Factors for Successful Human Resource Management

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Introduction

There are many things one takes for granted in life and one of them being the importance of human resource management.  The organisation will not function as a whole without human resource management.  Human resource management deals with every query that employees have.

One looks at the importance of Human Resource Management in an organisation and how all of the decisions are governed by legislation and policies.  The importance of strategic planning in an organisation to reach the organisation’s objectives and the various Acts that influence the Human Resource Management in an organisation.

The importance of job analysis in an organisation and how to make the employee feel comfortable during this process.  What are the steps to recruit the best person for the job and importance of a leader in an organisation and how a leader can bring about transformation in an organisation.

How the organisation motivates staff through performance appraisals and what motivates the staff to do better in each appraisal.  What the staff need to survive in an organisation and the importance of emotional intelligence when working in an organisation.

All of this culminates to bring out the human aspect of an organisation.  The way employees interact with one another even though they come from diverse backgrounds.

Question 1

Define human resource management.  List two internal and external success factors of people management.

The human resource department has to comply with the constitution that contains the Bill of Rights.  Various White paper policies are White paper on Resource Management in the Public service, White paper on a New Employment Policy for the Public service, White Paper on a New Employment Policy for the Public Service, White Paper Public Service Training and Education and White Paper on the Transformation of the Public Service / Batho Pele White Paper.

There are various Acts that govern the implementation of human resource management are Basic Conditions of Employment Act, Employment Equity Act, Labour Relations Act (LRA), Public service Act (PSA), Skills Development Act, and the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).

Human Resource Management is about finding out what the needs of an organisation are.  Once the needs of an organisation are established, the process of recruitment, skills developing and rewarding of people to support an organisation takes place.  Therefore human resource management is referring to the managing of people in an organisation.  The employees play a vital role in an organisation because they can be seen as the assets of an organisation.  The organisation will not achieve its objectives if proper planning is not adhered to.  PLOC is used to establish the needs of an organisation and the managing of people.  (Regenesys Guide, 2017:16)

Planning:  For Human Resource Management to succeed, strategic planning must take place.  One must look at what the organisation wants to achieve and how it is going to achieve these goals.  The values, vision and mission statement of an organisation must be taken into consideration when planning.

Organising:  Here one looks at the needs of an organisation, for instance if departments must be created, to realise these needs.  Organising also deals with managers delegating tasks to subordinates, coordinating work and supervising employees.  Organising is about bringing strategic resources together to achieve the organisation’s objectives.

Managing of people:  It is about the employment of staff and ensuring that the best candidate for the position is appointed through a process of selection.  Employees will go through the process of training and development of skills.  Strategic goals will be set to analyse staff’s performance through a process of evaluation.  Employees, who are achievers, will be compensated for their achievements and for those who need motivation they will be counselled.

Leading:  Is about motivating staff to do what is required of them.  Motivated employees will carry out the duties enthusiastically.  Therefore, it is vital to elevate and maintain the self-esteem of the staff.  Managers must ensure that their staff feel empowered to execute their duties effectively.

Control:  Policies, rules and regulations must be executed for the smooth running of an organisation.  Control is about setting rules and ensuring that employees abide by these rules. Managers will ensure that employees not abiding by these rules will be disciplined.  Protocol must be followed in an organisation for the smooth running of an organisation.

‘Effective HRM strategy systematically coordinates all individual HRM measures and implements them so as to directly influence employee attitude and behavior in a way that helps a business to achieve its competitive strategy.’  (Huang, 2001:134)

Planning, organising, managing of people, leading and control are important for growth and realization of an organisation.  A safe working environment is crucial for the employee’s piece of mind.  Employees, who have occupation fulfilment through the process of training and skills development, will be efficient in the execution of tasks and improving service delivery in an organisation.  Employees will be rewarded for their accomplishments of tasks well done through incentives and performance bonuses.  This is what human resource management aims to achieve when dealing with people, in an ever changing environment, and in doing so realise their objectives.

