Detecting Corrosion in Gas Pipelines

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ABSTRACT

 

INTRODUCTION

Gas pipeline transports the gas from a processing plant to distribution centers, under a high pressure environment which run under the ground in a safe environment.  Pipeline integrity is a critical area in operation management which deals with the inspection and failure prevention in a pipeline, which also involves in the services that supports the asset of pipeline operators[1]. Risk management is another crucial area in gas pipeline, which highlights both risk prediction and safety measures to ensure the long life of pipeline.

Integrity management analysis the failures in pipeline mainly based on analysis of corrosion and preventive measures to enhance the safety of pipeline.[1]. Failure of gas pipeline is analyzed based on gas release rate in leakage, where leakage can be occurred due to the corrosion in pipeline. If leakage of gas in pipeline occurs, impact of the accident is very high which affect human life, property and nature, which is higher compared to that of a fire accident. Hence estimation of gas leakage is very essential to control the gas leakage and also analyze the area of hazard in case of emergency[2].  Safety monitoring in gas pipeline requires safety tools which can inspect the pipelines as well as clean the pipelines, where pigging is used in pipeline industry to inspect high pressure and low pressure pipelines and external corrosion direct method (ECDA), internal corrosion direct method also play a vital role in mapping corrosion [1]. Fuzzy risk assessment is used to assess the importance of investing in safety of pipeline and helps in make a decision which is profitable to the pipeline operator[3]. Type-2 fuzzy logic is an advanced level of fuzzy logic estimates the corrosion failure likelihood, where input and output are organized to develop different corrosion failure model[4]. Safety monitoring of gas pipeline can be done online in different locations by using wavelet packet analysis identify the location of reflection in pipeline, which is very efficient whereas acoustic theory is not implemented in the monitoring technique[5].

Early detection of corrosion in gas pipeline is analyzed based on pressure and temperature which helps to manage corrosion efficiently and the early detection helps to estimate the maintenance time, and the early detection is essential for maintaining a safe environment and stabilize the economic factors involves in operation of gas pipeline [6]. Risk assessment helps to identify the uncertainty and analyze the results of uncertainty and the risk can be assessed based on seismicity and internal corrosion of a pipeline [7].Weight loss experiment is used to found actual corrosion rate of L485gas pipeline which is the most efficient as the experiment is done with a series of trials[8].Internal corrosion is severe in the elbow and elbow to pipe weld due to the disturbance in the flow disturbance which analyzed by using different analysis techniques namely scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis [9]. The corrosion due to flow disturbance can be reduced by changing the location of downstream weld and also the quality of both pipe and weld should keep the standards for a long life of a pipeline [9]. Pitting corrosion is an internal corrosion which results in the failure in a portion of pipeline where thick depositions of ions form a scale in the pipeline [10]. The internal corrosion due to pitting can be analyzed using smart pigging and MFL tools, whereas detection of stress corrosion is difficult using MFL tool[1].

The research question of the study is “How to analyze internal corrosion failure in gas pipeline to manage corrosion efficiently?” It is essential to analyses different techniques to analyze different corrosion and have to consider cost-effective methodology. It is necessary to analyze the external factors involved in corrosion such as pressure and temperature as well as internal flow of the gas. Most important advantage of the corrosion analysis is to find the maintenance period of the pipeline and to avoid the hazards due to the leakage of gas which affects human life and property.

Literature Review

Internal corrosion in a gas pipeline is a major issue as it will affect the lifetime of the pipeline as well as it will affect the human life and environment. Pipeline carries a large quantity of oil and gas thereby, consider as a major mode of transportation which is threaten mostly due to corrosion[1, 11].The only solution for this hazard is the early detection of corrosion and thereby increase the lifetime of the pipeline. There are many early detection methods which include inline inspection and usage of corrosion inhibitors. Efficient operational management is essential at the stage of construction of a pipeline helps to increase the lifetime of a pipeline and different operational strategy and the IT components improves the supply chain will be more advantageous[12].

