Ageing and Disabilities Theories, Effects and Strategies

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Task 1

1.1

Ageing

Definitions

  • Ageing is the process of becoming older and a process which is determined by the genetics and the environment. (MedicineNet.com, 2016)
  •  Ageing is the process where someone grows old and the cells of their body cannot be replaced which disables them to maintain their full capacity. (Med Lexicon, n.d.)
  • Ageing is when the vital organs of the body begin to lose their functions as the person goes into adulthood. The changes during ageing occurs in all the cells of the body and the tissues and organs. These changes affect the functioning of the body systems. (MedlinePlus, 2018)

Similarities

The first and the second definition both discuss the same concept of ageing that it is when someone becomes older. They can become old in many ways such as psychologically. Second and third definition discuss that ageing is when there are changes occurring in the cells of the body. It discusses about how cells cannot be replaced once they are old and how the change in cells affects the functioning of the body systems. Second and third definition talk about the functioning of the body. Ageing doesn’t let the person maintain their full body capacity and the functioning of the body is affected. Basically, both the definitions are relatable. Both talk about the deterioration of the body functions.

Differences

The first definition is different than the others. It is the only definition which states that ageing is impacted by the environment and genetics.

The third definition talks about the vital organs losing their functions. The other definitions only talk about the changes that occur in the cells. Definition two and three basically explain the same thing but the second definition is much clearer and easier to understand than the third one. The second one is short and simple and the third definition is long.

There are 3 definitions stated above. Some of them are similar whereas others are different. In conclusion ageing means that there is a deterioration in the body function of a person. It is either caused by the genetics or the environment.

1.2

Disability

Definitions

  • Disability is a condition that continues and it restricts daily activities. (Government of Western Australia Department of Communities Disability Services, n.d.)
  • The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) defines a disabled person as a person who is physically or mentally impaired that has a major and a long-term effect on their ability to carry out daily activities. (Disabled World Towards Tomorrow, 2009)
  • Disability is a term that covers many things such as impairments, limitations in activities and participation. An impairment is when there is a problem in the functioning of the body. Activity limitation is a difficulty faced by an individual in carrying out a task whereas a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involving themselves in real life situations. (World Health Organization, n.d.)

Similarities

All the definitions are similar in a way because all of them state that disability affects ability of the person to carry out daily activities. Daily activities include bathing, showering, walking etc. The second and third definitions discuss the same things that being disable also includes having impairments. Impairments could be psychological, physiological or anatomically. The first and the last definition discuss that being disabled includes restrictions. Such as they are not able to do specific things such as participating in sports etc.

Differences

The first definition is short compared to the others. It has not specified that what type of activities a person is restricted from doing when they are disabled. It has just stated that the daily activities are restricted. Second definition states that disability is a long-term effect whereas other definitions do not state that. Third definition discusses that there are limits in doing things while you are disabled. The definition is broad and broken down in three points. It discusses about the limitations, functions and restrictions.

There are 3 definitions above. Some of them have similar meanings whereas others are different. In my opinion disability is when a person is not able to do things such as daily activities.

1.3

Theory of Ageing

There are about many theories of ageing. All of them have different concepts on ageing. In this paragraph the wear and tear theory will be discussed. This theory comes under the damage or error theory. The wear and tear theory discusses about how the human body parts start to wear out as ageing occurs. This theory was introduced by Dr August Weismann in 1822. He was a German Biologist. (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, 2010)

Once the body wears out they do not function in the proper way that they are supposed to. The genes can also be damaged by ultraviolet rays and toxins which leads to ageing. There are a few cells in the body which can not be replaced. An example of an irreplaceable cell are the nerve cells of the brain. (Stibich, 2010)

Our body parts start deteriorating as the person ages. This theory makes sense as we can see that other things also wear out as time goes by; example cars and clothes.

Evidence Supporting the Theory

If observations are made then it can be seen that the skin and bones have structural changes in them as the person ages. The body functions also start to slow down as time goes by. Even if the person has a proper diet, the body still is not able to absorb all the nutrients from the food to keep the body healthy. (Stibich, 2010)

Evidence That Goes Against the Theory

Our body has the ability to repair the damages that occur in the body. The DNA has repair genes which have the ability to repair the genetic damage. Other studies have shown that ageing can be reversed by making changes in the hormones but not all the damages can be fixed fully. (Stibich, 2010)

Theory of Disability

There are different theories of disability which states different things about what disability means in different aspects.

