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Influence of Advertising on Children

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This chapter provides general information on the influence of advertising to children by looking at different researches and surveys on media influence and implications on the behaviour of children. This research attempts to study the implications of advertising on the behaviour of children in the UK. The research aims and objectives are also provided in this chapter.

1.1 Influence of Advertising on Child Behaviour

Technology has created more choices for people to gain an access to information. The development of modern technology enables all ages to access various types of information with unlimited access. Also, major advances in the media technology have created different and unique ways of providing products and services to several audiences. For instance, animation are used in various numbers of advertising to children, and the messages from these television advertisements affect children in gender role stereotype learning (Hogg & Garrow 2003).

These days, people cannot watch television, go shopping, or browse the internet without being flooded with advertisements (Dotson & Hyatt 2005). Not only adults are exposed to these advertisements, but young children are also targeted by many advertisements with an attempt to sell these products and services to them, such as movies and food (Flew 2002).

A research indicated that children under eight years old are more likely to accept advertising messages as been truthful and unbiased (Cohen et al. 2002). Therefore, it is difficult for children to see and examine the hidden agenda in thousands of advertisements they watch every year (Cohen et al. 2002).

A study showed that many advertisements for toys, snack food, video games, and cereal are often targeted towards children. However, it is also crucial for parents to watch out for other advertisements. An example is beer and cigarette advertisements that are usually directed towards adults also have messages that can influence children (Shin & Cameron 2003).

According to Dotson & Hyatt (2005), beer advertisements are shown very often during sport events. Beer advertisements are also seen by millions of young children. Research finding showed that these advertisements attempt to create both brand familiarity and positive attitudes towards drinking in children aged between 9 and 10 years old (Shin & Cameron 2003).

In addition, a research finding revealed that young children can be persuaded very easily by the messages of advertisements (Dotson & Hyatt 2005). Young children believe that the messages in the adverts are truthful and unbiased, and this can cause unhealthy behaviours in children, including:

  • Poor eating habits: This is a factor in today's youth obesity epidemic (Dotson & Hyatt 2005). The most common advertisements directed towards young children include sweets, fizzy drinks, and other snack foods (Dotson & Hyatt 2005).
  • An increase in the likelihood of aggressive behaviour and less sensitivity to violence: Aggressive behaviour in young children is more likely to appear if a child is exposed to the advertisements for violent video games, movies, and television programs (Dotson & Hyatt 2005).

The research result also indicated that advertisements can be the cause of conflict between parents and children (Meech 1999). The research showed that commercials often get young children to want the advertised products and then pressurising their parents to buy it for them. As a result, the conflict between them takes place when the parents say ‘no' (Meech 1999).

1.2 Advertising Implications and Health and Obesity Issues

In 2003, the BBC revealed that corporate giants such as McDonald's, Cadbury Schweppes, PepsiCo UK, and Kellogg's faced a tough time from the committee of the Members of Parliament who had been holding a long running investigation into the state of the nation's health (BBC UK 2003).

McDonald's, Cadbury Schweppes, PepsiCo UK, and Kellogg's were accused of marketing high calories meals aimed at children, while neglecting the health implications of a fast food diet (BBC UK 2003). It was revealed by the Chairman of the Health Committee that some food commercials from these accused corporate giants failed to carry health warnings on the packages in similar manner to the tobacco (BBC UK 2003).

Chairman of the Health Committee stated that a certain branded cheeseburger with fries and a milkshake would take nine miles to walk off, and this level is too high for young children (BBC UK 2003). It was reported that calorie content does not mean a great deal to people. However, the messages in the advertising are not sufficiently honest to their audiences (BBC UK 2003).

An article in reputed medical journal called ‘The Lancet' studied and suggested that celebrity endorsement of ‘junk food' should be banned. Also, the scale of health and obesity problems have been highlighted in a report of the Food Standards Agency, claiming that some 15 per cent of 15 year-old children are now obese. This figure is three times as many as ten years ago (BBC UK 2003).

In addition, the UK government admitted a serious concern about the growing incidence of obesity in the UK by putting new regulations on food and drink manufacturers who must follow the strict code of practice when producing adverts aimed at children (BBC UK 2003). Plans to improve school students' diet have also been welcomed by the UK government.

A research titled ‘Food Marketing and Advertising Directed at Children and Adolescents: Implications for Overweight' (Apha Food and Nutrition 2004) indicates that there is a growing outbreak of overweight children. The unhealthy eating habits of young kids has brought attention to the possible role that food and beverage advertising and marketing play in influencing eating behaviours in young children.

In recent years, youth consumers have become potential target market for the food and beverage industry because of their spending power, purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Therefore, young children are now the target market of the intense and aggressive food marketing and advertising campaigns.

Marketers and advertisers have been employing multiple techniques and channels to reach youth consumers, beginning when they are still toddlers in order to develop and build brands and also encourage the product use when they are in their youth phase. These food marketing channels comprise of effectively and carefully developed marketing communications strategies. Examples include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, internet, products with branded logos, and youth-targeted marketing promotions like cross-selling and tie-ins marketing campaigns. It was also reported that foods targeted at children contain high fat, salt, and sugar contents which are the main causes of being overweight.

In addition, television advertising and in-school marketing techniques are two of the most prevalent forms of marketing to young children. Television is reported as the largest source of media messages about food to children, particularly younger children.

Moreover, a qualitative survey by the Office of Communication (2004) indicates that the average child or adolescent watches an average of three hours of television per day. It showed that young children may view as many as 40,000 commercials each year and food appears to be the most frequently advertised product category on children's television, accounting for over 50 percent of all advertisements.

The survey also disclosed that children view an average of one food commercial every five minutes of television viewing time, and they may see as many as three hours of food commercials each week. Several studies have documented that the foods targeted at young children's television are mainly high in sugar and fat, with almost no references to fruits or vegetables.

Young children and adolescents are currently being exposed to an increasing and unprecedented amount of food advertising and marketing through a wide range of places. It is revealed that young children have few defences against persuasive advertisements and misleading messages.