The major hazard associated with gas and petroleum pipeline is an unexpected burst at any stage of the transportation through the pipeline, hence the analysis of such a hazard is crucial in any of the pipelines. Hence, to measure the gas release rate is necessary and it can be done by some simplified model equations which need to measure the pressure in the pipeline, diameter and the length of the pipeline .The proper identification of gas release rate in any of the gas pipeline helps in the planning of an emergency response at any stage of burst in a pipeline and is an experiment is done on a failed gas pipeline. These experimental studies help to identify the risk and thereby distinguish the required standard solutions and emergency responses for the identify risks[2]. Internal corrosion can be detect using feeler pigs and behavior analyzes of feeler pig improves the efficiency of corrosion detection in oil and gas pipelines. Contact testing and Non-destructive testing are the two techniques used to identify the corrosion in a gas pipeline. Detection error increases with increase in the velocity and an advanced correction algorithm can reduce the errors occurs in the detection phenomenon[11].

The early detection of corrosion in underground pipeline can be done by different techniques. One of the effective technique is to identify the corrosion is based on the varying gas flow pressure and temperature in the pipeline[6].A mathematical model is developed to analyze the rate of corrosion at different temperature levels and the second approach is to use a simulation model where the rate of corrosion is calculated with the temperature, gas flow pressure and diameter of the pipeline. The journal “Early Detection Method of Corrosion on Buried Pipeline” measures the corrosion rate with different pressure and temperature values and the temperature above 20 degree Celsius is tested and at the same time temperature below 20 degree Celsius is tested is set to the corrosion rate and predicted as 20 degree Celsius itself which is the major limitation with the mathematical modeling which works based on the NORSOK method. The major limitation of this experiment is that the testing is done with a pipeline where corrosion has already happened and the simulation only helps to analyze and measure the changes in in the corrosion rate while undergoing the test[6].

The corrosion rate of the gas pipeline is also measured based on the time where this method is followed based on the burst limit function under the condition of internal pressure moreover, “Poisson square wave process-based method (PSWP)” is used to develop the model to analyze the internal pressure. Dr.Kong Fah Tee done an experimental study on onshore gas pipeline based on the “external metal loss corrosion” where the experiment is done for different defect pipeline segments of 12 meter diameter as a standard. And this experimental study is done with different models such as degradation model, internal pressure model and reliability model[13].

Corrosion is a major threat in the subsea pipeline and this can be identified using corrosion inhibitors and the rate of corrosion can be measured using different experimental studies using different models. The corrosion rate of the pipeline always changes based on the velocity, temperature and the time period of the experiment done however, the corrosion rate and velocity are directly proportional to each other and the rate of corrosion initial goes high and then goes down when temperature increases. Short period experiments with several types of inhibitors are conducted but these inhibitors were not able to remove corrosion in selected areas which shows corrosion removal with inhibitors is not efficient. [14].

Hydrocarbon industry also deals with a major issue of corrosion hence PDVSA-Intevep created a device to monitor internal corrosion which helps to study the reasons of corrosion in a hydrocarbon production system. The study conducted at Venezuelan Northeastern deals with a varied diameter pipe which measure the flow arrangement in a particular pipeline and temperature, pressure are measured with a variety of sensors. The main reason of corrosion in Venezuelan northeastern pipelines is the under deposit corrosion (UDC) and the UDC is the foremost reason of pitting corrosion. The limitation of this experiment is that the existing metal particle in the corroded pipeline can reduce the efficiency of inhibitors to avert corrosion[15].

The experimental study of catastrophic failure of tank due to internal corrosion is analyzed based on the different parameters associated with the corrosion of steel used to build the tank. The causes of failure in tank are mainly due to the strain exhibit on the tank due to the pressure of liquid, internal and external corrosion.  There was a noticeable thinning of the tank walls before the failure and are monitored based on different parameters such as periodicity and reliability. To overcome the risk of failure the most important factor accounted is to identify the most suitable material for the construction[16].Internal corrosion is monitored with ring pair electrical resistance sensor(RPERS) is discussed by Y. Xu Et al. [17]. RPERS is compared with electrical resistance(ER) sensors based on the operational field of the pipeline[17].

