Administrative, Scientific and Bureaucratic Management Theories Overview

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Task 1

 

I am going to introduce my three school of thoughts the first one is Administrative Management according to the Administrative Management Theory / School, management is the process of getting things done through people. Here importance is given to groups and not to individuals. Henri Fayol (1841-1925). Fayol is called the “Father of Modern Management”. Henri Fayol was a French industrialist and a management consultant. He started the functional approach to management. Administrative management is all about coordinating, unity of command, division of work and unity of direction. Strengths ofadministrativeare Combination of kindness and justice Initiative workers, Equality creates responsibility, one central authority creates discipline Equality and good salary motivates workers. Weaknesses of administrative are work direction makes workers lazy, slow work process because of big hierarchy, authority gives extra power and less opportunities for those workers who are not initiative.( www.study.com n.d )

The second school of thought is Bureaucratic. This theory was produced by a German Sociologist and political financial specialist Max Weber (1864-1920). As per him, administration is the most effective type of association. The association has a very much characterized line of power. It has clear principles and controls which are entirely taken after. As indicated by Max Weber, there are three sorts of force in an association which are Customary Power: depends on a framework in which power is honest to goodness since it “has dependably existed”. Individuals in power ordinarily appreciate it since they have acquired it. Authorities comprise both of individual retainers (in a patrimonial administration) or of individual steadfast partners, for example, vassals or tributary rulers (in a primitive administration). Their privileges are generally like those of the ruler above them, simply lessened in scale, and they too are regularly chosen in light of legacy. ( www.study.com n.d)

Appealing Power which is depends on the magnetism of the pioneer, who demonstrates that he has the privilege to lead by goodness of mystical forces, predictions, gallantry, and so forth. His adherents regard his entitlement to lead in light of his special qualities, not in light of any convention or lawful principles. Authorities comprise of the individuals who have indicated individual dedication to the ruler, and of the individuals who have their own allure.

Bureaucratic Power/Legal Power depends on an arrangement of guidelines that is connected officially and judicially as per known standards. The people who oversee those standards are delegated or chose by legitimate methods. Bosses are likewise subject to guidelines that farthest point their forces, isolate their private lives from authority obligations and require composed documentation

Strengths of bureaucratic are Formal arrangement of the association, clearly characterized various leveled levels, establishes solid lines of power and maintain productivity and viability. Weakness of bureaucratic are One individual holds the total power, traditional power gives all the ability to one individual, the composed tenets need to take after entirely, the laborers don’t get any opportunity to demonstrate their ability/capacity. ( www.tutor2u.com n.d )

The third school of thought is Scientific Management. The father of scientific management is Frederick Winslow Taylor. He was born on 20 March 1856 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania U.S.A. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the efficiency movement and his ideas. Scientific theory is theory of management that analyses and synthesizes workflows. Its main objective is to improve economic efficiency especially labor productivity. The goal is to reduce waste, increase the process and method of production and create a just distribution of goals.

The following are the principal advantages of scientific management.

It provides trained minds for achieving higher degree of excellence in all branches of shop management.

It completely revolutionizes and improves layout, routing, scheduling, purchasing, stores keeping and accounting.

It aims to standardize the materials, tools, equipment and methods of work.

It offers facilities for specialization and division of labor.

It replaces the old system of management rule of thumb method and introduces new and scientific methods.

Careful time and motion studies eradicate delays, avoid bodily strains of the workers, eliminate wastage and thereby contribute to the efficiency of the workers and ensures waste less utilization of the resources.

It seeks to introduce a mental revolution in the ideas of both the employer and employee and assures co-operation of the labor force.

It seeks a reduction in the cost of production through increased output. This would help the organization to complete on a better footing and thereby enlarge the market.

The workers are in a position to get higher wages. This removes most of the causes for industrial disputes and unrest. Further, enhanced earnings also lead to higher standard of living of the workers Thus, scientific management does justice to various sections of the society such as producers, workers and the consumers.