1.3 Restrictions on Messages of Advertising to Children

In recent years, several studies were conducted to highlight and understand the implications of advertising on the behaviour of young children. These studies focus on different aspect. For example, Maher (et al. 2006) carried a research to investigate the changes in types of advertised food products and the use of nutrition versus consumer appeals in children's advertising from 2000 to 2005.

The results revealed that obesity is a serious and expanding concern especially the health of young children. The research further indicated that messages on food advertising have a major impact on eating behaviour. Children tend to ask for food advertised on television when they are eating out with families (Maher et al. 2006). Also, the research disclosed that food processors and restaurants have not changed their advertising messages to young children in response to the multitude of pressure the industry is experiencing (Maher et al. 2006).

A recent study by the Office of Communication (OFCOM) revealed that restrictions were launched to eliminate misleading advertising to children. OFCOM published the results of its extended consultation on the television content and scheduling restrictions for food advertising at children. The Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice (BCAP) has included the new restrictions in its Television Code and CAP (CAP News 2007).

The new changes to the television restrictions are now known to all organizations involved in food and soft drink advertising (CAP News 2007). Recently, the BCAP and the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) conducted training sessions for the industry and explained the new restrictions and implications of radio advertisements directed at children (CAP News 2007).

The launch of new rules on advertising' messages to children were based on the agreement of the committee members. The television content restrictions were put into place on 1st of July 2007, while the CAP code changes were published by 1 April 2008 (CAP News 2007).

1.4 Research Aims

  • To examine the effect of advertising on children for the purposes of marketing
  • To know the effect of advertising on a child's eating habit.
  • To understand the opinion of parents on the role of marketers and advertisers.



2.1 Defining Implications of Advertising on Children

According to Terry Flew (2002), advertising influence is referred to

“The way in which the mass media in all of their forms affect the way the audiences act and behave in their daily lives. The forms of media include television, films, songs and other similar forms.”

     (Flew 2002)

Jostein Gripsrud (2002) revealed in a book titled ‘Understanding Media Culture' that the rapid development of technology has had an impact over the growth of media and advertising over the past few years. He stated that the new forms of media such as the internet changes the way people consume media or advertise products and services. The fast development of media has raised questions on the issue of how media influences attitudes and beliefs of customers.

Flew (2002) also disclosed that one of a popular passive audience theories is the inoculation model. This is a long-term affect model. This model explained that upon being exposed to advertising's messages, the viewers will become instantaneously immune to them (2002). Karen Hartman (2000) applied the concept of this model to conduct a research titled ‘Studies of negative political advertising: an annotated bibliography.'

Gripsrud (2002) argued against the concept of the inoculation model that there was no evidence that the inoculation effect can lead to negative perception, attitude and behaviour. In fact, Gripsrud (2002) said that there was only basic finding to suggest that people had even seen the information which would lead to negative perception. As a result, this concept is commonly discredited by media theorists (Gripsrud 2002).

2.2 Media and Advertising Implication on Children

2.2.1 Television Influence on Human Development

Margaret Hogg and Jade Garrow (2003) highlighted in their research called ‘Gender, identity and the consumption of advertising' that television advertising has the most influential impact in shaping ideas of appropriate gender role. They concluded that television had a significant impact on the lives of children, influencing attitudes about race and gender (Hogg & Garrow 2003).

Hogg and Garrow (2003) also claimed in their research that young children are exposed to around 20,000 advertisements a year. By the time they finished or graduated from secondary schools, they would have watched and witnessed many violent deaths on television which could lead to aggressive copycat behaviours (Hogg & Garrow 2003).

In addition, Michael Dotson and Eva Hyatt (2005) carried out a research to examine the major factors influencing children's consumer socialization. The research findings showed that that pro-social and antisocial behaviour was influenced by television programs (Dotson & Hyatt 2005).

In a research entitled ‘Children's television programming' (Cohen et al. 2002), it was revealed that young children spend an average of thirty hours a week watching television programs. The study also indicated that children spend more time watching television than the time they spend on anything else with sleeping as an exception (Cohen et al. 2002).

Furthermore, Kara Chan and James McNeal (2006) examined the effect of advertising on children in China. The main aim of their research was to examine how advertising ownership, media usage, and attention to advertising vary among urban and rural children in Mainland China (Chan & McNeal 2006). The study also collected information regarding the context of media usage and time spent on various activities.

A survey of 1,977 urban rural children age group of 6 to 13 year-old in four Chinese cities, including Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Shanghai, and in the rural areas of four provinces - Heilongjian, Hubei, Hunan and Yunnan was carried out in March 2003 to May 2004 (Chan & McNeal 2006). The questionnaires were distributed through sixteen elementary schools and local researchers were selected and trained to administer the data collection (Chan & McNeal 2006).

The research result indicated that media ownership and media exposure were high for television, children's books, cassette players, VCD players and radios among both urban and rural samples (Chan & McNeal 2006). In general, media ownership, exposure and usage were far higher among urban children than among rural children. However, the results revealed that television ownership and television exposure were slightly higher among rural children than among urban children.

Chan and McNeal (2006) also claimed in their study that the urban-rural gap between media ownership and media exposure was more well-known for new media forms such as internet. Chinese children had low to medium attention to advertising. Rural children were reported to have a higher attention to television commercial than urban children, whilst urban children reported a higher attention to other forms of advertising than rural children (Chan & McNeal 2006).

2.2.2 Advertising Influence on Child Behaviour

Jobber (1974) conducted a research examining the implications television advertising had on consumers' behaviour. His research presented and analyzed consumer reaction to television advertising. It assessed consumer attitude by the use of three criteria, including consumer feeling exaggerated and annoying advertising, the consumer's subjective assessment of creative advertising and their assessment of their ideal type of advertisement (Jobber 1974). The research finding showed that consumer reactions were disturbing, indicating the uncomplimentary result which could reduce advertising effectiveness (Jobber 1974).