In [18] S. Hasan Et.al explained the major operational failure of pipeline are thinning of pipeline wall and dropping of pressure limit due to internal corrosion and burst respectively and the major analyzes is done based on the chances of failure in pipeline due to the burst. The corrosion is increased as pipeline ages and it adversely affects the integrity of pipeline, the corrosion is measured from the length, wall thickness and the depth of the pipeline. Sensitivity analysis measures the failure probability due to internal corrosion is experimented using a stream ecosystem model and burst for different materials are analyzed helps to predict the burst pressure[18].

Rate of corrosion is higher when pH level increases, it can be due to different environmental condition. Flow rate in pipeline increases the severity of corrosion which can be measure with respect to temperature and pressure. Stainless steel has less corrosion rate when it is in a CO2 dripped environment compared to 13Cr graded steels and inhibitors had a very high rate of efficiency in this condition. The layer act as very low level of protection in an acidic environment but stainless steel is the best option to increase the protection against internal corrosion for the transportation of CO2[19].

Bayesian Belief Model (BBN) is used to analyze the hazard due to the internal corrosion where analytical models, multiple corrosion models, failure pressure model are used to identify the defect and probability of failure (PoF). Main advantage of BBN model is the visual representation where variables are connected to each other. On the other hand, chances of low quality performance when the set of variables considering is small and the network is also expensive to implement. Sensitivity analysis of BBN model is not accurate as it depends on many external factors for instance, pressure, corrosion rate and depth of corrosion and is depend on depth defect and operating pressure which affects the PoF. But sensitivity analysis is crucial as final output of the system is fully depends on initial input. Analytical model is the basic element of the BBN model always deals with the risk of errors which makes fluctuations in the identification of operating pressure of the pipeline maintenance. Monte Carlo simulation helps to overcome the uncertainty of analytical model is generally recognized but, diameter, thickness and age of the pipeline are assumed as deterministic value. In this paper [20] Oleg Shaberchin Et al. explained that the depth and length of the corrosion are unrelated variable sets moreover length of the corrosion cannot be measured by analytical model and generally length is assumed to be proportional to pipeline length[20].

RESEARCH DESIGN

 

  1. Research Question

 

How to analyze internal corrosion failure in gas pipeline to manage corrosion efficiently

  1. Related work
  2. Design

 

REFERENCES

[1] H. A. Kishawy and H. A. Gabbar, “Review of pipeline integrity management practices,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 373-380, 2010.

[2] N. Bariha, I. M. Mishra, and V. C. Srivastava, “Hazard analysis of failure of natural gas and petroleum gas pipelines,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 40, pp. 217-226, 2016.

[3] A. G. Urbina and A. Aoyama, “Measuring the benefit of investing in pipeline safety using fuzzy risk assessment,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 45, pp. 116-132, 2017.

[4] D. K. Jana, B. Bej, M. H. A. Wahab, and A. Mukherjee, “Novel type-2 fuzzy logic approach for inference of corrosion failure likelihood of oil and gas pipeline industry,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 80, pp. 299-311, 2017.

[5] Z. Qu et al., “Study on the natural gas pipeline safety monitoring technique and the time-frequency signal analysis method,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 47, pp. 1-9, 2017.

[6] M. S. A. Rahman and H. Hasbullah, “Early detection method of corrosion on buried pipeline,” in Information Technology (ITSim), 2010 International Symposium in, 2010, vol. 2, pp. 760-764: IEEE.

[7] O. Shabarchin and S. Tesfamariam, “Risk assessment of oil and gas pipelines with consideration of induced seismicity and internal corrosion,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 47, pp. 85-94, 2017.

[8] L. Shi, C. Wang, and C. Zou, “Corrosion failure analysis of L485 natural gas pipeline in CO 2 environment,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 36, pp. 372-378, 2014.

[9] Q. Qiao, G. Cheng, Y. Li, W. Wu, H. Hu, and H. Huang, “Corrosion failure analyses of an elbow and an elbow-to-pipe weld in a natural gas gathering pipeline,” Engineering Failure Analysis, 2017.

[10] H. Mansoori, R. Mirzaee, F. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Vojood, and A. S. Dowrani, “Pitting corrosion failure analysis of a wet gas pipeline,” Engineering Failure Analysis, 2017.

