these perceptions of specific needs have changed over time.

AC 1.3 Analyse the impact of legislation, social policy, society and culture on the ways that services are made available for individuals with specific needs, demonstrating the ability to synthesis a range of ideas and arriving at justifiable conclusions.

AC2.1 Analyse the care needs of two individuals in your setting with specific conditions justifying your choice.

AC 2.2 Explain current systems for supporting individuals with specific needs.

Conclusion

Task 2 Essay

2 Approaches and intervention strategies that support individuals with specific needs.

AC 2.3 Evaluate the services available in your workplace for individuals with specific needs demonstrating justifying your conclusions based on evidence obtained from your independent research.

AC 3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for an individual with a specific need(s) demonstrating the ability to generate ideas and make effective decisions on how strategies can be improved.

Task 3 Report on current approaches and intervention strategies

Introduction

AC 3.1 Explain the approaches and interventions available to support individuals with specific needs.

AC 3.3 Discuss the potential impact of emerging developments on support for individuals with specific needs.

Conclusion

Task 4 Challenging behaviour

Prepare a newsletter article on Strategies for Coping with challenging behaviours associated with Specific Needs (Evidence type_ Newsletter).

References

Task 1

1 Understand perceptions of health, disability, illness and behaviour

Introduction

In earlier days, people with specific needs were not given much importance in the society. However, with the increased awareness, enhanced social and political development and advances in science and technology, previously existing misconceptions has been shifted towards better perspective(Sanderson-Mann & McCandless, 2005). In health and social care sector, it is vital to understand the specific needs of individuals in order to provide the quality services which benefits them as well as the society. In order to assess the care needs, it is necessary to identify the health condition of that individual.

My report aims to understand the perception of health, disability, illness and behaviour. My report also looks at the historical perceptions towards specific needs and how it has changed over time. I am going to take dementia and learning disability as a special condition to explore the care needs of such patients. Finally, i will look at the current systems that exist to support such individuals.

AC 1.1Analyse concepts of health, disability, illness and behaviour in relation to users of health and social care services demonstrating coherence and logical development of concepts

http://www.thefeministwire.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Disability-Symbols.pngThe term health has been described by World Health Organization as a state of thebody with wellness in terms of mental, physical and social aspects including the absence of any kinds of disease or ailments.

Disability is the condition or state of a person that restricts him/her from carrying out their normal tasks effectively. But disability is not just a health problem. It is complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Overcoming the difficulties faced by people with disabilities requires interventions to remove environmental and social barriers.

Illness is a diseased condition of a body or mind because of which the affected will be unable to carry out their normal activities efficiently. Illness is a feeling, an experience of unhealthy which is entirely personal, interior to the person of the patient. Often it accompanies disease, but the disease may be undeclared as in the early stages of cancer or tuberculosis or diabetes. Sometimes illness exist where no disease can be found.

Kasl& Cobb define health behaviour as any kind of activity adopted by a person in order to maintain sound health condition by preventing disease. Behavioural issues indicates the significant change in behaviour of the people. This sometimes leads to serious mental illness and depression in people(Forrest, 1996).

Normality is the state of a body with complete absence of disease, infections, deformities and wellness in terms of physical, mental and social aspect

What is autism?

 

Autism is a lifelong, developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with and relates to other people, and how they experience the world around them. WE now know that there is not one autism but many types, caused by different combinations of genetic and environmental influences. Autism’s most-obvious signs tend to appear between 2 and 3 years of age. In some cases, it can be diagnosed as early as 18 months.

Some facts about autism

  • An estimated 50,000 teens with autism become adults- and lose school-based autism services-each yaer
  • Around one third of people with autism remain nonverbal
  • Around one third of people with autism have an intellectual disability
  • Certain medical and mental health issues frequently accompany autism. They include gastrointestinal disorders, seizures, sleep disturbances, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and phobias.

What is learning disability?

A learning disabilities is a reduced intellectual ability and difficulty with everyday activities-household task, socialising or managing money-which affects someone for their whole life. People with learning disability tend to take longer and may need support to develop new skills, understand complicated information and interact with other people.