Disadvantages of Scientific Management

In spite of the illuminating advantages referred above, the concept of Scientific Management has become a subject of burning criticism. Not only the workers, but also the employees and even industrial psychologists are questioning the validity of Scientific Management. We shall now briefly examine the criticisms leveled by these three parties under distinct headings. ( www.study.com n.d )

Correlation of two authoritative structure as far as planned principals is Functional Structure: In a useful Structure, individuals with comparative word related claims to fame are assembled in formal gatherings. This is a very ordinary structure, found in a wide range of associations, for-benefit and not-for-profit. Illustration: an assembling firm will regularly gather individuals with comparative work aptitudes in a Marketing Department, others in a Production Department, others inFinance, etc.

DivisionalStructureIn this type of structure people with diverse occupational specialties are put together in formal groups by similar products or services, customers or clients, or geographic regions. Some example is Product Divisions: The media giant Time Warner has different divisions for magazines, movies, recordings, cable television, and so on. The Warner Bros. part of the empire alone has divisions spanning movies and television, a broadcast network, retail stores, theaters, amusement parks, and music.

 

Source of power are described as

Formal power is also known as positional power. This power comes from the position you are holding in the organization. The person who holds this power/authority, he/she doesn’t need take anyone’s permission to make any kind of decision. This formal power also includes giving reward and punishment. The position holder may use this power to get a control over others, depends on his/her working style.

Reward power:  based on one person’s control which allows him/her to use material resources and giving rewards. Example at AIS ST HELENS, the lecturers have the authority to give presents to those students who performed really well in final exams to motivate their hard work.

Coercive power: this power is based on fear. It can be any kind of fear like losing your job, dismissal or suspension. Example the tutors of AIS ST HELENS, have power to that they can charge those students who do not submit their assignments on given time/date.

Informal power is informal power raises the ability to lead the team, influence decision or subsidize in some way to the organization without the need of an official job title.

Expert power: this power is all about the specific knowledge in a particular field. The person who hold this power an automatically gets the control over others. Example the manager of the company has more knowledge about the company compared to the workers. If anything happens with in the company then the manger would be the one who has the power to take an action to sort out the problem. ( www.businessdictonary.com n.d )

Referent power: the power which is given by the head to his/her desired subordinates and the head person has the faith in those people that they have the ability to do the things. Example in business field, managers give responsibility to those people to whom they believe that person can perform in given task.

Legitimatesource also known as the positional power. It’s derived from the position of a person that is hold in an organization. Expertsourceiscoming from experience or education. Rewardsource is employee expects some type of reward from their managers. Referent source is referent power refers to the person who has an attraction towards their order. Coercive sourceemployee is afraid of fired or demoted.

 

Delegation is the task of power and obligation to someone else (typically from a director to a subordinate) to complete exercises. It is one of the center ideas of administration authority. In any case, the individual who designated the work stays responsible for the result of the appointed work. Appointment enables a subordinate to decide, i.e. it is a move of basic leadership power from one hierarchical level to a lower one. Designation, if legitimately done, is not resignation. The inverse of powerful appointment is micromanagement, where an administrator gives a lot of info, course, and survey of assigned work. When all is said in done, appointment is great and can spare cash and time, help in building aptitudes, and propel individuals. Poor appointment, then again, may bring about disappointment and disarray to all the included gatherings. A few specialists however don’t support an appointment and consider the force of settling on a choice rather difficult.( www.businesscasestudies.co.uk n.d )

Interest: is the procedure whereby representatives are included in basic leadership forms, as opposed to just following up on requests. Representative support is a piece of a procedure of strengthening in the work environment. Group working is a key part of the strengthening procedure. Colleagues are urged to settle on choices for themselves in accordance with rules and systems built up in self overseeing groups. Singular representatives are urged to assume liability for quality as far as completing exercises, which meet the necessities of their clients. Workers are trusted to settle on choices for themselves and the association.

Centralization: the incorporated structure where choice comes upward to descending just top level of association takes choices. Centralization likewise helps solid administration. Centralization strategy is far excessively old and just done by earlier time.

Decentralization: is progressed in this day and age and if something turns out badly inside the association then the framework will sound on and will settle the issue. Creating organizations utilize decentralizes technique with control of centralization.