[11] X. Li, S. Zhang, S. Liu, X. Zhu, and K. Zhang, “Experimental study on the probe dynamic behaviour of feeler pigs in detecting internal corrosion in oil and gas pipelines,” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, vol. 26, pp. 229-239, 2015.

[12] L. Dunn and P. Gibson, “A Service-Oriented Approach To Onshore Gas Transmission Pipeline Construction,” in Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, 2007. SOLI 2007. IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 1-6: IEEE.

[13] K. F. Tee and K. Pesinis, “Reliability prediction for corroding natural gas pipelines,” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 65, pp. 91-105, 2017.

[14] S. Peng and Z. Zeng, “An experimental study on the internal corrosion of a subsea multiphase pipeline,” Petroleum, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 75-81, 2015.

[15] J. Biomorgi, S. Hernández, J. Marín, E. Rodriguez, M. Lara, and A. Viloria, “Internal corrosion studies in hydrocarbons production pipelines located at Venezuelan Northeastern,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 90, no. 9, pp. 1159-1167, 2012.

[16] W. Geary and J. Hobbs, “Catastrophic failure of a carbon steel storage tank due to internal corrosion,” Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 257-264, 2013.

[17] Y. Xu, Y. Huang, X. Wang, and X. Lin, “Experimental study on pipeline internal corrosion based on a new kind of electrical resistance sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 224, pp. 37-47, 2016.

[18] S. Hasan, F. Khan, and S. Kenny, “Probability assessment of burst limit state due to internal corrosion,” International Journal of pressure vessels and piping, vol. 89, pp. 48-58, 2012.

[19] S. Sim, I. Cole, Y.-S. Choi, and N. Birbilis, “A review of the protection strategies against internal corrosion for the safe transport of supercritical CO 2 via steel pipelines for CCS purposes,” International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 29, pp. 185-199, 2014.

[20] O. Shabarchin and S. Tesfamariam, “Internal corrosion hazard assessment of oil & gas pipelines using Bayesian belief network model,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 40, pp. 479-495, 2016.

 Literature Planner

Student Name: NEETHU THANKAM THOMAS

Student Number: 5832238

Topic: Operation management in gas pipeline construction Australia

Reference Number:             1 Authors: Nilambar Bariha Et al.

Title of Article:  Hazard analysis of failure of natural gas and petroleum gas pipelines

Type: Journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:   2015   Number of citations: 7

Primary or secondary:  primary8

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.42  Rank: 17/135 Percentile: 87%         

In-Category: Safety, risk, reliability and quality

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review? Hazard analysis, liquid petroleum gases, natural gas, decay coefficient, pipeline failure, jet fire

What was the research question?  What are the risks associated with natural gas and petroleum gas pipeline failure and estimate the gas release rate?

Design: Estimation of flow rate of gas, release rate of gas, thermal radiation is done using statistical analysis.

What was the finding? Estimation of gas release rate due to a leak in pipeline or fully destroyed pipeline is calculated using model equations. Proper estimation of pipeline failure helps in proper emerging response planning.

What were the gaps?  Article discusses only about the gas release rate and is calculated based on an existing model, and there is no reference regarding emergency planning for a pipeline failure.

 

 

Reference Number:  2  Authors: Hossam A. Kishawya Et al.

Title of Article: Review of pipeline integrity management practices

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2010    Number of citations: 112

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:1.88 Rank: 110/526 Percentile: 79%

In-Category: mechanical engineering

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Pipeline integrity, integrity design, smart pigs, integrity management, integrity threats

What was the research question?  What are the techniques used to overcome the threats in pipeline integrity management?

Design:  Analysis of integrity management using different types of models.

What was the finding?  Failures associated with pipeline integrity management and different design practices to overcome the threats.

What were the gaps? Combination of MFL and UT are not analyzed, which was very efficient to find metal loss.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  3  Authors:  Dr. Leone Dunn Et al.