The level of support someone needs is very individually. For example someone with mild learning disability may only need support with things like getting job, someone with a severe learning disability may need fulltime care and support with every aspect of their life- they may also have physical disabilities.

An instance of learning disability, dementia and autism can be taken where the person is unable to carry out their normal tasks as the result of neurological disorder(Killick, 2004). In order to prevent such disease, various measures are taken into account such as immunisation against a certain disease that is likely to give rise to this condition, etc. which is known as health behaviour.

Different models of disability

  • Medical model – Disability is defined by medical condition
  • Social model- Disability is viewed on the basis of organisation of society
  • Post-social model – Disability is associated to all but differ in degree and cause.
  • Economic model – Disability is theinability of one to be involved in work.
  • Functional model – Disability is theinability to perform normal tasks.

AC 1.2 Assess how these perceptions of specific needs have changed over time.

People with specific needs were considered as a burden to the society as they were tagged as deformed objects. They were viewed as asubject of pity or fear. They were subjected to discrimination and are provided with less or no opportunities at all. Such groups were most vulnerable to abuse and are intercepted from exercising their rights. Disabled people were segregated that stigmatised them discouraging from participating in social activities(Swinkels et al., 2002). For example, people with learning disabilities usually have the specific needs from the social care workers. People with learning disabilities form a heterogeneous group in relation to the age, disability degree and associated problems (Fox, 1998). In the past, there were large hospitals established with the aim of giving care to the people with specific needs due to prolonged physical or mental illness. But with time the hospitals became overcrowded and the quality of the care provided to them declined.

With the social and political developments, various laws and legislations in favour of disabled people were enforced. This not only strengthened the disabled people but also changed the historical perspective towards disability. The professional staffs were then shifted to the specialist work communities that worked for the people with specific needs. This helped in improving the effectiveness of the treatment and care given.

Further, advancement in the medical field and technologies, disabled people were provided with numerous health facilities that improved their health condition, fuelled them with confidence and enabled them to make a possible contribution from their side as a normal person(Boaz & Morgan, 2014).

AC 1.3 Analyse the impact of legislation, social policy, society and culture on the ways that services are made available for individuals with specific needs, demonstrating the ability to synthesis a range of ideas and arriving at justifiable conclusions.

Various legislation supporting people with specific needs include Human Rights Act 1998, Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004, Disability Discrimination Act 2005, The Mental Health Act 2007, The Health and Social Care Act 2008, The Children Act 2004/Policies, etc. Enforcement of these acts has enabled such people to acquire quality services from their carer. With the enforcement of legislations and social policy, a lot of changes have been observed in the attitude of people towards the individuals with specific needs(Finnamore & Lord, 2007). Comparatively, such people were provided with utmost care and quality services were made available to them. It also modified the existing stigmatisingattitude and practices. People who breach the legislation were subjected to punishment. Disabled people were also provided with opportunities to participate in social activities effectively. If the people with disabilities are excluded by the society due to their illness or disability can lead to further depression that can worsen the health conditions. People with specific needs have the rights to get proper treatment with dignity, compassion and respect by the care workers(Bradshaw, 2000) Policies further encouraged organisations to undertake community care initiatives because of which people with specific needs found an extended field to improve their condition along with contributing to the society from their side. The cultural factors include the discrimination among the races. The discrimination between colour, caste or creed makes adults vulnerable. Discrimination is the main reason behind the physical abuse and leaves the adults in isolation to deal with their own health issues.

Task 2

2 Approaches and intervention strategies that support individuals with specific needs.

AC2.1 Analyse the care needs of two individuals in your setting with specific conditions justifying your choice.

There are several care needs for the people suffering from dementia and challenging behaviour. Addressing their care needs is very important in order to provide the most satisfying service to them. Mr.Smith and Mrs. Willson   have dementia and challenging behaviour. They comes under the category of vulnerable people with specific needs.

Care needs Reason
  1. Physical
Loss of physical co-ordination, difficulty in communicating, physical pain to others.
  1. Social
Memory loss.