In addition, Noor Ghani (2004) disclosed in a research ‘Television viewing and consumer behaviour' that the effect of television programs on children's development as consumers begins with consumer socialization. Ghani (2004) stated that television is an influential model for children's expressions of nonverbal behaviour and emotion. A survey of Malaysian schoolchildren was studied, focusing on demographic variables, such as gender and family income.

Ghani (2004) also considered personal trait, in relation to television viewing habits and consumer behaviours - propensity to buy, time spent watching television, preferred type of programme etc. The research results indicated that the importance of family income is a predictor of the differences in socialization, while gender is less influential (Ghani 2004).The study also looked at six personality traits and revealed that an aggressive-passive personality is the most influential on socialization (Ghani 2004).

2.2.4 Media and Advertising Influence on Food Choice Preference

A study examined the implications television advertisements on food and eating behaviour was conducted by Roger Dickson (2000). He described the background to and main findings from a three-year funded research project on the role of television in the food choices of young people. The research project investigated the nature and extent of television's portrayal of food and eating of young people's interpretation (Dickson 2000).

The research finding indicated that food and eating habits were portrayed very frequently on the television advertisements in the UK, but the ‘message' in television programmes contrasts with the ‘message' in the advertising in the terms of nutritional content of the food depicted (Dickson 2000). Dickson stated that this disorder eating behaviours and contradiction reflected in young viewers' accounts of their own eating habits.

In addition, a serious public concern on ‘size zero' boy size is another good example of television advertising and media implications on unhealthy eating habit of young generations. In an article titled ‘Primetime television impact on adolescents impression of bodyweight, sex appeal and food and beverage consumption' (Hamp et al. 2004)' investigated the issue.

The research presented a content analysis of ten television programmes frequently viewed by twelve to seventeen year-olds consumers in the US. The research finding indicated that television viewing is ever-present in adolescent culture, but the influence of television characters on adolescent behaviours and social norms is not well understood among young audients (Hamp et al. 2004).

Another survey conducted by posting questionnaires online to investigate the same issue with students aged between 12 to 19 year-olds from across the state of Arizona participated to complete the survey electronically. The data were assessed by tabulation, principal axis factor analysis and liner regression analysis (Hamp et al. 2004)

The research results indicated that 12 per cent of the subjects had a body mass index for age over the 95th percentile, 50 per cent of them reported watching television two hours of each day, and 59 per cent reported accruing 60 minutes of exercise and physical each day (Hamp et al. 2004).

The results also discovered that over 35 per cent of respondents reported eating pizza and pasta frequently (Hamp et al. 2004). In the drink category, beer and wine were seen as the most frequently consumed beverages on television, while 63.9 per cent of sample members reported soda as their personal beverage of choice preference (Hamp et al. 2004).

The factors extraction from this survey revealed three-factor solutions: television viewers and perceivers, television viewers and doers. Significant predictors of body mass index for age included urbanity and survey questions related to bodyweight perceptions (Hamp et al. 2004). It can be concluded that television programs with the focuses on sex appeal, thinness, and alcohol may have a powerful effect on young people' self-esteem, body satisfaction, and eating habits (Hamp et al. 2004).

2.3 The Survey Child Obesity - Food Advertising in Context by Ofcom

This section presents the executive summary from a survey findings investigated by the Office of Communication (Ofcom), focusing on children's food choice, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. The full research results are available on Ofcom's official website http://www.ofcom.org.uk.

A survey was carried out by Ofcom in 2004 to present the followings:

  • Background data on national lifestyle changes
  • Re-analysis of market data on family food purchase and consumption
  • An analysis of The Broadcasters' Audience Research Board (BARB)
  • An analysis of data from Neilsen Media Research on the advertising market
  • The content analysis of food advertising on ITV1
  • The summary of bespoke qualitative and quantitative research commissioned by Ofcom to identify implications on children's food preferences, purchase behaviour and consumption, and the role of television advertising

2.3.1 Changing Lifestyle Effect British Food Culture

The lifestyle trends in the UK include the rising incomes, longer working hours, increasing numbers of working mothers, time-poor/cash-rich parents support a ‘convenience food culture' and the increased consumption of High Fat, Salt and Sugar (HFSS) foods.

The demand for ready-meals in the UK grew by 44 per cent between 1990 and 2002. People in the UK are now consuming double the amount of ready-meals consumed in France, and six times the number in Spain. 80 per cent of households in the UK have a microwave, compared with 27 per cent in Italy (Ofcom 2004).

The findings in qualitative research by Ofcom indicate that many mothers talked of having no time to cook meals. There was a feeling that real cooking is hard work. The abundance of processed products that do not need forward planning and require little effort, making it easy to produce food for children quickly and conveniently (Ofcom 2004). Also, the lack of preparation is important to older children who are likely to be preparing their own snacks.

Ofcom's qualitative research found that breakfast and packed lunches for school are prepared in the morning rush, when mothers are particularly busy. The food industry has developed products, and many of which are high fat, salt, and sugar contents, targeting these eating occasions and markets them heavily to mothers and children (Ofcom 2004).

The research results are also somewhat contradictory. There is some evidence that demand for take-away meals and affordable eating options outside the home are on an increase. The food industry has met such needs by the expansion of fast food outlets, and many of which sell high fat, salt, and sugar products (Ofcom 2004).

The pre-prepared, convenience foods, take-away meals and eating-out, reduce parents' control over what goes into food, making it more difficult to monitor high fat, salt, and sugar contents (Ofcom 2004). In addition, the convenient and pre-prepared meals are less likely to be eaten with fresh fruits and vegetables (Ofcom 2004). There is a continuously growing snacking culture amongst children who favours high fat, salt, and sugar foods consumption (Ofcom 2004).There is a decline on the number of occasions that a family eats together (Ofcom 2004).

The food and grocery market has developed a range of chilled, frozen, and pre-prepared meals targeting children who eat without adults (Ofcom 2004). These ready-to-cook meals can be prepared without affecting dining patterns of the rest of the household (Ofcom 2004). There is an increasing of less controlling parents and child relationships. Children have more spending power and they are increasingly control their own eating patterns (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.2 What Children Are Eating?