The Human Resource Management Model illustrates the various function of human resource management in an organisation:

Work design and structure:  (Regenesys Guide, 2017:20, 21, 22, 23)

Appointments:  This process is about interviewing of candidates, the selection of the best candidate, evaluating the candidate’s abilities and capabilities.  Socialisation is about orientating the appointee to the various processes in an organisation, which is the organisation’s ethos, through training and development.  Does the organisation have the capital to achieve its objectives?  The process of appointing people can only be achieved through the process of preparation, monitoring and allocation of funds.

Remuneration and rewards:  Refers to the wage or salary that an employee receives either weekly or monthly. The wage or salary must be according to governmental requirements that is minimum wage or salary payable to an employee is met.  The wage or salary that the employee receives is inflation linked and market related for that particular position.  There are two types of rewards one is the intrinsic reward the other is extrinsic rewards.  Intrinsic rewards are job gratification an employee feels when efficiently completing tasks assigned to them.  Extrinsic rewards are rewards given by an organisation to their staff in recognition of job well done.  These can in the form of performance bonuses, promotions etc.

Performance management:  Managers finalize the job contract with the employee, evaluate the employee, make a comparison with previous performance, recognise employee’s performance through the process of evaluation, rewarding staff according to their performance and develop the employee in areas that need improving.

Career management:  Is about encouraging employees to evolve in an organisation; ensuring that employees know their strengths and weaknesses; educating staff to encourage growth in their jobs; informing staff of their progress towards their job objectives and aligning all of the above with the goals and objectives of the organisation.

Training and development:  Training and development of staff is vital in an ever-changing environment.  The National Skills development Act, 1998 addresses this need.  It is because of the National Skills development Act, 1998 that employees are sent for training and development.  There are various business colleges that employees are sent to for training.  Employees that are trained improve service delivery and adjust to changes in an organisation.

Relationship management:  The rapport the organisation has with its employees, stakeholders and the public.  How the organisation responds to its employees within an organisation and how the organisation responds to the stakeholders and the public outside of an organisation.

Administration: This deals with how human resource personnel keep records of employees’: wages, salaries, leave day, performance documents and human resource related matters.

Diversity management:  About working with and leading people that come from different backgrounds and cultures.  Working together in reaching a common goal for the benefit of the organisation that is unity through diversity.

Industrial relations:  The Labour Relations Act controls how conflicts and disputes will be resolved between the government and public servants.

Exit management conflict:  Process in which employees leave an organisation.  Whether it is voluntarily, that is retirement or resignation or involuntarily, that is dismissal or retrenchment.

Strategic human resource management is about the strategic employment and retaining of people.  The human resource manager must ensure that their vision is aligned with the organisation’s objectives, strategic goals and policies.  This will ensure that the organisation will be prepared for any changes that happen in an environment, by having a workforce that is adaptable to change.

‘Overall corporate strategy and the feedback from the environment will dictate the optimal strategies, policies, objectives, activities and tasks in human resource management.’  (Itika, 2011:4)

When planning strategically it in important to look at what the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organisation are.  SWOT analysis examines what the internal and external factors of people management are.

Two internal success factors of people management are:

  • Organisational culture
  • Strong leadership skills

The organisation culture is the manner in which the staff, stakeholders and the public are treated in an organisation.  For an organisation to be successful, it must have employees that are able to provide good customer service and adhere to a code of conduct.  The staff must feel valued in an organisation to be productive.  The vision, mission and values of an organisation must be clearly outlined in an organisation.  The Batho Pele principles defines this through the process of consultation, setting service standards, increasing access, ensuring courtesy, providing information, openness and transparency, redress and value for money.  Once an organisation’s culture is shaped, it becomes difficult to break but can be adapted for future development.

A leader is someone who has a vision for the organisation and insight on how to lead people to achieve this vision.  An organisation that has strong leaders will most definitely succeed because leaders have direction will be able to cope in a changing environment.  The leaders with the help of the managers will ensure that the organisation’s objectives are met.  The morale of the staff also play a vital role in this process, therefore leaders will inspire staff to be committed in achieving outcomes.