The social theory of disability will be discussed below. This theory was found my Mark Oliver in 1998.

The theory states that the disability of a person occurs because of how the structure of the society is set. This theory finds out ways in which the barriers could be removed which causes a disabled person difficulty in doing things. Once the barriers are removed then the person could be independent and do things on their own. (Disability Nottinghamshire, n.d.)

The way people behave towards disabled people also acts as a barrier. Most of the people discriminate disabled people by saying things or doing things which are not polite. They are told that they are lower in standard than normal people. This is known as disablism. Disablism is when a disabled person is discriminated. (Dictionary.com, n.d.)

An example of social disability would be when a person who uses a wheelchair wants to get into a building which has a stair. With the social model solution there would be a ramp built so that the wheelchair could access the building. When it comes to some other model as in medical model then there would not be much solutions for the wheelchair to access to the building. This would result into the person not being able to participate in the activities in the activities happening in that building. (Disability Nottinghamshire, n.d.)

1.4

Aspects of Diversity

The concept of diversity discusses about how every individual is recognized differently. There are different ways in which they are differentiated. Some are ethnicity, sexuality, age, deprivation, class, race etc. (Disabled World Towards Tomorrow, 2010)

Implications on Theories of Disability

There are four aspects of diversity discussed below in relation with theories of disability.

Deprivation – deprivation is when a person lacks something which is necessary for them.There is a strong link between disability, poverty and health. A person who is born disabled or gets disabled somehow faces a lot of problems. They do not have access to proper health care, education and employment. (Groce, 2011)

If a person does not have access to proper healthcare then they are more likely to get sick and die if proper care is not given. When it comes to education, if they are not educated then they would not have jobs in the future. This would lead to poverty because there would be no source of income.

Age – impairments can happen at any age. As a person ages, there is a higher chance for them to develop a disability. When a person becomes disabled cause of their age, they have trouble in doing things on their own. They always need a source of support.

Social Class – the social class of people in the society is decided by their wealth, looks, intelligence etc. the disabled people are always downgraded because of their state. Since they are disabled this leads to them not being able to have more chances to earn. Due to lack of proper jobs, disabled people face poverty. (Prezi, 2015)

Gender – a disabled women is more endangered than men when they are disabled. They are more likely to be poor and not have enough a proper economic, social and political status. They are more likely to get abused and sexually harassed. They are discriminated in regards of education. (Source, n.d.)

Implications on Ageing

Gender – women live longer than men yet they have a low quality life later on due to the health conditions and social circumstances. Cardiovascular diseases occur in both male and female but mostly the males are affected. This is because they do not get their diseases diagnosed at an early stage. (World Health Organization, 2018)

Class – the people who are rich are prioritised first in the society. They are the ones who are put first and given better care to. There is inequality in the service provision. (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2017)

Race – different races have a different lifestyle and a different biological background. How a person ages also depends on the food that they eat. If a person eats un healthy food they are more likely to age quick. It is important to maintain a proper diet.

Deprivation – deprivation of a few things leads to ageing. People who do not have a good economic status, who suffer from poverty lack proper healthcare. It is important to receive proper healthcare. Without proper healthcare a person will get sick more often and this will lead their health to deteriorate. (Groce, 2011)

Deprivation of sleep will lead to ageing. It is important to get proper sleep each night. (Plos, 2011)

Task 2

2.1

Ageing comes with different challenges and it is a process which occurs naturally. A person above the age 65 chronologically is considered as an elder person. (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, 2013)

The ageing population come with different diseases which need different cares. The have disabilities, chronic diseases and mental illness. (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, 2013)

Some of the chronic diseases are cancer, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and dementia. The cancer patients are the highest in numbers than the other diseases. These people are given palliative care. (Wiseman, 2016)

Terminologies used in aged care:

Palliative care – palliative care is mostly given to the elderly. This is the care given to a person who has a lifelong sickness which limits their life. These diseases do not have any cure. This care is provided in hospitals, community and hospices. Hospices provide special palliative care in the community. (Ministry of Health, 2016)