According to the research conducted by Ofcom (2004), it was reported that British children are reported to enjoy foods high in fats, sugars and salt, such as sweets, soft drinks, crisps and savoury snacks, fast food and pre-sugared breakfast cereals, which are well-known as ‘the Big Five' (Ofcom 2004).

Also, families are consuming more pre-prepared and convenience foods, which are high in fats, salt and sugar. This trend makes ‘a Big 6' of foods, urging dieticians and health professionals to have serious concerns (Ofcom 2004). Children consume well below the recommended amount of fresh fruits and vegetables (Ofcom 2004). The World Health Organization recommends at least five portions of fruits and vegetables per day (Ofcom 2004).

Fresh fruit consumption in household has risen for much of the last twenty-five years, while fresh green vegetables consumption was 27 per cent lower in 2000 than in 1975 (Ofcom 2004). Furthermore, most kids do know that fruits and vegetables are good for them, but they prefer the taste of high fat, salt, and sugar food (Ofcom 2004). If young children do not want to get fat, it is because they perceive it to be unattractive (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.3 Factors Influencing Child Food Choices

  • Psychosocial factors - food preferences, meanings of food, and food knowledge
  • Biological factors, such as hunger and gender
  • Behavioural factors, including time and convenience and dieting patterns
  • Family - income, working status of mother, family eating patterns etc.
  • Friends - conformity, norms, and peers
  • Schools - school meals, sponsorship, and vending machines
  • Commercial sites, such as fast food restaurants and stores
  • Youth market and pester power
  • Media factors, such as television advertising

2.3.4 The Role of Parents in Child Obesity

According to the survey of the Gfk NOP investigated opinion on the role of parents in child obesity indicated that 79 per cent of parents have a great responsibility for the situation outlined in a recent publicity about child diet, while other groups are seen as having an important part to play, such as schools with 52 per cent and food manufacturers with 43 per cent (Ofcom 2004). About Just one third think the government (33 per cent) and the media (32 per cent) as for having great responsibility on the issue, followed by the supermarkets (28 per cent) and broadcasters (23 per cent) (Ofcom 2004).

When the subjects were asked which one of the same groups could do most to ensure that children eat healthily, the research finding indicated that parents and family are named by 55 per cent of the respondents, followed by food manufacturers, schools, media, the government, supermarkets, and broadcasters (Ofcom 2004).

The qualitative research conducted by the Ofcom suggested that the majority of parents often put off their child food preferences (Ofcom 2004). They also tended to serve their kids with high fat, salt, and sugar foods. These parents were more often to be found in the lower socio-economic groups in which money is tighter, and food choices in the area are more restricted (Ofcom 2004).

The research results also showed only a minority of parents who seemed to exercise effective control over their child food choices. These parents were usually better off in the term of income, and they more often found in the higher socio-economic groups (Ofcom 2004).

In addition, the qualitative research by Ofcome suggested that many mothers thought they know what a healthy diet is. However, these mothers were at a loss as to how to make the healthy diet attractive to their kids (Ofcom 2004). These mothers expressed that they would have to reject the whole categories of foods, such as dairy products, sugar, and carbohydrates. Such mothers believed the outcomes of healthy eating outlined in the media, lessening the risk of obesity and better dental health (Ofcom 2004).

Moreover, the minority of more confident, better-informed, and middle-class, mothers were more proactive (Ofcom 2004). These mothers were aware of the long-term risks involved with unhealthy eating habits which could cause heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Such mothers do not exclude whole categories of food, but they were more likely to limit the use of high fat, salt, and sugar foods and exclude those with artificial additives (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.5 The Role of Schools in Child Obesity

Ofcom's qualitative research in schools revealed that there was a formal coverage of diet and nutrition in classrooms, where teachers educate students about healthy food choices (Ofcom 2004). In addition, there was evidence that some schools were making successful attempts to provide healthy food choices and influence students to have health diets (Ofcom 2004).

However, there was a little active supervision of what children actually choose to eat at schools during the lunchtimes. Moreover, most school provision appeared to be driven by what children wanted and could be seen as giving a seal of approval to eating high fat, salt, and sugar products which were popular among stents in both primary and secondary schools (Ofcom 2004).

Regarding the barriers to healthier diet in schools in the qualitative research reported that finance is a key barrier to healthier provision in schools (Ofcom 2004). To make food provision cost-effective, schools to sell high fat, salt, and sugar foods because these products are what children like, want and will buy (Ofcom 2004). Thus, the vending machines bring in much needed income for the schools.

Another key barrier to healthier provision in schools is that schools may lack of control over the food provision if contracted catering companies have power in terms of what food is provided (Ofcom 2004). These firms can be very resistant to moves towards healthier food which may be less popular among students and has an impact on the financial performance of their business operation (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.6 The Role of Television Advertising

An academic research confirmed that numbers of hours spent in watching television correlate with the measures of poor diet, poor health, and obesity among both children and adults (Ofcom 2004). There are three explanations for this finding:

  • Television viewing is an inactive activity that reduces metabolic rates and displaces physical exercise (Ofcom 2004).
  • Television viewing is associated with frequent snacking, pre-prepared meals and fast food consumption (Ofcom 2004).
  • Television viewing includes exposure to advertisements for HFSS food products (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.7 The Direct Effects of Television Advertising

Academic research showed the modest direct effects of television advertising on child food preference, consumption, and behaviour (Ofcom 2004). It revealed that there was insufficient evidence to determine the relative size of the effect of television advertising on child food choice by comparison with other relevant factors (Ofcom 2004).

In the context of the multiplicity of psychosocial, biological, behavioural, family, friends, schools, commercial sites youth market and pester power, and media factors were not surprising that they direct contribution of television advertising had been found to be modest (Ofcom 2004).