Two external success factors of people management are:

  • Technology
  • Economy

For an organisation to work effectively computers are used to speed up processes.  Documents are assessed digitally; this ensures fast and effective service delivery.  Therefore, it can be said that the advancement in technology can be seen as a success factor.  Technology as advanced to such an extent that most transactions can be done without the use of paper and in a matter of seconds for example emails and internet banking.

The economy affects the planning of an organisation.  During a stable economy, the organisation will be able to recruit more employees.  Salary or wage increases will also be determined by how well the economy is doing.  A stronger economy will ensure that organisations will have a bigger budget to work with.  A stable economy has a positive effect on an organisation.

Question 2

 

Identify two relevant acts that have an impact on human resources management.  In your answer, explain the impact of the acts on human resource management and how the acts influence the functions of the human resource department.

The constitution contains the Bill of Rights that is the basic human rights.  There is a process before a Bill can be passed into legislation; government drafts a proposal on White paper that outlines the Bill.  The Bill can be discussed before it is either rejected or accepted into legislation.

Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 2002

‘To give effect to the right to fair labour practices referred to in section 23(1) of the Constitution by establishing and making provision for the regulation of basic conditions of employment; and thereby to comply with the obligations of the Republic as a member state of the International Labour Organisation; and to provide for matters connected therewith.’  (Department of Labour, 2002)

The two relevant Acts are:

  • Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 2002
  • Amended Skills Development Act, 1998

Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 2002:  This Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002 affects all employees, therefore human resource management must have the requisite skills in the implementation of Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002 in an organisation.  The Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002 makes clear definition on minimum working conditions in an organisation.  The human resource manager must ensure that minimum requirement working conditions are met by the organisation that is working time, leave, pay; deductions from pay, termination etc., both, the private and public sectors will have to abide by the Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002.  The people who do not fall under this legislation are volunteer workers, the National Defence Force, National Intelligence Agency and South African Secret Service.

The human resource department must ensure that the employer, employees, and stakeholders, understand the Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002.  Inspectors for Labour or unions members may call at the organisation to inquire about employees’ grievances and disputes that the employees have with the employer.  The new appointees must also be oriented about the Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002.

The human resource manager uses the guidelines in the Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 2002 to draw up contracts to protect the employee.  The impact that the Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002 has on human resource management is of a positive nature.  The employees of an organisation are satisfied because of the fair treatment that they receive from the employer.  If the employer does not comply and behaves in an unlawful way then the employer will have to face the consequences of the law.

Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002 also influences the time management of the human resource department because there are various queries that this department deals with on a daily basis. Staffing in the human resource department is of the utmost importance to deal with these queries that employees may have, that is working time, leave, pay; deductions from pay, termination etc.

Human resource management plays a vital role in the implementing of the Amended Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 2002 in an organisation.

Amended Skills Development Act, 1998

‘The short supply of skilled personnel is a serious obstacle to the competitiveness of our industry. The Skills Development Act aims to expand the knowledge and competencies of the labour force in order to improve productivity and employment.’ (Pmg-assets, 2000)

Amended Skills Development Act, 1998:  The organisation wants a skilled workforce.  The only way to achieve this is through training and development.  The Amended Skills Development Act of 1998 was introduced into legislation for that very purpose.

‘In terms of Chapter two, section 3(2) (a) (ii), of the Public Service Act, 1 994, the Minister for Public Service and Administration may exercise powers related to employment, and other personnel practices, including the promotion of broad representivity as well as human resource management and training in the Public Service.’  (Pmg-assets, 2000)

For the Amended Skills Development Act of 1998 to take effect various establishments were established namely, The National Skills Authority, The National Skills Fund , SETAs, Labour centres, The skills development Planning Unit and a skills development levy- financing scheme as contemplated in the Skills Development Levies Act.  This encouraged the organisation to go into partnership with the private sector.

The impact of the Amended Skills Development Act of 1998 on human resource management is that the human resource manager must ensure that staff are trained and developed in an organisation.  The human resource manager must monitor and ensure that sufficient funds are allocated for the training and development of staff.