Care Plans – this is a way in which the nurses, carers, patients communicate to each other to know what the patient needs to be properly cared for. A care plan includes all the important information about the patient and the cares that they need. Everything is planned out for the day that what all tasks should be carried out with the patient. (nurse.org, 2018)

2.2

Stereotypes towards the aged population

Ageing is a multiplex process and people still stereotype it. Stereotypes about different groups shows us how we behave with that person and shows us that what that stereotyped person thinks about themselves. Stereotypes affect the ageing people in many ways. Stereotypes about ageing is when people assume that what a person should behave like at a certain age and the things they should do, regardless what the person is going through at that moment.  Stereotypes affect the persons health, social participation etc.  (Hindawi, 2015)

Yet there are more positive stereotypes held for older people rather than negative ones. People were asked to describe older people. Some described them as wise, experience in life, well educated and taught about life. These are known as positive stereotypes. Others described them as people with health issues, frail etc. These were the negative stereotypes. (Office for Seniors, n.d.) 

Barriers

The old people have a barrier in social participation. This prevents them from communicating with other people and their loved ones. Studies have shown that old people are mostly lonely. The tough stages in their lives are faced alone by themselves. They try not to engage in social participation because they fear rejection and fear losing their identities. (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2015)

Beliefs

The beliefs towards old people is that the old age population is still growing day by day and their need for cares are increasing as well. WHO states that the old aged population will double around 22% than the population right now. There will be more need for healthcare and more people will be needed to help serve these senior citizens. (Nursing Older People, 2015)

 

Attitudes

There is a lot of respect given to the older people. The people agree that they respect the older generation. The older people feel like that they get along with the younger generation. Yet there are people who feel that the old generation is more like a burden to the society and there are others which think that they were valuable in the society. (Office for Seniors, n.d.)

2.3

Historical response towards ageing

There were not many services and privileges for the older people in the olden days compared to what they have right now. The healthcare facilities have expanded and proper care is given to the older generation.

The birth rate in New Zealand is minimizing since the 1800s. This leads to more people being in the older age group. (The Treasury, 2003)

The pensions which the old people get now was introduced in 1898. Before this was introduced the old people relied on their family and the people in the society to help them with their health care need when they got sick or were not feeling well. (Swarbick, 2018)

Now the old people help themselves.

In the early 20th century, the rest homes started expanding. Most of the rest homes were set up for the soldiers who battled in the world war. This was done to give them a reward for their service to the society. There was a rest home which opened in the 1903. It was named Ranfurly Veterans’ Home. There was a huge increase in the number of people in rest homes in the mid 1970s. (Swarbick, 2018)

People who wanted to stay in their own homes during old age were given support as well. This support started from the 1800s. They were provided with aids which helped them with mobility, meals and other support. These were provided by the District Health Boards. There were new strategies introduced in 2001 which was ‘Ageing in Place’ and ‘Positive Ageing Strategy’. The numbers in the aged people rapidly increased from 1994 to 2014 and this led to New Zealand being one of the largest increasing population in the old age. (Swarbick, 2018)

More importance is given to the people who have dementia. There are special units for dementia care in hospitals and care at home also started. Before the people with dementia did not have these privileges. 70% with dementia were given home cares in 2005. In 2006 the numbers increased to 62,287 and 70% of them were given home cares. (Swarbick, 2018)

The KiwiSaver scheme started on 1st July, 2007. It is a way that people could save money. This helps the people to save for a long term. The money that is saved is given back to the people when they retire or in their old age when they need it. (Inland Revenue, 2011)

2.4

Strategies

Healthy Ageing Strategy

This introduced to help improve the health of the old people. This strategy is all about finding ways in which the old aged people could be kept healthy. The vision of this strategy is to make sure that the old age people age in a good way and live well and to ensure that the last stages of their life is a happy one, respected one and full of friendly people around them. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

Positive Ageing Strategy

This strategy was introduced to improve the policies which would help the old age live a proper life. Just like the other countries, New Zealand also has an increasing old age population. There was a need for a strategy to ensure that there are ways to deal with the rising population. This strategy works towards in helping old aged people to keep their jobs and the old aged are supported at their workplace. (Beehive.govt.nz, 2018)

Policies

Pension Policy

The pension that the people from the New Zealand receive is called the New Zealand Superannuation. NZ pension policy states that a person should be above 65 and be a legal resident of the country in order to receive the pension. The amounts are set by the government every year that how much will people receive. (Sorted Building Wealthy Lives, n.d.)