According to the Gfk NOP survey results, when television advertising is put in the context of other influencing factors, the subjects believed that it does not have an impact on food choice preferences among parents and children (Ofcom 2004). However, it is rather small when compared to other influences (Ofcom 2004). For instant, a parent and child alike, the child who has his/her own taste of food preferences are dominant and price and familiarity are also important (Ofcom 2004).

Peer pressure is also a significant influence on food choice preference for children. Parents are influenced by the healthiness of the product (Ofcom 2004). However, when they have to serve food or drink, convenience is a more powerful motivator (Ofcom 2004). Furthermore, sales promotions like special offer in-store sales appear to play a relatively an important role in the choice of high fat, salt, and sugar products (Ofcom 2004).

In addition, a research finding indicated that there is insufficient evidence to show that television advertising has a larger, indirect effect on food choice preferences of children (Ofcom 2004). However, it is widely argued in social and developmental psychology field and in consumer and marketing research that substantial indirect effects occur (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.8 Television Viewing Patterns and Advertising Spend

It was reported by the Ofcom (2004) that children's total television viewing has remained fairly stable over the past three years. The average child watches is around 17 hours of television each week (Ofcom 2004). In addition, there has been an increase in television viewing during children's airtime (Ofcom 2004). This trend is driven by the popularity of the dedicated BBC channels, accounting for a growing proportion of viewing during children's airtime and the greater proportion of viewing in Freeview homes (Ofcom 2004).

The Ofcom (2004) revealed that children spend around 71 per cent of their viewing time or twelve hours per week outside of children's airtime (Ofcom 2004). Most kids spend around 5 hours in viewing children's airtime, while 2.6 hours is spent in commercial children's airtime, excluding Disney programs (Ofcom 2004). This means that children spend the equivalent of 22 minutes each day in viewing advertisements in children's airtime shows (Ofcom 2004).

Furthermore, the Ofcom reported that children aged between 4 and 9 year olds spend 20 per cent, or 3.4 hours per week of their viewing in the dedicated commercial children's airtime, while children aged between 10 and 15 spend around 11 per cent, or 1.9 hours per week (Ofcom 2004).

Also, the research result showed that more children and young people watch television at peak times between 6pm and 9pm in the evening than any other times of the day (Ofcom 2004). Finally, around four in ten children who watch television during children's airtime do so in the company of an adult, compared to that of the seven in ten during the evening period (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.9 Viewing Advertising Spend

Ofcom discovered that the total advertising spends on all types of food, soft drinks and chain restaurants have decreased by 15 per cent since 1999. Also, the proportion of that spend invested in television advertising has decreased even more dramatically by 22 per cent from £669 million ponds in 1999 to £522 million pounds in 2003 (Ofcom 2004).

Moreover, in 2003 advertisers for food, soft drinks and chain restaurants were reported spending around £522 million pounds to promote their products on television (Ofcom 2004). This figure represents 72 per cent of their budget, making television a key medium for food advertisers (Ofcom 2004).

In addition, the largest sub-sectors in terms of advertising spend on television are Prepared & Convenience Foods, Confectionery and Dairy Products, reflecting the categories found to be most prominent in the diets of obese children in the UK (Ofcom 2004). Lastly, the ‘Big Five' products account 77 per cent of all food, soft drink, and fast food advertising spend within children's airtime (Ofcom 2004).

2.3.10 Advertising Seen by Children

The advertising seen is measured by looking at the impacts of the advertisements (Ofcom 2004). The impacts provide a measure of advertising exposure, and one impact is equivalent to one member of the target audience viewing one commercial spot (Ofcom 2004).

It can be concluded from the research result in a survey conducted by Ofcom that most of the television advertising seen by children is outside of children's airtime, accounting 71 per cent (Ofcom 2004). Around one in five of all of the television advertising seen by children is for a Core Category product, or 19 per cent (Ofcom 2004). The television advertising for Core Category products in children's airtime represents 8 per cent of all television advertising seen by children (Ofcom 2004).

Moreover, younger children view more advertising for Core Category products during children's airtime than older children as they spend more times watching television in children's airtime (Ofcom 2004). The Ofcom revealed that children aged between 4 and 9 year olds see just over half of the Core Category advertisements that they are exposed to in children's airtime (Ofcom 2004). Children aged between 10 and 15 see around one third in children's airtime, and 29 per cent of all of the advertising seen during children's airtime is for a Core Category product (Ofcom 2004).

2.4 How Advertising Works on Child Behaviours

The evidences featured in this section are obtained from a survey on child obesity in the UK by the Ofcom (2004).

2.4.1 Differences in Reactions to Advertising of Children

The Ofcom (2004) indicated that before four or five year olds, children regard advertising as simply entertainment. On the other hand, between four and seven, they begin to be able to differentiate advertising from programmes (Ofcom 2004). In addition, the majority of kids have generally had the intention to persuade by the age of eight (Ofcom 2004). After eleven or twelve years of age, they can articulate a critical understanding of advertising (Ofcom 2004).

The research finding showed that younger children remain relatively unengaged by the message content (Ofcom 2004). However, they may still be persuaded by the status of its celebrity source or the intensity of the messages, such as colour and sound (Ofcom 2004). As a result, advertisers may appeal to younger children through the use of bright colours, lively music and the involvement of cartoon characters or celebrities, for instance (Ofcom 2004).

Furthermore, the qualitative research by the Ofcom showed that teenagers are more likely to pay attention to the content of the message, and be persuaded because they attend to, and engage with, the arguments put forward for a proposition or products (Ofcom 2004). As a result, the advertisements for teenagers are more likely appeal through witty or stylish imagery and subtle messages (Ofcom 2004). The Ofcom' research result indicated that celebrities as role models are likely to continue to have an influence (Ofcom 2004).

Finally, research finding discovered that the television advertising may have a more powerful influence on obese children, engaging them in a more emotional and physical way than it does on children of normal body weight (Ofcom 2004).