Title of Article: A Service – Oriented Approach to Onshore Gas Transmission Pipeline Construction

Type:  conference     Publication: IEEE

Year Published:  2007    Number of citations: 64

Primary or Secondary: secondary

Publication Rating:  N/A

CiteScore: Rank:  Percentile:  In-Category:

CiteScore Year:

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Supply chain, pipelines, service oriented, portals, internet services, project management

What was the research question? Find out whether the traditional manufacturing strategy of onshore gas transmission pipeline construction is competitive. If not designed a new method to improve the manufacturing strategy.

Design:  statistical analysis of case study which includes direct observation, documentary analysis and interviews.

What was the finding?  Internet based services with an operation strategy and IT component to develop a supply chain will be more innovative and leads to competitive advantages.

What were the gaps? Strategic management is used to analyze the onshore gas pipeline and tactical management is not analyzed which is also efficient.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number: 4              Authors: Roger Avalos  Et al.

Title of Article: Measuring the effects of natural gas pipeline constraints on regional pricing and market integration.

Type:  Journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:   2016   Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score:3.89  Rank: 24/534 Percentile:95%  In-Category: economics and econometrics

Cite Score Year:2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Natural gas pipelines , congestion

What was the research question? Find out the difference in price effort to more binding capacity constraints and find estimate reduced form price effect

Design:  Statistical analysis of daily pipeline flow which relates to capacity of markets.

What was the finding?  Studies based on the capacity expansion in Florida leads to find the magnitude of cost.

What were the gaps? A wide natural gas market is needed to enhance the transmission of price signals to firms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  5  Authors: Mohd  Saiful  Et al.

Title of Article:  Early Detection Method of Corrosion on Buried Pipeline

Type:  conference    Publication: IEEE

Year Published:   2010   Number of citations: 305

Primary or Secondary: primary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:2.42 Rank:17/135  Percentile:87%  In-Category: Safety, reliability, risk and quality

Cite Score Year:2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Wireless sensors, corrosion rate model, pressure and temperature, buried pipeline, early detection, NORSOK model

What was the research question?  How to find the corrosion in an early stage with the changing temperature and pressure in the pipeline and what are the actions to prevent any incidents?

Design:  Detection of corrosion is based on system monitoring and simulation and is analyzed based on pressure and temperature parameters.

What was the finding?  Mathematical model is used to find the corrosion rate at varied temperature and corrosion rate can be calculated with a system model by assuming the diameter of pipe and different values of temperature and pressure.

What were the gaps? In simulation, different temperature and pressure values are tested for pipelines with corrosion is happened already. And temperature above 20 degree Celsius is tested and below 20 degree Celsius is set equal to the corrosion rate which is predicted at 20 degree Celsius itself is not accurate. 

Reference Number:  6  Authors:  Oleg Shabarchin Et al.

Title of Article: Risk assessment of oil and gas pipelines with consideration of induced Seismicity and internal corrosion

Type: journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017    Number of citations: 0

Primary or Secondary: secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.42  Rank:  17/135 Percentile: 87% In-Category: chemical and process plant safety

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Induced seismicity, spatial clustering, geospatial information system, Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, oil and gas pipeline.

What was the research question?  What are the possible impact of induced seismicity of oil and gas pipeline infrastructure and identify the relation between hydraulic fracture operation and seismic events?

Design:  Monte Carlo simulation is used to find the stochastic field of seismic intensity.

What was the finding?  Probabilistic distribution of repair rate and probability of failure are obtained based on fragility formulation and mechanical characteristics.

What were the gaps? Induced seismicity hazard is not assessed with an analytical model hence, this article not discussed about the different parameters of oil and gas pipeline includes its pressure and volume.

 

Reference Number:  7 Authors:  Kong Fah Tee Et al.

Title of Article: Reliability prediction for corroding natural gas pipeline

Type:  journal     Publication: IEEE

Year Published:  2010    Number of citations: 0

Primary or secondary: secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 1.88  Rank: 110/526 Percentile:   79%        In-Category: Safety, risk, reliability and quality

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review? Split system approach, corrosion, time-dependent probability, NHPP, non-homogeneous Poisson process

What was the research question? How to find the probability of corrosion with respect to time?

Design: Different simulation techniques to identify corrosion within the time frame.