The Amended Skills Development Ac of 1998 influences the selection process of employees who must be trained and developed.  The people directly responsible for this, is the Performance Management and Development unit, which is part of Human Resource.  Their duty is to assess the needs of the organisation and send the staff for training and development ensuring that they align the training and development with the strategic goals of the organisation

Question 3

 

Explain the job analysis process and describe two methods to gather information for the job analysis process.

The organisation usually does statistical analysis to re-evaluate the employees’ jobs for strategic planning.  The organisation could be going through a process of restructuring, realigning and downsizing; therefore, has to look at how to redeploy staff.  This process can become a concern for employees who feel insecure in a changing organisation.

Job analysis can be seen either in a positive or negative light.  When the organisation is expanding and needs to recruit people that can be seen in a positive way but when the organisation is downsizing and needs to retrench people that can be seen in a negative light.  There are two variables of job analysis one is positive and the other is negative.  This is how employee reacts towards job analysis with emotions of either positive nature or a negative nature.

Planning the Job analysis:  The process of planning the job analysis involves systematically collating data from managers and staff to update job descriptions of the employees in an organisation.  This may include the re-evaluation of the job description according to the organisation’s needs and wants.  The human resource department needs to ensure that they have the support of senior management to carry out this process.

Preparing and introducing the job analysis:  This involves the preparation and introduction of the job analysis to managers and staff.  First look at the current job description and what changes must happen to align it with the strategic planning of the organisation.  Explain to the managers and staff, who will participate in the process and how the process is going to work.   Explain to the managers, staff and union members who will be affected by this process.  All queries about the job analysis from employees should be taken into consideration when introducing this process.

‘A regular or proactive job analysis practice can help a company in creating a proper infrastructure by defining the tasks to be performed as well as the timelines for performing them.’  (Siddique, 2004:221)

Conducting the job analysis:  Clear information should be given on conducting the job analysis process.  The human resource department must indicate the timeliness and allocate adequate time to collect information from managers and employees.  If the questionnaire method is used for the job analysis process then it will be advisable to have managers check them before giving it back to the human resource unit.  Once the information on the job analysis has been collected, it should be grouped according to occupation, unit, and sub directorate.  These steps allow for the filtering of data and finding similarities throughout the organisation.  The data should be checked to ensure that all the information has been completed.  Additional assessment of the job analysis maybe necessary; this process may require staff and managers to answer questions or to be interviewed.

Developing job descriptions and job specifications:  This involves the human resource manager and analytical staff from the human resource department to make draft descriptions and job specifications.  The writing of one’s job description is not recommended because the job description becomes subjective to suit one’s needs instead of aligning the job description with the objectives of the organisation.  Managers should review the completed draft job description of employees but the decision is up to them to either review the draft or wait for the final document.  Once all the completed job descriptions have been distributed to the various unit managers, by human resource department, it is important that the manager discusses the amended job description with the employee on a one to one basis.  The relevance of this discussion process is that the employee understands and agrees to the amended job description.  The amended job description is linked to appraisal performance of the employee.

Maintaining and updating of job descriptions and job specifications:  Systems must be in place to for the updating of records relating to job description or else the whole process starting with job analysis will have to be repeated after a couple of years.  Job descriptions must be re-evaluated when necessary to adapt to the changing organisation.  The human resource department is responsible for re-evaluating job descriptions to ensure that the job description is always up-to-date.  The employees and managers play a vital role in knowing when there is a need for re-evaluation of job descriptions because they work in the various units of the organisation and know when change is required.  Job descriptions and job specifications should be re-assessed and re-evaluated before the recruiting process begins.  This ensures that job description meets the requirements for that job.  Once in three years the human resource department, to be aligned with technological advancement and organisation changes, must do a detailed systematic review.

‘To stay current and to maintain control of work design, supervisors need to put into place a good set of job descriptions and the systems for regularly updating them.’  (Chow and Kleiner, 2002:126)

Two methods to gather information for the job analysis process:

  • Questionnaire
  • Interview

Questionnaire:  To question every single employee in organisation on a one to one basis will be a cumbersome task, therefore a standard questionnaire is used to for employees with same or similar job categories to fill out a questionnaire.   The questionnaire is structured in such a way that the questions are the same for people with similar or the same job categories.  The questionnaire that the employee fills out allows the employee to discuss their duties, the employee’s daily routine in completing the job, training and development that is required to improve their skills.  The manager ensures that there are no mistakes before handing the document to the human resource department.  The personnel in the human resource department process the information on the computer.