Basic leadership: basic leadership recognizes the issue and assesses conceivable arrangements. As indicated by basic leadership demonstrate, the supervisors settle on choice to take care of the issue which happened. Director likewise characterize the issue and thinks about all the conceivable activities, different choices and the results also. Basic leadership is extremely aggregate nowadays. Everyone has their own particular thoughts and master in technology.in basic leadership individuals share their thoughts and plan which is exceedingly used today contrast with the past.

The current imminent is making it hard for the administrators to end up completely granted and educated to settle on impeccably judicious choice. ( www.tutor2u.com n.d )

Vertical co-ordination: in vertical coordination, the organization is run through the top to bottom levels. It is all about the connection of lower level and top level.

These are the four methods of vertical coordination Delegation: it means the authority of making decision and the responsibility goes from one organizational structure to the next level. Formulization: it’s all about the format of an organization and about the policies, rules, job description and other work responsibilities of the organization. Centralization vs decentralization: the managers must need to decide that which power supposed to be kept on top level to improve the vertical co-ordination and the managers also need to focus and decide that how much authority the lower will take. Line and staff position: different managers have different authority to accomplish major organizational goals.

Horizontal coordination: all the managers are at the same level and they all report to each other. Information system:improving the horizontal method is possible and much easier through the information technology. Slack resources: it allows the organization to get things done easily and with responsibility. Time, workers, equipment’s, and material used within the company are the slack resources.

Lateral relations: this means in a major problem contact with a team to solve the problem effectively in an organization. ( www.study.com n.d )

Task 2

 

A.

Administrativemanagementpositive points are Authority creates responsibility.Motivates employees by proving them equal training, which makes them feel safe.Equality is the combination of kindness and justice.

Negative points are Too much power in one person’s hands. Big hierarchy makes working process slow. Unity of direction makes worker lazy and they don’t put enough efforts towards the tasks they have given.

Scientificmanagementpositive points are If an employee is well trained then they will perform well.Divide work nearly equal between managers and employees will get more wages plus rewards if they do perform well.

Negative points are It causes the clashes between managers and employees. It neglects the importance of workers. ( www.tutor2u.com n.d )

B.

HumanrelationsPositive points are Everyone has got the power.Looking at the social needs of the employees.Best work environment can motivate workers.Looking at the social needs of the employees.

Negative points are Impossible to satisfy and make everyone happy. Some of the times, they don’t involve employees in decision making process.

HumanresourcesPositive points are Motivate workers by giving them more responsibilities.Motivate workers to use their intellectual potential to achieve organizational goals.Hierarchy of needs safety, esteem, belongings and self-actualization.Job designed to high level of needs by allowing workers to use their full potential.

Negative points are Workers avoid responsibility and become lazy. Fear of losing job Workers are forced to do work. ( www.businessdictionary.com n.d )

C.

 

Scientific they are looking at the social contacts of the employees. They started giving rewards to which they call incentive system. Each person’s job is broken into elements and a specific way to perform. Strong co-ordination between managers and workers also motivates them to do better.

 

Human relations they recognize the social pressure. The treatment of employees has to be looking at it if the employees are not satisfied with their job. Mayo in his initial experiment came to conclusion that some other factors that light were responsible for increasing the productivity level. If they are paying their workers better. When the workers are given special attention to their needs and desires then they will lead to greater output.

 

D.

 

Directive in this management style, they motivate the workers with threats and discipline. It means that you give direction to some that you have to do it.

Feedback giving positive feedback on task performed. It really helps to motivate employees. There are different types of feedbacks. Using positive feedback can motivate workers , if you are appreciating someone by giving him/her positive feedback and telling that you are doing well but you should have done more better and also explain them that what they need to do to do more better. ( www.wikipedia.org )

E.

 

Job design are Reward system: helps to complete the system. Identification of work: task to be completed.Empower: the employees have increase of control on their work.Work is expected to do. They would not give it to you if you can’t do it.Systematic and purposeful allocation tasks to individual and groups within the organization. Individuals need to be compelled and needs to be passionate to do the work.Resources allegation to tasks: they workout the resources they need to task performing.Individual work effectiveness: -Productivity, Build essential skills, Time management, Identify priority and Communication.