Difficulty in maintaining social and family relationship.

  1. Emotional
Difficulty in expressing themselves resulting in disruptive behaviour.
  1. Language
The region of thebrain responsible for language control is damaged.

Difficulty in communicating with others using language.

  1. Intellectual
Loss of basic skills of carrying out day to day activities, increased confusion and disorientation.
  1. Sexual
Having not met with these needs, the distorted behaviour in a patient could increase. An intimate relationship with their partner could have a positive impact in their condition.
  1. Spiritual
Being in contact with a respective religious group can be beneficial for these patients as it enhances calmness.

Your answer is in the right direction. You need to focus on your organisation and the systems that they have in place in supporting those with specific needs. You have to look at statutory organisations such as the police, local authority, social services, CQC, etc who are engaged in enforcing the rules and regulations. Look at the non-profitable organisations such as the charities, the voluntary organisations, autism society, dementia society, age concern, etc. How are these organisations working collaboratively in supporting those in needs, such as independence, right, privacy, confidentiality, etc wHEN WE UNDERSTOOD THE REASONS FOR THEIR CONDITION WE STARTED TREATING THE CAUSE. wE HELPED THEM TO MANAGE THEIR ANGER AS WE  COMMUNICATE WITH THEM, INCLUDE THEM IN MORE ACTIVITIES PROVIDED, HELP THE DEALING WITH ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL ISSUES.wORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IS VERY IMPORTANT SO VARIOUS PROFESSINALS ARE INVOLVED AND THEY HELPS US IN THESE SITUATIONS-PSYCHIATRIST, DISTRICT NURCES, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST, PHYSIOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL WORKES.

AC 2.2Explain current systems for supporting individuals with specific needs.

In order to enhance the quality of life of individuals with specific needs and help them live independently, various legal facilities are available and social policies have been enforced. In order to fully exploit these available facilities, various organisations and systems play a vital role. Such organisation could be statutory, anon-profit organisation, voluntary organisation, self-help system, formal or informal care centresetc.(Leung, 2002). For example – local authorities, police, autism societies, learning disability organisation etc.  The motive of all these different types of organisation and system is to enable individuals with specific needs to live as independently as they can by exercising their rights and exploiting all the facilities and services made available to them(Rämgård et al., 2015). These systems provide such people with necessary advice and guide them properly to improve their condition. They facilitate counselling services in order to encourage them boosting their confidence level. For enabling them to adapt to their society, programs for personality development are also being organised by these organisations. Additionally, they also work for the safeguarding of vulnerable groups and maintaining the confidentiality.

Conclusion

The increased awareness of various disabled condition has helped us to understand the nature of such condition and also helped us to take measures for helping people with such condition to lead a normal life. The formulation of policies and enforcement of legislations has enhanced the quality to be provided to the people with these conditions. Improvement in the medical field and technologies have further enhanced their quality of life. A structured analysis of care needs can be done to provide person-centered service which is much effective. There are also numerous organisations and systems working for supporting individuals with specific needs in various ways.

AC 2.3Evaluate the services available in your workplace for individuals with specific needs demonstrating justifying your conclusions based on evidence obtained from your independent research.

Our care centre provides health and social care services mainly to the people suffering from dementia, learning disabilities and autism. The major priority has been given to improve the health condition of the patients and help them to live independently as much as possible. The range of services that our care centre provides are –