Interview:  This method involves an interview between an employee and human resource personnel.  Strategic questions are asked by the human resource personnel to get as much information as possible about the job.  The interview involves the human element because it is between the interviewer and the interviewee.  Interviewees are given the opportunity to address any concerns they may have about the process of the job analysis.  The interviewee feels more at ease and the information from the interviewee is more forthcoming.  The questions are asked in such a way that it allows for the interviewee to cover all the necessary aspects of the job analysis that are duties, the employee’s daily routine in completing the job, training and development that is required to improve their skills.

Question 4

 

As an HR manager, you are required to recruit a receptionist.  Explain the steps involved in the recruitment process.  Explain three techniques that you will use to recruit the most appropriate receptionist.

Once the organisation has established a need for a receptionist in the Human Resource Department and has allocated the funds for the post, the process of recruiting will commence.

Firstly, the post will be advertised, highlighting the following inherent requirements for the post of Receptionist:

…Requirements:  The candidate must have grade 12 with 1 to 3 years working experience.  The candidate must have an excellent understanding of the Batho Pele Principles, be able to liaise in a professional manner, have excellent communication skills, be able to work independently and under pressure.

Duties:  Handling of incoming and outgoing correspondence, delivery of documents, tracking of documents that were delivered and / or collected.  Liaise with all internal and external stakeholders who visit or call at the Human Resource Department. Implement and maintain administrative systems and procedures for the Human Resource Department…

The sifting and sorting of applications will be acknowledged and checked by a handling officer.    All applications are checked for the following:

  • Post number and reference number
  • Document used is either the Z83 or GDE2R
  • Correct Postal address
  • Posted applications are within the time frames that is five working days from the closing date
  • Unsigned or photocopied signature on an application form
  • Experience relevant to the job e.g. 1 to 3 years receptionist experience

This process of sorting and sifting must be completed 20 working days after the closing date.

Thereafter, the chairperson who is the line manager, will invite the panel; three employees that are in supervisory post therefore rank higher than the candidates that will be applying for the post.  The union reps, observer from head office, secretariat / scribe and human resource rep will also be invited for the shortlisting process.  Panel members cannot be related to the candidates.  The shortlisting committee must sign a confidentiality document.  All discussions, relevant to the shortlisting process, will be minuted.  All qualified applications will be considered for the process of shortlisting.  The process of shortlisting will be done in accordance to what the inherent requirements of the job are and in a justifiable manner.  A maximum of six shortlisted candidates will be contacted for an interview for the post of Receptionist.

The secretariat / scribe will invite the shortlisted candidates for an interview.  Candidates will inform the secretariat / scribe whether or not they will be available for the interview.  The candidates who withdraw their application must do so in writing.

The interview process will have the same members that were on the shortlisting process.  The interviewing committee must sign a confidentiality document.  The secretariat / scribe and human resource rep will submit the shortlisted candidates application forms, with the attached curriculum vitae, to the interviewing panel.  All discussions, relevant to the interview, will be minuted.  Once all the shortlisted candidates are interviewed, the best candidate will be recommended for the post.

The recommended candidate will have their qualifications verified, their reference verified

and all documentation will be sent to head office to appointment the recommended candidate.

Once the appointed candidate accepts the job offer, he / she will be introduced to the Human Resource department.   The receptionist will go through a process of induction to learn about the organisation’s ethos.

Explain three techniques that you will use to recruit the most appropriate receptionist.

Through the process of sorting and sifting, shortlisting and interviewing, I will find the best candidate for the job.

Sorting and sifting:

The handling officer in recruitment will ensure that all relevant information is on the application form.  For instance, did the applicants fill out the Z83 form, is the id copy certified, do they have valid driver’s licence, is the curriculum vitae attached to the application form.

