Chemistry

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Chemistry Essays

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Anaerobic digestion

Introduction : Today the problem of waste pollutants has increased due to increasing number of industries as well as urbanization. Water is polluted in large amount due to these waste pollutants. These waste products can be from different sources food waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste, urban waste etc. Waste pollutants which...

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Perception Of Chemistry Of Secondary Students Chemistry Essay

The purpose of this research was to examine the perception in chemistry of third year high school students. This paper discussed the perceptions in chemistry, chemists, chemistry jobs, chemistry experiments, chemicals and chemical industries; assessed whether the perceptions of students were related to gender and ethnicity; elicited the common words...

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Heavy metal pollutant

An ongoing debate regarding the exact definition for heavy metal pollutant, there are many different definitions have been proposed. For example, some based on density, some on atomic number or atomic weight, and some on chemical properties or toxicity. The commonly definition of heavy metal is...

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Concerted measures

Introduction Quality control is one of a number of concerted measures that analytical chemists can take to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose. In practice, fitness for purpose is determined by a comparison of the accuracy achieved in...

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Chemistry Essays - Essential Fatty Acids

A discussion on the role of essential fatty acids in human health. Introduction: Fatty acids are important components of lipids (fat-soluble components of living cells) in plants, animals, and microorganisms.  Generally, a fatty acid consists of a straight hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl (-COOH) group.  It is the carboxyl...

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The forensic science

Introduction of title The terms of "forensic science" cover those professions which are involved in the application of social and physical science to the criminal justice system. Forensic experts are expected to find out the details of method used, to substantiate the choice of the applied technique and to give their...

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Properties of complex ions

Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate some properties of ionic complex compounds which contain water molecules, namely experiments of blue copper (II) sulphate hydrated. The number of coordinated water will be determined. Introduction The calculation of the value of x (the number of combined water) is based on the 'relative...

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About biodiesel

1.0 Introduction The word “biodiesel” is derived from the Greek word “bio” which means life and “diesel” which is lifted from Rudolf Diesel. According to Ayhan Demirbas (n.d.), “Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources”. It is specified ...

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Determination of water hardness

Introduction         Water that has not been purified is what is known as "hard water." Hard water can contain substances like Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+. These "hard ions" are not always unhealthy necessarily, but there are several good reasons that we remove them. First, they can combine with other compounds to form...

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Variety of colors

Which dyes in candies which make colors? A lot of candies contain dyes to make them certain colors. Skittles come in a variety of colors. The colors in Skittles are synthetic dyes that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Several dyes are sometimes...

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The electrochemical properties

History Lithium-ion batteries were first proposed by M.S. Whittingham (Binghamton University), then at Exxon, in the 1970s. Whittingham used titanium(II) sulfide as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode. The electrochemical properties of the lithium intercalation in graphite were first discovered in 1980 by Rachid Yazami et al. at the Grenoble...

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General acceptability criteria

Chapter 2 - GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY CRITERIA 2-1 GENERAL. The requirements in this Handbook together with appropriate administrative rules and regulations constitute the minimum acceptable criteria for eligibility of existing properties. 2-2 REAL...

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Declaration of Honesty

Introduction Background Sludge is produced as a bypass product of a water treatment process. The sludge is commonly disposed on land, but this result as a health hazards and adverse effects on the ecosystem. All metals above certain concentration have side effects to human being. Among the most...

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Quantity of ionization energy

Ionization energy is the quantity of energy that a neutral atom (or an ion in case of second and third ionization energy) must absorb to discharge an electron. Each electron that is extracted from an atom requires a different amount of energy. Each succeeding ionization energy is larger than the...

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Chemically prepared or sensitized material

INTRODUCTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY Photography is defined as the science and art of producing an exact impression of an object on chemically prepared or sensitized material by using light. It depends on the sensitiveness of silver compound to light. The photographs are usually taken by means of a...

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Introduction to sequenced defined polymers

Objectives Over the course of the next 24 weeks the objective of this project is to (1): Synthesise a well defined polymer using a CRP (Controlled radical polymerisation) process. (2) Combine it with some of the new techniques that have recently been highlighted, which will be described later, in order to...

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Green chemistry and its applications

Acknowledgement I am thankful to my teacher mr. Harminder singh who had helped me in my work and showed me a path for doing it in correct way. Without his suggestions and guidance the term paper would not be as it is. It is worth mentioning here to thank our university that...

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The drug metabolism

Introduction: If an exogenous microorganism enters the human body, this invokes the immune system to produce antibodies to come into contact with the foreign potentially pathogenic species and lead to its destruction. Although when drug molecules enter the human body this does not result in the synthesis of antibodies, due to...