F.

 

Motivational effects

Job design has got different motivation effects of tasks. The employees have got more power in their hands and they have more control on their work. They are giving rewards to employees which helps to motivate workers and they putt more efforts to do their job better and it will also help the organization in accomplishing the objectives of the company if their employees are motivated and passionate to do their work. Stress can also be a good thing to motivate workers if they have pressure to complete given job/task. Strong communication is a part of motivation. If the managers and workers have good and clear communication between them then they will definitely do well in their jobs. Carrier development also motivates workers. If you are doing your job very well and your manager will look at your hard work and performance then your manager can help to you step up to the management level jobs. ( www.businessdictionary.com )

G.

 

Manager’s job was to follow the orders. They had to an organize the work. They had to assign the right people to do the specific jobs, co- ordinate the task and also making sure that the job got done as audit focus on efficiency.

The later economy manager valued increasing the knowledge of the employees. The management and leadership is not easily separated. People look to their manager not just to assign them a task but also to define for them a purpose. A manager must organize workers not just maximize efficiency but to nature skills, develop talent and ensure results.

Task 3

 

  1. distinctions between management and leadership roles

There are marked differences between the role of a manager and the role of a leader. But the papers should not be in conflict with each other. Organizations sustainable and high performance recognize that there is a symbiotic relationship between managers and leaders, and ensure that both are being used effectively.

The examples of difference between managers and leaders are as follows.

  • A manager focuses on processes and procedures, a leader focuses on people.
  • A manager administers. A leader imagines.
  • A manager maintains. Develops a leader.
  • A manager measured projections. Project leader measures.
  • A manager makes sure that things are done right. A leader ensures that you are doing things right.
  • A manager ensures that standards are met (eq, laws, regulations and policies). A leader inspires and empowers innovation.
  • A manager deals with in detail. A leading possibility.
  • A magnificent manager policies, processes and procedures of the company. A leader increases the person, their abilities and their purpose.
  • A manager deals in the probable. A leader addresses where possible.

Managers are, by design, implementing the rules, the organizers of the details, and ensure compliance. Leaders are the rivals of rules; wheels define the vision and purpose.

Followers expect task managers, leaders seek purpose. Followers look to leaders of the vision of your destination, are the managers of the road map that tells them how to get there. The most effective leaders employ managers who know how to build the best road map.

While it may seem that the director and the leader cannot coexist with each other, it is imperative to do so.

Today, organizational cultures seem constantly in flux between authoritarian environments (led by managers), and laissez faire environment (managed by leaders). Both cultures are unbalanced, destructive and unsustainable.

Zig Ziglar wrote that “the leader and principal must communicate regularly and effectively for all people understand the supply support each other.”( www.wikipedia.org )

Sustainable high-performance cultures are purposeful. Leaders and managers manage. Both agree and are bound by a common company code (often written). Their symbiotic relationship serves employees and organizations, too.

3.2 Two different leadership styles and effective leadership in organizations structure

Initiative Styles

Initiative style is the way and approach of giving guidance, actualizing arrangements, and spurring individuals. Kurt Lewin (1939) drove a gathering of scientists to distinguish diverse styles of administration. This early study has been exceptionally persuasive and set up three noteworthy authority styles. The three noteworthy styles of authority are (U.S. Armed force Handbook, 1973):

o Authoritarian or totalitarian

o Participative or fair

o Delegative or Free Reign

Dictator (despotic)

This style is utilized when pioneers tell their workers what they need done and how they need it finished, without getting the counsel of their supporters. A portion of the fitting conditions to utilize it is the point at which you have all the data to take care of the issue, you are short on time, and your workers are all around propelled.

A few people tend to think about this style as a vehicle for hollering, utilizing belittling dialect, and driving by dangers and manhandling their energy. This is not the dictator style, rather it is an oppressive, amateurish style called “bossing individuals around.” It has no place in a pioneer’s collection.