2.4.2 Differences in Eating Habit between Obese and Normal Weight Children

Regarding the differences in the eating behaviours between obese and normal weight children, it can be concluded, in accordance to research findings of a qualitative research carried out by the Federal Office of Communication (Ofcom 2004) that obese children consume less home-made food, fewer vegetables and less fruit compared with children of normal weight. The Ofcom's survey found that overweighed children consume more frozen food, micro-waved food and more carbonated drinks (Ofcom 2004).

The research finding in the survey conducted by the Gfk NOP indicated that obese children themselves tend to report snacking more often than children of normal weight (see Ofcom 2004). In addition, parents of obese children do not report their children as consuming snacks more often compared with parents of normal weight children (Ofcom 2004).

This research result is confirmed in both the NOP survey and the TNS Family Food Panel (Ofcom 2004). It revealed that the TNS Family Food Panel data suggests that when obese children do snack, they are more likely than children of normal weight to consume crisps and nuts inside the home and carbonated drinks outside it (Ofcom 2004).

2.4.3 Creative Execution Messages Used to Target Children

Ofcom's research result indicated that the advertising for Core Category foods in children's airtime makes more use of animation and product tie-ins (Ofcom 2004). The research finding showed that during children's airtime, 42 per cent of Core Category commercials featured animation, compared with 16 per cent in the early evening (Ofcom 2004).

Also, research result revealed that 28 per cent of Core Category commercials in children's airtime featured a product tie-in, compared with 11 per cent in other types of commercials in children's airtime (Ofcom 2004). Lastly, the analysis showed little use of celebrities, about 1 per cent of all adverts in children's airtime, compared with 8 per cent in the early evening period (Ofcom 2004).

2.5 Opinions of Parents and Children about Television Advertising

An analysis in this section are based on the research results obtained from a survey conducted by the Ofcom (2004) and the Gfk NOP quantitative survey examined child obesity in the UK.

2.5.1 The Reactions of Parents and Children to Advertising

The qualitative research conducted by the Ofcom (2004) found that children actively enjoy television advertising. The Ofcom revealed that it entertains the kids and it is also part of the pleasure they derive from watching television. (Ofcom 2004). In addition, it is part of a shared culture with family and friends (Ofcom 2004).

Moreover, the qualitative research disclosed that most parents are non-judgemental (Ofcom 2004). Like their children, parents too watch advertising with evident enjoyment (Ofcom 2004). Regarding the commercials seen and advertising generally, they do not differentiate between advertising aimed at children and at adults (Ofcom 2004).

In contrast, the Gfk NOP (see Ofcom 2004) quantitative survey shows that a few parents make any attempt to intervene the impact of television advertising on their children (Ofcom 2004). Gfk NOP research finding showed that just under half of parents (44 per cent) stated that they ‘never' talk about adverts to their children, and a further 15 per cent said that they do so ‘hardly ever' (Ofcom 2004).

In addition, Gfk NOP's research result indicated that those subjects who do talk about them are most likely to do so only ‘occasionally' and very few said that they ever discuss the credibility of the advert or its commercial motivation (Ofcom 2004). Also, when the respondents were asked which kinds of adverts appeal to them most, children most often mention funny adverts (28 per cent), and those with good music (25 per cent). The largest proportion talked in Gfk NOP' research talked about the adverts with celebrities (15 per cent) (Ofcom 2004).

However, as previously mentioned when television advertising is put in the context of other influences, people tended to see the impact of it on food choice preference among both parents and children is relatively small (Ofcom 2004). For instance, the more important factors are the child's own taste and peer pressure (Ofcom 2004).

2.6 Influence of Brand Marketing

According to the research results in a qualitative research conducted by the Ofcom (2004), branding and brands were discussed. The research finding found that both mothers and children engage with and enjoy food brands (Ofcom 2004). Children were revealed to generally associate heavily advertised, branded foods with ‘fun', based on their colourful packaging and widespread use of pictures, cartoons and characters (Ofcom 2004).

Moreover, research result indicated that effectively marketed, brands generate recognition, familiarity and even affection amongst children, while famous brands can impart status ‘cool' to the users (Ofcom 2004). Also, the brand presence is created and sustained by all forms of marketing activity, but especially by television advertising (Ofcom 2004). Television advertising imagery was reported to frame how children talk about products. This imagery is invariably positive (Ofcom 2004).

In addition, research finding showed that mothers often collude with their children's enjoyment of brands and use them to encourage their children to eat (Ofcom 2004). The food advertising on television was reported to be able to produce confusion amongst many mothers about healthy options (Ofcom 2004).

Ofcom's research found that brands are seen as indicators of quality, intrinsically better than unbranded goods. They sometimes assert health claims for foods that have other ‘unhealthy' aspects (Ofcom 2004). When the respondents were asked why they switch brands in the NOP survey, the largest single proportion of mothers name price cuts (42 per cent). The next most influential factors are recommendations from family or friends (24 per cent), while television advertising is only mentioned by around one in every ten respondents (Ofcom 2004).

2.7 Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviour of Parents

Most obese children and their parents are unaware of, or choose to ignore, the reality of the child obesity situation (Ofcom 2004). A research indicated that obese children are considered healthy, and of ‘average weight' by the majority of their parents (Ofcom 2004).

In addition, most of the children themselves reported they are happy with their current weight, and about the way they look (Ofcom 2004). The research by Ofcom (2004) showed that both obese children and their parents are less knowledgeable about healthy eating and less likely to appreciate the importance of eating fresh fruit and vegetables compared with children and parents in families where the children are of normal weight.

Moreover, research result disclosed that parents of obese children compared with parents of normal weight children are less motivated by health and more influenced by convenience and price buying or choosing food (Ofcom 2004). When obese adults are doing their shopping, they are more likely to be attracted to offers that can be seen as encouraging extra consumption, such as multi-buys and extra free content (Ofcom 2004).

Food promotion generally, particular they tell us, play insignificant part in their decisions. However, they are more likely than parents of normal weight children to voice these as the reasons for their food choice preferences (Ofcom 2004). Also, television advertising for food and drink may draw the attention of obese children in a more emotional and physical way than it does on children of normal weight (Ofcom 2004).