Shortlisting and selection:

Shortlisting panel will check that the applicants’ information is relevant to the advertisement.  The applications that are not in line with advertisement will be declined.  They will also check that all documents have been certified, double checking to see the if handling officer missed anything.

Interview and testing:

Each candidate will be asked the same questions to establish who answered the best.  The candidates will be scored and the candidate with the highest score will be recommended.  The candidates will be asked various questions to establish their knowledge when dealing with stakeholders and the public.  During the interview the interviewer can establish how much the candidate knows about the organisation that is Batho Pele principles, mission and vision statement of the organisation.  The candidate will be required to do a skills test.  In the case of the receptionist post, the shortlisted candidates will be tested for his or her verbal communication skills.

Question 5

 

Explain the role and process of a leader or manager transforming a group into a team.  In your response, ensure that you explain the difference between a group and a team.

Leaders are born, not made or are they?  A leader is not afraid of change in an organisation; a leader encompasses change in an organisation.  ‘Based on the belief that leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead.’  (Bolden et al, 2003:6)

What would be better, to have a leader managing or a manager leading?  Leaders understand the human factor, which are human emotions; managers just want to see the completion of the work.

‘Although the source of team leadership can vary, all sources are ultimately focused on satisfying team needs with the goal of enhancing team effectiveness.’  (Morgeson F, DeRue D, Karam E, 2010:9).  The leaders play in an important role in organisation, people look up to leaders and they follow leaders.  The leader inspires people to see the vision that the organisation wants to achieve.

The six essential skills for strategic leaders are, (Regenesys Guide, 2017:112, 113, 114, 115, 116),

  • Anticipate – is to be ahead,
  • Challenge – is to question everything,
  • Interpret – is to understand what is being said,
  • Decide – is to assess various outcomes,
  • Align– is to build trust and respect,
  • Learn – is to learn from mistakes

There are different types of leadership theories:  (Regenesys Guide, 2017:117, 118)

  • Trait theories is a belief that leaders are born leaders,
  • Behavioural theories is a belief that leaders are made into great leaders,
  • Contingency theories is a belief that leaders develop through change in an environment,
  • Transactional theories is a belief on how leaders lead organisations,
  • Transformational theories is a belief that leaders lead people

For a leader to be adept in what they do, they must have all of these skills.  It is fundamental for a leader to be able to change groups into teams.  A group of people are people working independently whilst a team are people that have a common goal.

How do leaders change a group of people into an effective team?  Leaders have the inherent skill to change groups of people into teams through motivation and inspiration.  People in a team feel empowered because they oversee projects, whilst people in a group just follow orders.  People in a team have to think analytically and give feedback to their leaders whilst people in a group work mechanically.

Group

  • People who work in an organisation but do not work as a team
  • People who do not have a common goal for the organisation in mind
  • People who do not have specific duties, like managing a project, assigned to them
  • People who work independently in the organisation
  • People who do not know everyone in an organisation

Team

  • People who work together as a diverse team in an organisation
  • People who share a common goal for the organisation
  • People who do have a specific duties on a project assigned to them
  • People who work interdependently in an organisation
  • People who are aware of each others strengths and weaknesses

There are three levels of leadership, public, private and personal leadership.  Public and private leadership focuses on performance whilst personal leadership focuses on the personal principles of the leader.

Leaders in an organisation will plan to take the organisation to new heights.  They will have a motivated team to achieve this vision.  Leaders will have the empathy that the team needs during demanding periods.  Leaders will be able to direct people to the common goal of the organisation

Question 6

List and appraise the key roles, principles and process of conducting performance appraisals.

It is the responsibility of the performance management and development unit to oversee the performance appraisals of the employees.  The performance appraisals are for all employees employed by the Public Sector, whether the employee is permanent, temporary or on fixed term contract.  In terms of the Public Service Act, all employees on salary level 1, up to, and including salary level 12 will be appraised.

The performance appraisal is a predetermined agreement between staff, taking into account the responsibilities and outputs, and supervisor / line manager.  Performance appraisals should be done in an unbiased way keeping in mind the strategic objectives of the organisation and aligning the performance appraisal with the Batho Pele principles, values, vision and mission statement of the organisation.