Retirement Policy

There are many countries who do not have a retirement policy yet there are countries who still have it. The Human Rights Act in New Zealand was implied in February 1999. The section 22 prohibits the employers not to discriminate about the age of the job applicants when everything else is qualified for the job besides their age. (Davey, n.d.)

Funding Requirements

New Zealand Superannuation (NZ Super) is the pension scheme which funds for the aged and retired people. To receive this funding the person should be above 65 years of age and that person should have lived in New Zealand for at least 10 years after they turned 20. (New Zealand Immigration, 2018)

2.5

Service Providers

Support services are available for the aged people. The services provided are support in the household, personal cares such as showering dressing and management on medication and equipment are provided for them for their safety in the house. The District Health Board funds for all these services. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

To access all these services the person should be a New Zealand resident and have a needs assessment. (Ministry of Health, 2018)

Hospice palliative care is provided for the elderly in rest homes, hospitals etc. This is the care provided to people who suffer a lifelong sickness which does not have any cure. To access these hospice services, a person should have a diagnosis for a terminal disease. Some of the diseases could be cancer, heart failures etc. (Hospice New Zealand, 2018)

Task 3

3.1

Groups of Aged Population

  1. Dementia

Dementia is the deterioration in the mental state of a person which interferes in their activity of daily living. Person with dementia faces loss of memory. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018)

Impairments of Dementia Population

As I observed during my clinical placements clients with dementia are not able to think clearly and they have mood swings.

Dementia clients have a problem in cognition which includes problem in their memory, the way they speak and how they perceive things. (Dementia Guide, 2018)

An impairment of a person with dementia is when they cannot think straight and speak properly. These impairments interrupt their daily life because they can not do their activity of daily living in a proper way because they keep on forgetting things in between.

Signs and Symptoms of Dementia

Memory Loss

The people who have dementia have a short-term memory loss. They lose track of the things that they had done a while ago. They forget where they placed their things etc. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018)

Ability of Focus Decreases

Their ability to focus on things and pay attention to things decreases. They have a lack of concentration. In order to concentrate on a particular thing they have to try hard. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018)

Confusion

They are confused about the things that they do. They find confusion while carrying out tasks or when calculating etc. (Victoria State Government, 2018)

Withdrawal

They withdraw themselves from the activities that they used to love doing. (Victoria State Government, 2018)

Behaviour Change

Their way of behaviour changes. They become moody without any reason. At times their happy and at times they are confused, suspicious or withdraw themselves from things. (Victoria State Government, 2018)

Poor Judgement

Have a hard time in deciding things. (Victoria State Government, 2018)

Rights for Dementia Population

They have the right to be treated with dignity. They have the right to receive the care and the support that they need. The right to have their effort valued in the society. (Alzheimer’s Society, 2018)

Needs for Dementia Population

There are many challenges faced by the healthcare worker while taking care of a patient who has dementia. A patient with dementia needs to be cared for at all times. They are more likely to take wrong steps because of their confused state.

If a dementia patient is in need for palliative care then it should be provided for them. They also need counselling and therapy in order to provide support to them. They need physical exercise for their good health. There should be a way in which the people with dementia could socialize. (Alzheimer Europe, 2009)

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder

This is a disorder which affects the way a person communicates and behaves. It is a disorder which does not have any specific age to be caused. The symptoms for this disorder usually appear within two years or afterwards because this is a disorder which keeps on developing over time. It is known as a spectrum disorder because the symptoms vary from person to person. (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.)

Impairments of Autistic People

They have a hard time in communicating and interacting with people. They have behaviours which they repeat over and over again such as repeating words, doing thing in repetition, starring, etc. (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.)

They have a hard time in socializing with people. They can not make eye to eye contact with the people that they are talking to. They do not share how they feel. They keep it to themselves if they find something interesting. (University of Hertfordshire, n.d.) 

Signs and Symptoms of Autism

There are many symptoms for Autism. Some of the symptoms are stated below.