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Importance of chemical reactor

INTRODUCTION The most important unit operation in a chemical process is generally a chemical reactor. Chemical reactions are either exothermic (release energy) or endothermic (require energy input) and therefore require that energy either be removed or added to the reactor for a constant temperature to be maintained. Exothermic reactions are the...

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Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase

Will Inhibitors Of Cyclooxygenase 2 Ever Play A Prominent Role As Therapeutic Agents? Cyclooxygenase 2 belongs to a group of enzymes called Cyclooxygenases, which are responsible in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Emer M. Smyth, PhD & Garret A. FitzGerald, MD (2007) state that there are currently three known Cyclooxygenases; however COX-3...

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The swine flu

Currently, there has been an international concern and fear about the disease "The Swine" or Swine Flu. The main question that all the experts were worried about was whether the swine flu is an epidemic or a pandemic. An epidemic is defined as an outbreak of a contagious disease that...

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Natural product chemistry

Introduction Of Natural Product Chemistry In the beginning of organic chemistry was natural products chemistry. For a long period, up to the 1960's the structural studies of natural products served as the principle driving force for the discovery of new chemical reactivity. The introduction of spectroscopic techniques, ...

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Alternative souce of energy

INTRODUCTION ALTERNATIVE SOUCE OF ENERGY Alternative souce of energy are derived from sources that donot use upnatural resources and donot harm the environment. There are no.of alternative source of energywhich damage to the environment caused by the fossil fuels.Today most of the energy is provided through the fossil fuel such as...

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Effect of fermentation on teas

Abstract Centella asiatica leaves were exposed to fermentation/oxidation for varying amounts of time: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (90 min) and full fermentation (24 h). The chemical composition of the teas was determined and compared with commercial Camellia sinensis teas. The results of proximate analysis showed Centella asiatica herbal teas...

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Predictors Of Success In Chemist Licensure Examination Chemistry Essay

A discriminant analysis was performed to identify variables that can successfully predict passing of Bachelor of Science in Chemistry graduates of Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City, Philippines in the Chemist Licensure Examination. Thirteen predictors were used which include final grades of students in three Inorganic Chemistry subjects, two Organic...

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Desmear and electroless plating

Introduction Printed circuit board is used in the electronic manufacturing for mechanical and electrical support. It is electronically connects the electric components using conductive traces, carved from copper covered...

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Original transparency a few minutes

Introduction: A glass that darkens when exposed to light but regains its original transparency a few minutes after light is removed; the rate of clearing increases with temperature. Photosensitive glass that is chemical treated to become dark upon exposure to ultraviolet light and regains full transparency when...

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Propensity of self-assembling

Introduction: peptides has the propensity of self-assembling, as the concentration of peptides increases in the solution, the monomers interact with each other via intermolecular hydrogen bonding to form β-sheet tapes and ribbons which, at certain concentration forms entangled gel networks. These...

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Synthesis of nickel complexes

Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the Ligand exchange that occurs when different Nickel complexes and reacted with Triphenylphosphine. Introduction Triphenylphosphine was first prepared by Pfeiffer and Sauvage in 1904 Experimental Triphenylphosphine (1.408g) was dissolved under reflux with Propan-2-ol (15cm3) forming a colourless solution to which 5 boiling chips were added....

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Difference between certain compounds

Introduction :- An obvious difference between certain compounds is their color. Thus, quinone is yellow; chlorophyll is green; the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of aldehydes and ketones range in color from bright yellow to deep red, depending on double bond conjugation; and aspirin is colorless....

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Side effects of non-steroidal drugs

INTRODUCTION Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are more commonly abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs which have analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can act as analgesics, meaning they are used to relieve pain but are unusual in that they are non-narcotic. NSAIDs can also produce antipyretic effects, which is when...

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The multiple emulsions

Introduction: Seifriz started his pioneering work about multiple emulsions since 1925, which is regarded as the fundamental knowledge in the later research. Multiple emulsions are complicated systems which are considered as "emulsions of emulsions" (Garti, 1996).In the outer continues phase, the droplets of the dispersed phase named as globules which contain...

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Enhance oil recovery

Abstract Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes received more attentions nowadays. Crude Terephthalic Acid (CTA) as a chemical compound is used for flooding here as an alternative to the traditional hydrolyzed polyacryl amide (HPAM). Crude Oil samples from an Iranian oil field were used during the flooding tests. Sand packed models using two different sizes of sand mainly...

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the major systematic error sublimation of caffeine

Introduction: Coffee has been a popular drink since 20th century, not only because of its different colors and flavors due to different degrees of roasting, but also the effect on which it can keep you to stay...

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The genesis of elements

Introduction The periodic table is continually enriched with new elements synthesised by nuclear reactions in laboratories, but only 90 of all the elements occur naturally. Those are found between atomic numbers 1 to 92, which is from 1H to 92U, excluding the elements technetium (43Tc) and promethium (61Pm). The latter two...

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