  1. Health facilities – Effective health services are provided by trained, well experienced and skilled team of doctors, nurses and supporting staffs. In the case of dementia patients, our major goal is to maintain the quality of life as this disease is non-curable and only worsens with time. Teams of specialists for providing service to the people with learning disabilities has been done. The behavioural conditions and psychological abnormalities in autistic people are looked after by forming a person-centred professional team.
  2. Social care – We provide residential care for the people with learning disabilities, autism and dementia. When needed, we also form teams for providing the day care services. Since dementia patients need monitoring for 24 hours of the day, we encourage the family of these patients to adopt residential care instead of daycare. The severe cases of autism are also encouraged to uptake residential care.
  3. Education – We provide education facilities about dementia, learning disabilities and autism to the patients themselves as well as the family members of the patients. We make use of posters, leaflets, books and videos for making the content about the condition more understandable. We also organise a time to time seminar about the disorders and communicate the recent advances in the technologies to enhance the quality of life of the patients.
  4. Recreational facilities – As all of the disorders are characterised by behavioural distortion; we have incorporated recreational facilities to our service provision. Such recreational activities and exercise enable our patients to maintain calm behaviour as well as improve the memory along with physical wellness. Some of the major recreational activities our organisation have launched for such people are creative arts, sports, cooking programs, music programs, tennis, working on puzzles, dancing programs, yoga, etc.
  5. Transport – Patients in day care are provided with transport facilities to and from the care centre. Also, residential care service users are also provided with transport facilities for making avisit to the hospital.
  6. Access – The location of our organisation is easily accessible to everyone. Being in the heart of thecity, one can easily locate our organisation and can reach by bus, car or taxi at alow price.
  7. Physical facilities – Our care centre provide all the necessary equipment that aids in theimprovement of the patients. For example – notice boards, alarm clocks, dosette boxes, automatic pill dispensers, bath steps, bath boards, bed pans, mattresses that are waterproof, cutleries, non-spill cups, walking sticks or frames, wheelchairs, hoists, specially designed toilet, bathroom, heating systems, etc.
  8. Financial facilities – We provide financial counselling to the patients who are in need. They are projected with the most suitable financial plan for them. For people who cannot afford by themselves, we help them apply for gaining funding from public sectors.
  • Rights versus protection of self and others :For example – It is the duty of carers to take care of the patient’s health condition and protect them. However, the patients can exercise their right to refuse the medical treatment.
  • Alleviation of needs versus remedial therapy
  • Risk versus autonomy and independence: For example – it is necessary for carers to allow patients carry out their tasks independently. However, there are certain risks for the patients while doing so.
  • Choices and preferences
  • Service dilemmas and policies: For example – cost-benefit analyses and priorities.

Task 3 Report on current approaches and intervention strategies

Introduction

Individuals with specific needs are those who are in need of additional services because of their impaired physical, mental, emotional or behavioural condition(Mendis & Norrving, 2014).It is possible to improve their condition with the help of medication in addition to providing them with proper care and creating afriendly environment around them. In order to help them live independently as much as possible, many organisations at thelocal, national and international level are making their effort.

This report aims to explain the approaches and interventions available at our organisation for supporting individuals with dementia, learning disabilities and autism. It also discusses the potential impact, positive or negative, of emerging development in support of such individuals

AC 3.1 Explain the approaches and interventions available to support individuals with specific needs.

In order to support individuals with specific needs, a number of approaches and intervention strategies can be adopted. They are listed below –

  • Self-help
  • Direct action
  • Partnerships
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Advocacy
  • Guardianship
  • Autonomy and empowerment
  • Risk management
  • Medical
  • Technological
  • Therapeutic products
  • Lifestyle choices and therapies

Our organisation mainly focuses on dementia patients, people with learning disabilities and autistic people. We have made use of acollection of these strategies to support these groups. We encourage our patients for improving their self-help skills so that they learn to perform the basic daily activities without much difficulty. This enables them to maintain their physical wellness and eventually establish the basic foundation for other skills as well.  Long term dependence is reduced by agreatextent, and the patients will be ready to achieve more skills afterwards. We have also formed apartnership with other care centres and hospitals. We follow evidence-based practice rather than trying out new risky practices. We provide our patients with full autonomy to make their decisions themselves and empower them. The advanced medical devices, technological equipment, improved therapeutic products and change of unhealthy lifestyle into healthy one are utilised for minimising the risk to the patients. Appropriate therapies like speech therapies, behaviouraltherapies, etc. are used so that the symptoms arising because of their disorder can be slowed or alleviated or eliminated.

AC 3.2Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for an individual with aspecific need(s) demonstrating the ability to generate ideas and make effective decisions on how strategies can be improved.