They have difficulty in understanding what other people are talking about and feeling. They have difficulty in controlling how they feel (emotions). Repeat the things that they have already done before. They have a hard time in communicating and keep a conversation going on. Do not make eye to eye contact while talking. Their expressions and gestures do not make sense when they are talking about something. They are more sensitive to light, noise and temperature more than the other people are. (National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.)

Rights for Autistic People

They have the right to be employed and educated. They have the right not to be discriminated. Right to access public transportation for travelling. They have the right to vote. They have the right to travel on flights, they should not be discriminated. (aaspire.org, 2018)

Needs for Autistic People

They need to be in an environment which is less noisy and calm to make the autistic person relaxed and safe. They can not concentrate properly in noisy areas etc and it makes them feel uneasy. Autistic people take a while to process the things that the other person says to them. They need to be interacted with in a way which is easy for them to understand. They need to be accepted in the society the way they are, their presence should be valued. (Crisis and Trauma Resource Institute, n.d.)

3.2

Dementia

Consequences on Individual

Loss of memory leads the person with dementia to wander around. They wander around because they forget their way back to the place where they came from. This is a risk for the person. They are more likely to get lost. Even the familiar places are forgotten by them. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018)

The change in the mood of the person leads them not being able to socialize with other people properly. Their mood always changes unexpectedly, at times they are happy, sad and at times they are aggressive.

The loss of memory also leads the person to forget how to do other things such as daily activities.

Consequences on Family

More Expenses

There is an increase in the financial expenses. More money is spent towards the cares of the person with dementia. (Alzheimer’s Research UK, n.d.)

Change in Relationship

Due to the mood swings and unpredictable behaviour of the person with dementia, their relations with the family changes. Due to their angry moods there are fights. They try to fight the carers who take care of them. It is hard for the family and carers to cope with the changing behaviours of the person. (Alzheimer’s Research UK, n.d.)

Social Isolation

The family member/ carer does not have time for their own self. They spend their entire time in taking care of the person who has dementia. The carer does not get enough time to socialize. (Alzheimer’s Research UK, n.d.)

Consequences on Carers

They have a hard time in handling the dementia clients. They are unpredictable and hard to understand.  Need to keep track of their medication and give proper care. Have to always keep an eye on the clients because they start wandering and could end up getting lost.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Consequences on Individual

Social Interaction

Are not able to communicate clearly with others. Hard for them to keep a conversation going on. (Care Trade, n.d.)

Problem with Communicating Verbally

They do not know how to respond back to what a person says. They have problems in understanding the other persons tone, gestures etc while they are speaking. Autistic people take things in a serious way even if something was meant as a joke. (Care Trade, n.d.)

Consequences on Family

Embarrassment

Family members feel ashamed because of the behaviour of the autistic person in public places. (Psych Central, 2018)

Financial Impact

There is a huge amount of money spent by the family for the treatment and therapy for the autistic person. (Psych Central, 2018)

Emotional Impact

The carer/family feels socially isolated because they spend most of the time in taking care of the autistic person. (Psych Central, 2018)

Consequences on Carers

They are hard to understand and they behave in a way which is hard to understand. At times they need help of the other colleagues to take care of one client.

3.3

Code of Rights

Dementia

They have the right to be treated with respect no matter what their condition is. I would treat them with respect and listen to the thoughts that they have to convey. I would try to help them in any way possible. (Health and Disability Commissioner, 2018)

They have the rights to be treated in a fair way. I would treat them the same way I treat other people. I would not discriminate. (Health and Disability Commissioner, 2018)

Right to make a complaint. I would support them in making a complaint if they were treated unfairly or discriminated against. (Health and Disability Commissioner, 2018)

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Right to Independence. I would let them be independent. I would let them do the things that they can do by themselves. This will motivate them to do more things. (Health and Disability Commissioner, 2018)

Right to have the support and care that they need. I would give them all the support that they need and care for them. (Health and Disability Commissioner, 2018)

Right to know about their cares and support. I would inform them about all the important things that they need to know. I wold tell them about all the cares that they need and will be receiving. (Health and Disability Commissioner, 2018)

3.4

Models of Assessment

Dementia

Strength Based Model

This is a model which works towards finding out what the strength of the person is and what resources can be provided to the person to strengthen them and to overcome any problems that they have. The support from the family, society and friends are a source of strength for them. (Social Care Institute for Excellence, 2015)

Needs

Dementia clients need to be taken care of really well. They are supposed to be kept an eye on that what are they doing and where they are. This is done because Dementia clients end up wandering all the time.