Moreover, Ofcom's research found that parents of obese children tend to have a more laid-back attitude to mealtimes and are less likely to have rules about good table manners. Such parents seem less confident than parents of normal weight children about their own capability to have an influence (Ofcom 2004).

It was reported that parents of obese children tend to show unpractical opinions when considering what can be done to ensure healthy diet for children (Ofcom 2004). Also, Ofcom's research found that parents of an obese child are less likely to think that parents are the ones who responsible for the healthy diet of their children (Ofcom 2004). In contrast, they are more likely to think schools can do most to help. They consider lunchtime meals to be more important than do parents of normal weight children (Ofcom 2004).

Ofcom's qualitative showed that parents of obese children are also less likely to read labels about ingredients, or to support changes to the rules about how high fat, salt, and sugar products are advertised to children, expecting advertisers to provide them with more information on healthy diet (Ofcom 2004).

2.8 Research on the Effectiveness of Advertising Bans

The Ofcom (2004) found that there is little research sought to examine the effectiveness of television advertising regulation, and there is even less on the banning of food advertising on television. However, the conclusions are at best both unclear and contested where there has been study on the effectiveness of television advertising bans on food adverts in relation to obesity in other countries.

2.9 Implications for Regulation Changes

Solutions to the problems of obesity and health related issues in children's eating disorder need to be multi-faceted (Ofcom 2004). The research finding suggested that regulation of television advertising has an important part to play. Thus, changing the rules around the advertising of high fat, salt, and sugar products as a single solution to counter the obesity in young children seems less likely to succeed (Ashton 2004).

Addressing how the high fat, salt, sugar products are advertised on television need to be accompanied by similar actions in a number of other areas to effectively resolve children's obesity. Suitable examples include:

  • Improve an access to healthy foods of children in areas of multiple deprivation
  • Improve healthy food provision in schools
  • Promote physical exercise among young children
  • Develop effective educational programmes to promote healthy eating in children
  • Use appropriate and suitable media and advertising literacy
  • Educate parents in the term of food pricing and its quality
  • Label packaged food products to provide sufficient information on nutritious
  • Regulate different other forms of promotion

Clarke (2003) revealed in an article titled ‘The complex issue of food, advertising, and child health' that banning television advertising directed at young children is not the most effective way to counter children's obesity and other eating disorder behaviours. Therefore, the much more radical solutions to resolve the problems must be more strategic, and Clarke (2003) suggested that both government and private bodies need to contribute their efforts to be much more broad-based in response to this problem.

Clarke (2003) made two opportunities that can be used to counter health and obesity problem. First, he suggested that it is important to reduce unhealthy marketing by limiting the amount of promotion, products development, pricing strategies, and marketing advantageous distribution which is supporting unhealthy options, and all involved bodies can also put forward effort to increase healthy marketing (Clarke 2003).

The second opportunity recommended by Clarke (2003) is to focus on a necessary precondition for any impartial and targeted intervention would be a more practical and actionable definition of what classifies a high fat, salt, and sugar and unhealthy products, and this equally will represent healthy food consumption in the society (Clarke 2003).

2.10 The Experience of Health and Obesity in Other Countries

Little research has been done to examine the effectiveness of banning food advertising on television programs and commercials, and where there has been research in other countries on the effectiveness of bans on food advertising in relation to obesity, the conclusions are at best both unclear and contested (Ofcom 2004).

Byrd-Bredbenner and Grasso (2000) revealed in an article titled ‘Trends in US prime-time television food advertising across three decades' that most countries which are taking further steps toward protecting children from advertising are mainly located in Europe. They sated that many European government placed rules and restrictions on television advertisements directed at young children, while most developing countries in South East Asia, such as India and Cambodia do not seem to understand the health related problem (Byrd-Bredbenner & Grasso 2000).

A research on ethical marketing also disclosed that the government in India is reported to use children for delivering its messages through to the people (Run 2007). The Department of Telecommunications Government of India used children in their mass messages to parents on tax evasion (Run 2007). The results have been rather traumatic for some parents and their children as the kids wanted to know if their parents paid tax to the government (Run 2007).

The research also revealed that Indian children pleaded their parents to pay up the tax to fulfil their duty of being good residents (Run 2007). The problem was not only involved with the pervasiveness of marketing communication campaigns targeted at young children, but also the skill that they wield in their charms and innocents in the messages of the advertisement.

Indian parents felt that the government must introduce the restrictions in what marketers and advertisers can show and to whom the marketers can target. This is because marketers are making their playing field to younger viewers, and many of them are just about learning to walk and talk. As a result, this actually shows a sing that companies and advertisers need to research on psychological factors when creating advertising's messages (Run 2007).


It can be concluded that the messages in the advertisements to children can cause unhealthy behaviours, such as poor eating habits and diet disorder behaviour. In addition, many advertisements for toys, snack food, video games, and cereal often targeted towards children, and this causes conflict between parents and children when the parents refused. Psychosocial, biological factors, behavioural, and media factors have an impact over unhealthy eating behaviour in children.

Based on the sufficient evidences, it can be concluded that television advertising has modest, direct implications on child food preferences. There is insufficient evidence to determine the relative size of implications of television advertising on children's food preferences. However, this does not mean that the indirect effects of television advertising are insignificant because it is extensively argued in the social and developmental psychology field and in consumer marketing research that the substantial indirect effects occur.

The most suitable solutions to counter the unhealthy eating habits in young children cannot be achieved by a single related body. It is necessary for all related government and private organizations to put forward their best efforts into promoting healthy messages in advertisements targeted at children. Parents, however, have greatest responsibility to ensure healthier dieting habits for their children.




This chapter focuses on providing details on research methodology employed in this research project. The information featured in this chapter include details such as the objectives of the study, research design, timetable, types and sources of information, data collection, data analysis, and control problem plan.