What was the finding? Comparison of time based technique with defect technique helps to find the corrosion maintenance strategy.

What were the gaps? Complex arithmetic analysis is necessary to find out the probability corrosion which is a time consuming process.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  8  Authors:  Jolanta Szoplik

Title of Article:  Changes in gas flow in the pipeline depending on the network foundation in the area.

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017    Number of citations: 0

Primary or secondary: secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 2.96 Rank: 26/181 Percentile: 85%

In-Category: Energy Engineering and Power Technology

CiteScore Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Low pressure pipeline network, gas over pressure distribution, natural gas.

What was the research question?  How to analyze over pressure distribution, velocity and gas streams of a low pressure pipeline network?

Design:  Statistical analysis of a network pipeline characteristics, network load and mathematical model of gas flow are done.

What was the finding?  Minimum and maximum over pressure of gas stream entering the network is evaluated with simulation.

What were the gaps? The article deals with subsequent nodes of the network at a height systematically comparable in relation to power station, accidental location of internet node is not analyzed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  9  Authors: Zhigang Qu Et al.

Title of Article:  Study on the natural gas pipeline safety monitoring technique and the time-frequency signal analysis method.

Type: journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017     Number of citations: 0

Primary or Secondary: secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.42  Rank: 17/135  Percentile: 87%

In-Category: safety, risk, reliability and quality.

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Safety monitoring techniques hydrate plugging, leakage, energy pattern method, correlation algorithm, wavelet packet analysis.

What was the research question? What are the safety monitoring techniques of a natural gas pipeline and analyses the methods using experimental data?

Design:  Experimental data is used to find Eigen vectors for leakage and energy pattern method is used to prove it is efficient.

What was the finding?  Safety monitoring enables to recognize the location of reflection and thereby measurement can be taken effectively.

What were the gaps? Acoustic theory is not implemented and algorithm of wavelet packet makes the system complex

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:10

Authors: Alexander Guzman Urbina Et al.

Title of Article:  Measuring the benefit of investing in pipeline safety using fuzzy risk Assessment.

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2016    Number of citations: 0

Primary or Secondary: Primary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.42  Rank: 17/135 Percentile: 87% 

In-Category: economics and econometrics

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Fuzzy logic, risk management, pipeline safety, tolerability criteria

What was the research question?  How to find the safety measures of pipelines? What are the simulation tools can be used and how to analyze the safety with the simulation technique?

Design:  Simulation using MATLAB and fussy logic to develop efficient algorithm.

What was the finding? Prediction of safety with fussy logic enables a cost effective decision making and thereby benefits of investment in safety measures can be identified.

What were the gaps? Static and non-static adaptive nature of fussy risk assessment is not analyzed.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  11 Authors: Qiao Qiao Et al.

Title of Article: Corrosion failure analysis of elbow and elbow to pipe weld in a natural gas gathering pipeline

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017                 Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.06  Rank: 37/265 Percentile: 86%.  In-Category: Engineering

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Internal corrosion, pipeline weld, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), XRD, CFD

What was the research question?  What are the reasons of corrosion in elbow and elbow to pipe weld in gas pipeline? What are the possible solutions to reduce corrosion in elbow of pipe?

Design: Corrosion failure in gas pipeline in China is done by statistical analysis like SEM, EDS, XRD.

What was the finding?  The main reason of corrosion in elbow is flow disturbance and this internal corrosion can be reduced by changing the location of downstream weld and by ensure the quality of welding.

What were the gaps?  Changing the location of downstream weld is not easy and it is not always feasible and corrosion failure analysis used is not the most efficient one.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  12 Authors:  Lihong Shi Et al.

Title of Article: Corrosion failure analysis of L485 natural gas pipeline in CO2 environment.

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017                 Number of citations: 9

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.06  Rank: 37/265 Percentile: 86%.  In-Category: Engineering

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Carbon dioxide, pipeline, corrosion, failure analysis, XRD, EDS, SEM

What was the research question?  What are the factors affects the corrosion rate in CO2 gas pipeline?

Design: Experimental analysis in weight loss in gas pipeline and statistical analysis to understand the corrosion behavior.