Assessment

Different individuals have a different source of strength. Some have their passion, hobbies, skills while the others have their families and friends.

In assessment a Dementia clients source of strength is found. The carer of the client could be a source of strength because that person always cares for them.

Planning

Here the goals for a Dementia client should be met. This can be done by setting the goals that they need to reach. A goal for a dementia client could be to stay fit and healthy, to socialize and stay happy. These goals can be met with the help of someone such as their carer or a family member. Another goal could be that they should get proper care.

Co-ordination

Here the resources are seen that how can the goals be met. There is improvement made where the client can have access to the environment and services. There can be groups set up in the community where the dementia clients can socialize with the other clients. When it comes to the client being cared for then the carer handles that. They ensure that the needs of the client are met and they are safe.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Rights Based Approach

This is a model where the rights of the person matters. The way that this model works is by following the human rights. It ensures that all the rights are met.

Assessment

Ensure that the rights of the Autistic person are met. One of the rights of an autistic person is not to be discriminated by the society and treated equally like the other people are treated.

Planning

Find ways that how the rights of the Autistic person can be met. This can be done by treating the Autistic person the same way that the others are treated. By this their rights will be met that they are treated equally like the other people are. Another thing that can be done is that they should not be discriminated.

Coordination

There is improvement made where the client can have access to the environment and services. There can be groups set up in the community where the other Autistic people so that they can socialize with the other clients. Even though it is hard for them to socialize, they will get to know each other’s situations better.

Task 4

4.1

International Policies on Disability

Canada

Canadian Human Rights Act

This Act protects the disabled from being discriminated at their workplace. If they are being discriminated, they can report to the Canadian Human Rights Act to get justice and protection. (Government of Canada, 2018)

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom

This policy states that how Canada is supposed to operate. Section 15 of that Charter states that no matter what the person is like, they all are supposed to be treated equally. (Government of Canada, 2018)

Australia

Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1992

This Act was released in 1992. It protects the disabled people from being discriminated in terms of being supplied with goods, services and the facilities that they access. This law clearly states that discriminating a disabled person is against the law. (Women with Disabilities Australia, n.d.)

National Disability Insurance Scheme 2013

The disabled people have options and are given a chance to choose the type of services that they need. The type of care and support that they need are chosen by them. (Women with Disabilities Australia, n.d.)

The Disability Services Act 1986

This Act came out in 1986. This Act helps the disabled people to get employed at places and helps them to maintain their work. (Women with Disabilities Australia, n.d.)

International Policies on Ageing

Canada

Combatting Elder Abuse

It has been seen that there have been many elders who are being abused in their old age. The Government of Canada is now taking actions against the people who abuse the old age. The abuse could be either mental, physical, emotional or any other type of abuse such as being neglected. (Government of Canada, 2018)

Promote Healthy Ageing

There is a lot of injuries caused to the old people by falls. The Government is working towards helping the people who are injured by falling. This is done to prevent the aged people to lose their independence and avoid deaths. There have been many deaths caused because of falling in Canada. (Government of Canada, 2018)

Supporting Mental Health

There are many mental illnesses which old aged people suffer from. Some mental illnesses are depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s etc. the Government of Canada is creating awareness about these diseases which occur in the old age. Research is done how to take care of the people with these illnesses and how to support them and their families. (Government of Canada, 2018)

Australia

Healthy Ageing Policy

This policy aims towards keeping the older citizens of Australia healthy. It states that older Australians should at least exercise for 30 minutes each day. Exercises could be sports, walking, gardening etc. (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018)

Foundation for the Successful Ageing

This policy was passed by the parliament of South Australia which contributes towards the prosperous way of old ageing. This policy includes legislations and services for the old. The retirement age was removed from the system so that older people can work till whatever age they wanted to. This policy was all about keeping the older residents happy and successful. (Graycar, 2018)

Equal Opportunity Act

This act is when someone is discriminated against their age. The person who discriminates is taken action against. (Graycar, 2018)