The tyrant style ought to regularly just be utilized on uncommon events. On the off chance that you have sufficient energy and need to acquire responsibility and inspiration from your workers, then you ought to utilize the participative style.

Participative (vote based)

This style includes the pioneer including at least one representatives in the basic leadership handle (figuring out what to do and how to do it). In any case, the pioneer keeps up a ultimate conclusion making power. Utilizing this style is not an indication of shortcoming, rather it is an indication of quality that your workers will regard. ( www.study.com )

This is regularly utilized when you have part of the data, and your representatives have different parts. Take note of that a pioneer is not anticipated that would know everything — this is the reason you utilize proficient and capable representatives. Utilizing this style is of shared advantage — it permits them to end up part of the group and permits you to settle on better choices.

Delegate (free rule)

In this style, the pioneer permits the representatives to settle on the choices. In any case, the pioneer is still in charge of the choices that are made. This is utilized when workers can dissect the circumstance and figure out what should be done and how to do it. You can’t do everything! You should set needs and delegate certain assignments.

This is not a style to utilize with the goal that you can accuse others when things turn out badly, rather this is a style to be utilized when you completely trust and trust in the general population beneath you. Try not to be hesitant to utilize it, in any case, utilize it carefully!

Strengths

A decent pioneer utilizes each of the three styles, contingent upon what powers are included between the supporters, the pioneer, and the circumstance. A few cases include:

o Using a tyrant style on another representative who is simply taking in the employment. The pioneer is capable and a decent mentor. The representative is inspired to take in another expertise. The circumstance is another environment for the worker.

o Using a participative style with a group of laborers who know their employment. The pioneer knows the issue, yet does not have all the data. The representatives know their employments and need to wind up part of the group.

o Using a declarative style with a laborer who knows more about the occupation than you. You can’t do everything and the representative needs to take responsibility for occupation! Also, this permits you to be at different spots, doing different things.

o Using every one of the three: Telling your representatives that a method is not working effectively and another one must be set up (dictator). Requesting their thoughts and contribution on making another technique (participative). Designating assignments so as to actualize the new methodology (delegative).

Powers that impact the style to be utilized included:

  • How much time is accessible?
  • Are connections in light of regard and trust or on irreverence?
  • Who has the data — you, your workers, or both?
  • How well your workers are prepared and how well you know the undertaking.
  • Internal clashes.
  • Stress levels.
  • Type of assignment. Is it organized, unstructured, muddled, or basic?
  • Laws or built up methodology, for example, OSHA or preparing plans.

Positive and Negative Approaches

There is a distinction in ways pioneers approach their representative. Positive pioneers utilize prizes, for example, instruction, autonomy, and so forth to propel workers. While negative bosses underscore punishments. While the negative approach has a place in a pioneer’s collection of apparatuses, it must be utilized deliberately because of its high cost on the human soul.

Antagonistic pioneers act overbearing and unrivaled with individuals. They trust the best way to complete things is through punishments, for example, loss of occupation, days off without pay, decrying representatives before others, and so forth. They trust their power is expanded by alarming everybody into more elevated amounts of efficiency. However what dependably happens when this approach is utilized wrongly is that resolve falls; which obviously prompts to lower profitability.

Additionally take note of that most pioneers don’t entirely utilize some, yet are some place on a continuum extending from to a great degree positive to a great degree negative. Individuals who consistently work out of the negative are supervisors while the individuals who principally work out of the positive are viewed as genuine pioneers.

Use of Consideration and organizational Structure

Two other approaches that leaders use are:

Consideration (employee orientation) — leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support.

Structure (task orientation) — leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce.There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job ( Schriesheim, 1982).

Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on opposite ends of a continuum. For example, a leader who becomes more considerate, does not necessarily mean that she has become less structured.

See Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid as it is also based on this concept.

Bernadotte was a victim of culture shock — never in his French upbringing and military career had he experienced subordinates who laughed at the mistakes of their superior. This story has a happy ending as he was considered very good and ruled the country as a highly respected constitutional monarch until 1844. (His descendants still occupy the Swedish throne.)