  • Performance appraisals are done to assess the performance of the staff
  • It is guideline that is set between the staff and supervisor / line manager
  • The Key Result Areas that is output and aims are assessed against the Core Management Competencies that is general management competencies to evaluate the staff
  • Employees are assessed using a scoring system that is score of 5 – clearly outstanding, score of 4 – very effective, score of 3 – is effective, score of 2 – is meets some requirements / developing and score of 1 not yet effective
  • The performance management and development unit form a committee to monitor the uniformity of the process throughout the organisation
  • Staff must provide evidence for their scores of 4 and score of 5, staff scoring a score of 1 or 2; the supervisor / line manager must give an account as to why these scores were given to the employee
  • Cash bonuses are paid out to staff who are very effective or clearly outstanding during the appraisals
  • Locate work in a public service context:  People who understand the role of the department in the Gauteng province government.  They know how to work in teams in their department.  They are able to work according the department’s objectives and delivery excellent service
  • Secure and allocate resources to achieve workplace objectives:  People who use equipment, stationery and material wisely.  Monitor the usage of their resources, replace any shortages and deal with any discrepancies when required.  They are always keeping the objective of the department in mind when working with resources.
  • Contribute to problem solving in a work group:  People who are organised in solving problems in a workplace.  Talk about how to solve a problem and find solutions to the problem.  They also assess their consequences of their solutions always keeping in mind the objectives of the department.
  • Participate and adapt to change in the workplace:  People who make changes in the workplace according to how they do operational work.  They accept and adapt to continuous change in the workplace.  People accept change as being a normal part of work in the public sector.
  • Communicate in the workplace:  People who interact with the stakeholders and the public in an appropriate manner.  They are also able to give and receive instructions.  They communicate effectively when working with groups of people.

(Circular 3 of 2015, 2015:3)

  • reviewing past performance
  • assessing current performance
  • setting performance objectives
  • improving current performance
  • assisting in career planning
  • determining recognition and reward

A signed agreement is between the employee and supervisor or line manager.  The main purpose of the contract is for the employee to achieve objectives according to standards measured to the department’s strategic plan.  The contract is done annually, starting on the 1 April and completed by the 30 April taking into consideration weekends and public holidays.

The supervisor must explain the performance management system to the employee.  Explain the criteria, weightings, outputs and measures to the employee.  The quarterly reviews are done every three months that start on the 1 April of the current year and ends on the 31s March of the following year.  Quarterly reviews are not done during weekends and public holidays.

The employee that performs well will receive a performance bonus.  Employees, who do not meet these requirements, will have to be developed and monitored to check for progress.  Employees will also be encouraged to improve on their current performance.  Managers / supervisors will assess staff to check which areas can be improved on.  The performance appraisal can also determine the growth of the employee in the organisation in terms of promotion.

Four quarterly reviews are done during the course of the cycle.  The employee together with supervisor assesses the employee’s performance.  Thereafter, an agreement is reached and a rating is given, both parties date and sign of the agreement.  During the final performance review in the cycle all the scores are add up and the total is dived by the number of quarters, which are four quarters.  The formula that is used is rating x weighting = score (3 x 30 = 90), add all the scores for section 1 which a total out of 500 and the same for section 2 which is also out of 500.  Section 1 and 2 are added together will give one a score of 1000.  Divide the score first by 10% and then by 20 that is 325 + 370 = 695 /10/ 20 = 3.475 rounded to the nearest whole number is = to a rating of 3.

For an employee to qualify for performance bonuses a rating of 4 or 5 must be given.  If for some reason the employee is not happy with the rating given, the employee must try to resolve the disagreement with the supervisor.  Thereafter the line manager will intervene if no compromise has been reached.

Question 7

You have been introduced to many motivational theories.  Explain one motivational theory. 

For people to survive the basic needs have to be satisfied that is thirst, hunger, dwelling and protection from the elements.  According to Maslow, this is what people need:  (Regenesys Guide, 2017:89-90)

Looking at these needs in the context of work, people must have the basic requirements at the bottom of the hierarchy going all the way to the top, to reach what they want to achieve through these different processes.