What was the finding?  With a series of weight loss experiment it is found that actual corrosion rate of L485 pipeline is 1.413–1.978 mm/a and reaction of chemical substances in the gas is the reason of corrosion.

What were the gaps? Corrosion failure analysis is not the most efficient.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  13 Authors: Bin He Et al.

Title of Article: Effect of soil particle size on the corrosion behavior of natural gas pipeline

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2015                Number of citations: 7

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.06  Rank: 37/265 Percentile: 86%.

 In-Category: Engineering

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Corrosion, natural gas pipeline, particle size, TBP zone.

What was the research question?  What is the influence of soil particle size on corrosion behavior?

Design:  statistical analysis using weight-loss method, EIS, SEM, and XRD.

What was the finding?  Polarization resistance decreases with decreasing particle size and number of corrosion pit increased with decrease in particle size.

What were the gaps?  N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  14 Authors: Hamed Mansoori Et al.

Title of Article: Pitting corrosion failure analysis of a wet gas pipeline

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017                 Number of citations: 5

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.06  Rank: 37/265 Percentile: 86%.

 In-Category: Engineering

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  CO2 pitting corrosion, wet gas pipeline, SEM, XRD

What was the research question?  What is pitting corrosion? How to control pitting corrosion?

Design: Experimental analysis in laboratory using electrochemical tests, non-destructive tests.

What was the finding? Pitting corrosion mechanism is the main reason of failure in multiphase natural gas pipeline. Internal pits can find using smart pigging technique.

What were the gaps?  MFL tool is used to analyses the problems of pipeline. If pressure of gas pipeline is not high enough, data loss may happen due to the change in velocity is a major limitation of MFL tool.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference Number:  15 Authors: Dipak Kumar Jana Et al.

Title of Article: Novel type-2 fuzzy logic approach for inference of corrosion failure likelihood of oil and gas pipeline industry

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2017                 Number of citations: 0

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 2.06  Rank: 37/265 Percentile: 86% 

In-Category: Engineering

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Type 2 fuzzy logic, corrosion failure likelihood (CFL)

What was the research question?  How to estimate corrosion thinning likelihood?

Design:  statistical analysis using fuzzy logic and develop a model based on type-2 fussy logic.

What was the finding?  The type-2 fuzzy logic helps to identify the input and output in a correct order, then only different types of corrosion failure model can be predict.

What were the gaps?  If the number of rules exceed a limit which will increase the complexity of fuzzy logic controller which makes no effect to the output.

Reference Number:  16 Authors: Yunze Xu Et al.

Title of Article: Experimental study on pipeline internal corrosion based on a new kind of electrical resistance sensor

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2015                 Number of citations: 8

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 5.07 Rank: 1/102 Percentile: 86% 

In-Category: Instrumentation

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Ring pair electrical resistance system, internal corrosion, on-line monitoring

What was the research question?  How to estimate corrosion thinning likelihood?

Design:  statistical analysis using fuzzy logic and develop a model based on type-2 fussy logic.

What was the finding?  The type-2 fuzzy logic helps to identify the input and output in a correct order, then only different types of corrosion failure model can be predict.

What were the gaps?  If the number of rules exceed a limit which will increase the complexity of fuzzy logic controller which m akes no effect to the output.

Reference Number:  17 Authors: Yunze Xu Et al.

Title of Article: An experimental study on the internal corrosion of a subsea multiphase pipeline

Type:  journal     Publication: Elsevier

Year Published:  2015                 Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score: 5.07 Rank: 1/102 Percentile: 86% 

In-Category: Instrumentation

Cite Score Year: 2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Ring pair electrical resistance system, internal corrosion, on-line monitoring

What was the research question?  How to estimate corrosion thinning likelihood?

Design:  statistical analysis using fuzzy logic and develop a model based on type-2 fussy logic.

What was the finding?  The type-2 fuzzy logic helps to identify the input and output in a correct order, then only different types of corrosion failure model can be predict.

What were the gaps?  If the number of rules exceed a limit which will increase the complexity of fuzzy logic controller which m akes no effect to the output.

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