It is necessary to develop the intervention strategies and evaluate its effectiveness in order to support the individuals with specific needs(Forbes et al., 2010). The evaluation of the effectiveness can help to adopt the most effective intervention in order to improve the quality of life of service users. The improvement of the strategies can be done by incorporating existing best interventions and modifying non-effective ones.

Enabling people to carry out their task independently empowers them. This will enable them to maintain ahealthy lifestyle, maintaining their quality of life. Partnership with other organisations will highly benefit the patients. By forming apartnership with the hospitals and other similar organisation can help in communicating information, exchanging staffs or making staffs available in case of emergencies, equipment supplies, sponsorship, etc. Providing autonomy to the individual to make their own decision can help them feel empowered that will encourage them to lead a quality life(Sheehan et al., 2014). Risk management approaches are also effective which prevents the probable risk to the health of the patients. Making use of evidence-based practice is much beneficial rather than trying out new risky approaches. Continuous monitoring by making uses of advanced medical equipment and technologies can help in risk reduction by a great extent. Also, improved therapeutic products, modification in unhealthy lifestyles and appropriate therapies are much effective intervention strategies as they have a positive impact on the patient’s life(Kessels et al., 2011).

However, there are certain potential tensions that could arise while implementing the approaches and intervention strategies.

  • Rights versus protection of self and others: For example – It is the duty of carers to take care of the patient’s health condition and protect them. However, the patients can exercise their right to refuse the medical treatment.
  • Alleviation of needs versus remedial therapy
  • Risk versus autonomy and independence: For example – it is necessary for carers to allow patients carry out their tasks independently. However, there are certain risks for the patients while doing so.
  • Choices and preferences
  • Service dilemmas and policies: For example – cost-benefit analyses and priorities.

AC 3.3 Discuss the potential impact of emerging developments on support for individuals with specific needs.

With the emerging developments, individuals with specific needs are highly benefitted in one aspect, but there are some negative impacts as well.

  • Medical and technological advances: With the advancement in themedical and technological field, it has been easy to detect the disease at early stage. Early diagnosis can help in increasing the life expectancy as well as enhance thequality of life(GIUBILINI, 2015). Dementia could be reversible at early stages. Early diagnosis can help us reverse the condition and prevent the severe condition. Early diagnosis of learning disabilities can help one to adopt approaches to help people obtain the necessary life skills ahead.  Early diagnosis of autism can help one to create the autism-friendly environment. The exploitation disease mechanism can help in coming up with effective therapeutic approaches and develop medications(Ward & Parkes, 2017). For example – Memantine and Rivastigimine are the drugs for slowing the progression of dementia. Although the advances in these fields have given hope to the patients, drugs that can completely cure these disorders are yet to be developed(Dening & Sandilyan, 2015).
  • Legislation and policy: Most of the legislation and policies are in favour of such people. For example, the Human Rights Act (1998) provide these people with the right to be treated fairly, with respect, equally, to maintain dignity and autonomy. According to the Mental Health Act (1983), people with disorders like autism, dementia and learning disabilities can be subjected to detention, admission and treatment against their wishes. These disorders however instead of being mental disorders are neurological disorders. But the law has kept these disorders into mental disorders.
  • Local, national and international perspectives: The perspective of people was crippled by the belief that individuals with specific needs are of no value to the society and burden. However, this view has been changed over time, and currently, such people are supported from local, national as well as international level. Several regulations and legislations have been enforced in favour of such individuals empowering them to live and make acontributionto normal people independently(Finnamore & Lord, 2007). The increased awareness, development of effective policies and enforcement of legislations strictly has created a society that supports individuals with specific needs.

Conclusion

Individuals with dementia, learning disability and autism are the neurological disorder because of which these individuals come to rely more on others for carrying out day to day task. In order to reduce this dependency, our organisation have adopted multiple approaches and intervention strategies that range from self-help and empowerment to risk management utilising advanced and emerging techniques. The development of the science and technologies, development of policies and legislations and overall change in the viewing perspectives towards disability at a local, national and international level has provided great support to the individuals with specific nee

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