4.2

New Zealand Policy on Ageing

Positive Ageing Strategy

This strategy was introduced to improve the policies which would help the old age live a proper life. Just like the other countries, New Zealand also has an increasing old age population. There was a need for a strategy to ensure that there are ways to deal with the rising population. This strategy works towards in helping old aged people to keep their jobs and the old aged are supported at their workplace. (Beehive.govt.nz, 2018)

New Zealand Policy on Disability

Social Model of Disability

This policy works towards making facilities accessible for the disabled to get into. People with disabilities do not have much opportunities to socialize because of their state. Some buildings are not accessible to them where functions etc are held. Social model of disability works towards finding ways to help them to socialize. (Stace, 2015) 

Policies on Ageing (Comparison)

Similarities

All policies work towards ending discrimination. All policies work towards helping the elderly maintain their employment. All policies work towards keeping the elderly fit and healthy.

Differences

Canadian rights protect the elderly from abuse yet New Zealand rights does not state that. Canadian policy works towards the accidents which occur in the elderly. Accidents such as falling. New Zealand policies does not work towards that. New Zealand policy works towards how to handle the rising population, the other countries policies don’t.

Policies on Disability (Comparison)

Similarities

All policies protect the elderly against discrimination. All policies work towards helping the elderly socialize. All policies help the disabled maintain their employment.

Differences

New Zealand policy works towards making public building accessible for the disabled to enter whereas other countries policies do not state that. Australian policy gives the elderly to choose the services that they need, New Zealand policy does not state that. New Zealand policy does not state that how is New Zealand supposed to operate like the Canadian policy does.

 

 

4.3

International Service Deliveries on Ageing

Australia

National Strategy for an Ageing Australia – Retirement Incomes

Australia’s elderly people receive income when they are retired. These incomes are pensions, superannuation and their voluntary savings. These incomes come from their hard work throughout their life. These are their retirement savings which they use when they are unemployed. They have a source of income accessible to them to live the rest of their life. (Commonwealth of Australia 2001, 2001)

Canada

Health Service Delivery

Elder aged Canadians have access to high quality programmes which enables them to have a good physical fitness. (Health and Health Care for an Aging Population, 2013)

Age Friendly Environment 

One of the aged policies in Canada state that it is important to promote the independence of the older citizens in the society. There is support provided to the elderly. Support such as home services are provided. There are still employment opportunities for the elderly. They can work above 65, this contributes to their pension plans that they will be getting when they will retire. (Health and Health Care for an Aging Population, 2013)

International Service Deliveries on Disability

Australia

Commonwealth Support

The disabled in Australia get income support such as Disability Support Pension. Their medical expenses are taken care of by the Commonwealth. Different cares are given to them. The cares that their condition needs are given to them. Accommodation support is provided. (Parliament of Australia, 2002)

Canada

The Canada Pension Plan Disability

The Canada Pension Plan Disability (CPPD) provides the disabled person who has a severe disability a pension scheme. The people who are under 65 are eligible to receive the pension. In order to receive this benefit, the disabled person is to prove that their disability stops them from working. (Government of Canada, 2018)

4.4

New Zealand Service Delivery on Ageing

Integrated Care

It is a care where there are improvements made in the caring of the elderly. This service delivery works towards making the care for the old better than it is now since there are many chronic diseases. (Health Navigator NZ, 2018)

New Zealand Service Delivery on Disability

The Disability Support Services (DSS) funds for all the services provided to the disabled. The things that DDS does is funds for the support services, create forums where the betterment for the health can be discussed.

Needs Assessment and Service Co-ordination (NASC)

Help the disabled people to have access to the support and the needs that they require. They fund for services such as assistance with cares, help at home and funding for the equipment needed for their assistance. (Ministry of Health, 2016)

Similarities

All the services are trying to improve the services for the elderly. All of the countries support the elderly with the income which is the pension scheme. All the countries take care of the medical expenses of the elderly if they are eligible. Elderly people above 65 can work in NZ as well like the other countries.

Differences

Other countries do not have integrated care. All the countries have different unique methods of support given to the elderly. Australia has more sources of income given to the elderly compared to New Zealand. New Zealand does not promote ‘high quality’ programmes for the elderly to maintain their fitness.

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