3.1 Research Focus

All of the details in this study cover the concern over the potentially harmful implications of commercials on health and obesity habit in children. The study reviews the effect of food commercials on child eating habit and their food choices. Moreover, this research looks at the messages contained in food advertising with intention to help marketers to develop and improve the more appropriate market and brand advertising. This study also focuses on assisting parents in preventing and eliminating poor eating habit in young children.

3.2 Research Design

The Descriptive Research is employed in this research. This is explained as below:

3.2.1 Descriptive Research

The secondary data used in this research are obtained from various sources, such as journal articles and newspapers. The collected secondary data are compared and contrasted against the supported theories from textbooks and other studies, which the researcher has gained from different sources, including business libraries and internet.

3.3 Timetable

The timetable provides timescale for the progress of this research project. Some changes may occur in the timetable in unexpected circumstances. However, the researcher has ensured that there are sufficient times for all of the tasks to be completed on schedule. The followings are details in the timetable.

  • Take two weeks to search and study secondary data from different sources, such as journal articles, researches, news, and business libraries.
  • Take a day for preparation and administration of data record.
  • Take a week for analyzing data
  • Take a week to write up and report.

3.4 Type and Source of Information

There are two types of data, including primary data and secondary data. However, an analysis and discussion in this research derived from the comparison of secondary data from similar studies. For a better understanding the definition of primary and secondary data are given as below:

3.4.1 Primary Data

Primary data is the information gained directly from the first-hand sources by research programs or means of surveys, observation and experiment. As compared to secondary data, which is previously collected, primary data is obtained to help solving the problem at hand. The field research associates with collecting information and data, which do not already exist (Schmidt & Hollensen 2006).

The major methods of primary data collection include focus group, individual in-depth interview, questionnaires, protocol analysis, project methods, action research, and Delphi research. However, in this research, the primary research is not carried out because the information required for analysing and examining the aims and objectives of this study can be obtained from the existing secondary data (Schmidt & Hollensen 2006).

3.4.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data is information that has been gathered by someone other than the researcher or for some other purposes than the project at hand. There are large amounts of secondary data available and the researchers have to locate and use the data relevant to their researches (Schmidt & Hollensen 2006).

There are various sources of secondary data, including internal and external data sources. The internal data sources consist of data, such as sales report, market share reports, marketing activities, cost information, sales reps' reports, customer or end-user feedback, and sales force feedback (Schmidt & Hollensen 2006).

On the other hand, external data sources comprise of electronic information (i.e. books, newspapers, trade magazine/journals, websites of competitors, and article databases) and printed data (consumer purchase panels, store audits, web-traffic monitoring etc) (Schmidt & Hollensen 2006).

The secondary data used in this study are obtained various sources, such as journal article, textbooks, relevant websites, newspapers, and related studies. This research employs secondary data because it is cheaper than carrying out a primary research. The secondary data used in this study are collected from journal article, textbooks, relevant websites, newspapers, and related dissertation/thesis. Thus, researcher consumes less time and money to gather information independently (Schmidt & Hollensen 2006).

3.5 Advantage and Disadvantage of Secondary Data

Schmidt and Hollensen (2006) explained the advantage and disadvantage of secondary data as follows:

3.5.1 Advantages of Secondary Data

  • Quick way of obtaining data
  • Low cost
  • Less effort expended
  • Less time taken
  • Sometimes more accurate than primary data
  • Some information can be obtained only from secondary

3.5.2 Disadvantages of Secondary Data

  • Collected for some other purpose
  • No control over data collection
  • May not be accurate
  • May not be reported in the required form
  • May be outdated
  • May not meet data requirements
  • A number of assumptions have to be made

3.6 Data Analysis

The researcher analyzes the collected secondary data in descriptive pattern. The theories from both textbooks and studies in similar fields are applied to support the aims and objectives of this research. The secondary data are also analyzed on the basis of a comparative qualitative analysis, with related or similar studies. It is important for the researcher to ensure all of the collected secondary data are reliable.

The related studies are used to support the analysis in literature review. This helps towards obtaining a comparative analysis, giving suggestions or recommendations on the effect of advertising on health and obesity of children.

3.7 Research Problem Control

There were problems arising while conducting this research project. The researcher has employed the followings solutions to resolved problems.

  • Collecting data that are relevant to the aims and objectives and the area of the study
  • Gathering data from the reliable sources, such as business libraries and related journal articles
  • Carefully preparing the process of the study step by step before carrying out the research. This ensures that the obtained data cover all aspects this study attempts to represent.
  • Gaining advices and suggestions from the experienced researchers to ensure that this research is heading to the right direction


It can be concluded that the research and analysis aid in the proving the hypothesis that advertising implications has an impact over health and obesity behaviour of children and their food choice preferences. The analysis of advertising' message influence aims to prove that the managing effective brand marketing and integrated communication essentially affect dieting habit of young children. The recommendations of this research are made based on the needs and changes, which have to be taken into consideration. Also, there is a plan to follow any new step which may lead to a better achievement in developing appropriate commercials' messages directed at children in the future.




This section defines research findings, analysis of collected data and research finding summary. It focuses on presenting research results. The collected data are analyzed on the basis of a comparative qualitative analysis, with related or similar studies. The research findings are described in descriptive explanation.

4.1 The Influences of Advertising on Child Buying Decision

According to the literature review, it shows that children are becoming potential customers at younger ages (Ashton 2004). A variety of factors influences children' experiences and shapes their consumer behaviours. There are many influences having an impact over the children food and nutrition related buying decision making behaviour which directly affects their eating habits and dietary choices (Ashton 2004).

Based on the discussion in the literature review and supported evidences from the qualitative research examined health and child obesity by Ofcom, factors influencing unhealthy eating habits and food preferences include:

  • A research showed that family has been identified as on of the most influential factor affecting food related decision and behaviour of young children (Turner et al. 2006). Family influences at the level of parent modelling and parent-child interaction.
  • Child food preference, consumption, and diet behaviour are multi-determined
  • People feel that parents are the primarily responsible for improving children's unhealthy diets, while schools and food manufacturers are seen to have an important role.
  • A trend for children to increasingly influence their own diet with the compliance of their p

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