Sweden differs from France in the way its society handles inequality (those in charge and the followers). To measure inequality or Power Difference, Hofstede studied three survey questions from a larger survey that both factored and carried the same weight:

  • Frequency of employees being afraid to express disagreement with their managers.
  • Subordinates’ perception of their boss’s actual decision making style (paternalistic style was one choice).
  • Subordinates’ preference for their boss’s decision-making style (again, paternalistic style was one choice).

He built up a Power Difference Index (PDI) for the 53 nations that took the study. Their scores run from 11 to 104. The higher the number a nation got, the more dictatorial as well as paternalistic the administration, which obviously identifies with workers being more anxious or unwilling to differ with their supervisors. While bring down numbers mean a more consultative style of administration is utilized, which means workers who are not as apprehensive of their supervisors. ( Google, n.d )

For instance, Malaysia has the most elevated PDI score, being 104, while Austria has the least with 11. Furthermore, obviously, as the story above shows, Sweden has a relative low score of 31, while France has a PDI of 68. The USA’s is 40. Take note of that these scores are relative, not outright, in that relativism certifies that one culture has no supreme criteria for judging exercises of another culture as “low” or “respectable”.

However, when paternalistic or autocratic styles are relied upon too much and the employees are ready and/or willing to react to a more consultative type of leadership style, then it normally becomes quite damaging to the performance of the organization.

3.3 contrasting attributes and skills, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses  

There are large in counting of inspirational leaders who become successful famous business leader in particular field because of their own style of leadership style. Also, discuss about difference about management and leading and the shift in traditional thinking. As well as talk about the attributes and skills and their strength and weakness. In this essay, I select the two inspirational leaders Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer who have different leadership style.

If we talk about management, the main role is to make planning and control budgeting of an organization, as a leader of the organization, his work is to achieve the organizational goals and give good result for the business by set up the appropriate technique of managing business and a proper schedule for the business. As the work Management works under the proper organizing, controlling and leading or directing an organization in order to approach the goal and objective of organization. In management, all the employees have to follow rules and need to do work under well-made procedure in the organization. As a leader of business, a leader has to organize his staff and organization in order to make his employee responsible toward his job. As he also have to deal with problems which are related to his business, as he have to discuss the all the outcomes and results to come with problems and have to identify the method to solve that problem.

For examples, Steve Ballmer, He inspired the people with his communication skills and makes them direct toward a common task. He took all the decision for the people in order to make sure people are happy with his decision. He was able to create a sense of vision and influence the people behavior toward the goal by making direct communicated with them and by taking decision by sharing view with them.

As with the modern era, there is dramatically change in the thinking and role of management and leadership, As nowadays business people use the scientific method to run their organization, as the competition between about the a particular field increase day by day, also the competition in the leadership and management  also come in this field. In past time, leader just use to concentrate on the situation but nowadays all things changes. A good business person have to deal with employees and relation things because now to run the business well successfully, a manager and leader have to maintain good relationship with their employees. As Bill Gates also has many competitors in the business field with whom they have to deal in order to lead their business. They have to update their business time to time as we know nowadays with modernization, all business need to be modernized. There are so many changes come in the traditional thinking of management and leadership as compare to the past, As in management there is main focus on the profit and permanence of the company and organization because of which there is fast change in the systems and many new updates and solicitation ideas coming in the organization which is make difficulty for organization structure to approve and manage this updates and ideas in their organization to stunned the change and make the organization elastic. As in the past time, organization and competition was too high between the businesses so, managers are more focusing on the method of running organization so that, they can elaborate his business or organization reputation. Many new methods today use by the managers to run his business very easily and effectively.  As same change can be seen in the leadership, there is change in thinking of people time to time which effect on the leadership as well, the way to lead the people and motivate them toward an particular task is change day by day.

Every leadership have different leadership style, firstly we talk about business leader Bill Gates, who is the chairman and CEO of “MICROSOFT”. He always keeps in touch with his employees and staff which show the attributes leadership style of Bill Gates. He has the authoritarian leadership style so, here we talk about the weakness and strength of the authoritarian leadership style.