Physiological Needs:  This is ones physical needs for the body to sustain and perform ones duties.  For instance if one did not have food and went to work, one would feel hungry and not be able to concentrate at work.  This will have a curve ball effect; affecting ones need to reach the top of the hierarchy of needs.

Safety Needs:  What is the organisation doing to make the employees feel safe at work.  If one feels safe in a working environment and the basic needs are met, then one will be at ease knowing that there is a guaranteed salary with benefits at the end of the month.  One is free from fear if one feels relaxed to express oneself to a superior in terms of any fear one may have related to work.

Belonging Needs:  This aspect looks at how one feels in an organisation.  Do they feel like an individual or do they feel like part of a team.  Once the one feels like one belongs they immediately connect with the organisation.  The organisation will benefit with people who work and behave like a team because it will make the organisation stronger.  The employee will not feel like an outsider in the organisation.

Self-Esteem Needs:  One will feels worthy in an organisation, if one is recognised for ones accomplishments in an organisation.  The employee feels motivated and wants to grow in an organisation.  The employee takes the initiative when dealing with complex tasks.  The supervisor praises and recognises the employee’s competency when dealing with complex tasks.

Self-Actualisation Needs:  This is when one feels fulfilled in an organisation, knowing that they accomplished what one wanted to.  At this point, the employees know their strengths and weaknesses.  This is when one has reached the peak of one’s education, profession, and in one’s beliefs.

The hierarchy symbolises the very essence of what life is about in an organisation.  For one to start at the very bottom of the ladder and to move all the way up is an accomplishment.

Question 8

 

Explain the five domains of emotional intelligence and explain the relevance of emotional intelligence for organisations

 

Self-awareness:  This is being aware of oneself, knowing ones weaknesses and strengths. To be aware of how one’s feelings affect other people.  To give a true assessment of oneself, to have self-confidence in whatever one pursues.

Other Awareness:  To have the knowledge to understand people’s needs.  Knowing that no two people are alike and treating people according to their emotional reaction.  One must have consideration for people when dealing with issues of a sensitive nature.

Self-Management:  To take into consideration one’s own emotions when dealing with people.  One must be able to maintain decorum when talking to people.  One must be able to think before reacting emotionally.  People must see you in a positive way and not in a negative way.

Relationship Skills:  One must be able to inspire people.  People must look up to you.  One must be objective in one’s thinking.  How one reacts to others in a time of crisis.  One must have the skills to relate to a diverse group of people.

Spiritual Intelligence:  People with divine insight have calmness about them.  They do not take anything for granted.  These people want to support humanity.  They are aware of their surroundings.  They believe in a supreme power.

Now how these five domains of emotional intelligence affect one in an organisation?  The way that employees react to a situation in an organisation will define them.  Either they can be good and productive in the work they do or bad and unproductive in the work they do.

Employees in an organisation are paid wages, salaries, commissions or bonuses for the work they do.  Compensation is also paid has a result of an employee being injured or killed on duty.  Compensation is paid to an employee if the employee is retrenched.   The employee is compensated by receiving money from the Unemployment Insurance Fund.

Employees are also rewarded by receiving the benefits of working for an organisation for example receiving housing allowance, pension fund and medical aid.  There are two types of rewards one is intrinsic rewards and the other is extrinsic rewards.  Intrinsic reward deals with the satisfaction one gets from doing ones job well.  They feel a sense of belonging in an organisation and work independently and without supervision.  These people are also self-motivators wanting to be the best that they can be in any given task.  Extrinsic rewards are rewards that are performance driven.  The employee will be rewarded for exceeding above their expectations.  These rewards are money, prizes, recognition, promotions etc.

An employee who feels wanted and is part of an organisation’s team will feel motivated to work.  The organisation will benefit from employees who are motivated because they will achieve the organisations objectives.  The employee represents the organisation they work for, so it is very important the way he/she conduct himself or herself when dealing with stakeholders and the public.

Conclusion

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