Weakness

  1. In this style of leadership, leader always take all decision independently and not allow any to take participation in decision making.
  2. Authoritarian leaders tend not to be sensitive to the feelings of others and create bitterness.
  3. This leadership lead to Demotivate as well because employees are not allow to take participate in the decision making.

Strength

  1. In this leadership style, leader takes all decision without taking any ideas from their employees, that mean no participation of employee in the decision making due to which less time taken by leader to take decision which is time consuming.
  2. This style of leadership is very helpful in the critical situation, because ii this type of situation quick decision needs to be taken.
  3. The style of leadership is very much effective to hiring the unskillful and unqualified workers.

On the other hand, Steve Ballmer, has his own leadership style with different attributes and skills. He worked with definite democracy which means he used to control his employees very politely. He had the democratic leadership style as well as the authoritarian style of leadership so; here we talk about the weakness and strength of democratic style of leadership.

Weakness

  1. The democratic leader depends on the knowledge of his followers or employees.  If the workforce is inexpert, this style is not very effective.
  2. Well experienced employees and follower need in this type of leadership to make decision.
  3. Mistakes and error are commonly seemed in this style of leadership if employees and workers are not well experienced and skilled.

Strength

  1. This style of leadership creates perfect location for collaborative problem-solving in addition to decision making.
  2. Employees get prefect in their work and their skills develop by taking participation in decision making. ( www.study.com )
  3. This leadership style also acts as the motivator for the employees and the followers.
  4. This style of leadership increases the loyalty, dedication and motivation within the employees.

As we choose the Bill Gates as inspirational business leader who have the authoritarian leadership style, so, now we go through the skills and attributes of this leadership.

Skills and attributes of Bill Gates

  1. He has the ability and capability to maintain and formulate the realistic, attractive vision of future as well as able to take all the decision for their organization very cautiously.
  2. The secret to his success was the constant need to challenge existing situations.
  3. He always believed in the people who have the talent to do something greater so, he always investing the company’s capital on the employees of good talent.
  4. He created an open environment so that everybody in Microsoft was on the same page to come over the feudal style of management & the disruptive style of management.
  5. He is the person who has full confidence on him to fulfill their dream.
  6. He is thinking about the long term organization and wants to spread their business worldwide.
  7. He is very much powerful to solve problem during critics by taking decision on the support.

Steven Ballmer as the second inspirational business leader who had the democratic leadership style as well as the authoritarian style of leadership, so, now we go through his skills and attributes.

Skills and attributes of Steve Ballmer

  1. He was the man who used the privilege of his personal background more to the benefit of his nation’s people rather than his own self-interest.
  2. He had full confident on his self to run their leadership to achieve their particular task.
  3. He had also used to take direct decision in the situation of critic.
  4. He had learnt from his mistakes and always tried to do all work with proper management and always focused on his work and tasks.
  5. He had full trust on his employees and follower and always try to give them authority to recognize them their responsibility and to make them perfect in his work.
  6. He had always tried to make close relationship with his people to fulfill their demand and make them happy by discussing with them the problem related to their professional life.

At last, after study both leadership we can say that both leadership and management different each other. In management, leader gives concentrate to manage and organize his business secretly whereas leadership all about the inspiring the people with some special skills or influence and get together them to achieve a common goal. Also, management works under rules and regulation whereas under leadership there are not any rules and regulation which need to follow. Moreover, we also study the two different style of leadership of two different personalities, Steven Ballmer and Bill Gates. Both have different style of leadership that is Bill Gates has authoritarian leadership style whereas Steven Ballmer had democratic leadership style as well as the authoritarian too.  Both have their own different attributes and skills which they use to run their organization to achieve their objectives but there are some skills which are common in between the both leaders that are, the confidence, managing the work proper able to take decision in the crisis, it can say that the two-inspirational business leader we choose are different from each other, they are best in their own field of business.

Bibliography

Bureaucratic theory of management. (n.d.). Retrieved from Kalyan City Life: http://kalyan-city.blogspot.co.nz/2011/04/bureaucratic-theory-of-management-by.html

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