CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

This research on the impact of twenty20 cricket on international cricket attempts to explore the perception of both primary and secondary stakeholders of the game in the international arena. Twenty20 cricket is one of the richest industries, which is valued at around a billion dollar across the globe. Twenty20 cricket is one of the world's sports with many enthusiastic participants, spectators as well as media interest. Twenty20 Cricket has sparked new life and provided redemption to cricket all over the globe. The Twenty20 version of the game has been a major factor in attempting to further globalize, commercialize and popularize the game. Cricket is one the most popular and well-liked game in the world. Cricket is an established team sport for hundreds of years and very popular in countries such as India, Pakistan, West Indies, South Africa and England. Like other sporting activities, twenty20 cricket is a professional sport that is sought after by both men and women due to its numerous beneficial attributes. This popular and beneficial activity not only provides you physical fitness but mental strength and sharpness too. A sport helps a person in building a very positive attitude. It has also become a part of education and routines of people. The main of the research is to determine the impact of twenty20 cricket sport on international cricket. This chapter tends to outline background of the study and problem statement. In addition, it discusses the research questions, research objectives and the significance of the study apart from presenting the research outline.

1.2 Study Background

The origin of Cricket sport can be traced from the period of the dark ages, probably after the Roman Empire, almost definitely prior to the Normans invading England and almost certainly somewhere in Northern Europe. Circumstantial evidences suggest the fact that this game was started in Saxon or Norman times by children living in south east part of England in an area of dense woodlands known as Weald. It is generally believed that cricket was more of a children game rather than the adults. It was taken up by the adults in 17th century and since then, this sport continued to increase its popularity and public acceptance and never looked back. As far as the name of term “cricket “is concerned it is generally believed that this word had various possible sources. The earliest source is traced back to 1598 when it was called as cricket. It is thought to be derived from Middle Dutch term “krick “meaning a stick. There are another terms also available which all suggest the possible involvement of Dutch in this sport. The game of Cricket is known to be spanning from the 16th century with matches being played since 1844, although officially ‘International Test Cricket' was played from the year 1877 onwards. Test cricket is the oldest and longest form of cricket. It is also considered as the most reliable and challenging form of cricket to measure the worth of any team where 2 innings are played by each team. After the toss the team that bats first piles on as many runs as possible and declares the innings. Then comes the turn of other team and so the match goes on until the final result. The popularity and charm of test cricket is decreasing day by day because of the origination of new more exciting forms of cricket. Hopwood (2005) argues that the game of Cricket has been governed by the rules for more than 250 years. The Marylebone Cricket Club has been an authoritative figure in putting forth the rules of cricket and its subsequent amendments. In the year 2000, the MCC revised the rules of Cricket and introduced Spirit of Cricket to the laws of the game to maintain the unique character and enjoyment of the game.

One day cricket is the most recognizable and viewed form of cricket in the world. It is being played and watched by the people with great enthusiasm. The most popular event “World Cup” of cricket is also based on the pattern of one day cricket. Most of the important and popular championships in cricket are based on one day matches. The one- day international cricket is a late twentieth century development. On 5th January 1971, first ODI was played between Australia and England and till now it is very popular among the cricket fans. Cricket matches are played and liked by the people on national and international level (Birley, 2003). There are many types of cricket like country cricket, club cricket, indoor cricket, women's cricket and cricket for blinds, but the most prominent and popular three types of cricket which are recognized by ICC (International Cricket Council) are test cricket, one-day and newly originated form twenty20 cricket. The arrival of Twenty20 on the cricketing scene has surely divided the cricketing fraternity. Some believe that it is nothing but a travesty and should not be encouraged at any cost. They argue that since Twenty20 encourages far-from-technical cricket youngsters wanting to pick up the game will be misguided into believing that cricket is all about trying to hit 6's and 4's no matter how you do it. Also it will create the misconception that cricket is a batsman's game and that there is very little incentive in bowling since it is the bowlers that are usually the ones at the receiving end. In such a scenario very few youngsters might take up bowling or bother learning the finer points of the craft. Plus there is always the argument that Twenty20 cricket will wean away interest from the traditional formats of the game, especially Test cricket. However, opinion regarding Twenty20 cricket still remains divided as its promoters insist that it will not replace any of the traditional formats but on the contrary will increase interest in them by pulling more people towards cricket as a whole. They also argue that the Twenty20 format is a great way of introducing cricket to the non-cricketing world which is used to fast games such as football. There is no doubt that the T20 version of the game has become the most popular and acceptable in the recent times but it cannot be said that other forms of the games have been overlooked. After the commencement of T20 cricket, many thought that the test cricket will be gradually extinguished from the cricket world. It is however wrong to say. All the legends of cricket still firmly believe that test cricket is the toughest and most resilient form of cricket which gets the best of any player. Test cricket judge's mental ability and strength, the stamina and resilience factor and various other things of the player which twenty 20 cricket cannot judge.

The game of Twenty20 sport involves two teams; each has a single innings, batting for a maximum of 20 overs. Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 75 minutes, thus bringing the game closer to the time span of other popular team sports such as football (Hopwood, 2005). It was introduced to create a lively form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television. Since its inception the game has spread around the cricket world. The idea of a shortened format of the game at a professional level was discussed by the English and Wales Cricket Boardin 1998 and 2001. When theBenson and Hedges Cupended in 2002, theEnglish and Wales Cricket Board needed another one day competition to fill its place. The cricketing authorities were looking to boost the game's image and popularity with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship. It was intended to deliver fast paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game (test cricket and one-day international cricket). Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the English and Wales Cricket Board, proposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11-7 in favor of adopting the new format. More than 30 focus groups were mobilized. 4,000, 15-minute, face-to-face interviews were set up to gauge the public appetite for the game. The image of Cricket in England had always been that of a sport which is slow-paced, sedate and boring. The audiences identified the length of the matches to be very long, albeit Test Match Cricket (5 days) of One-Day Cricket (8 hours). Easton (1996) argues that the general perception and image in the minds of the public was that Cricket is a sort of sport which more often than not results in boring draws (Test Cricket). Even in one-day cricket (50 overs), the batsmen would score their runs at a pretty slow rate resulting in a dull spectacle for the crowds attending to watch matches at the various cricket grounds. Hopwood (2005) maintains that the England and Wales Cricket Board had initially introducedTwenty20 cricket as a way to get the crowds back in domestic cricket. The first Twenty20 Cup in 2003 (now known as the Friends Provident T20) was marketed with the slogan“I don't like cricket, I love it”and it was aimed especially at the youth rather than the cricket connoisseur. It was meant to be a game that would bring the entire family together for an evening of fun and carnival like atmosphere. The finals of the 2003 Twenty20 Cup (in 2003) saw performances by pop stars and rock bands and the party like atmosphere made it an evening to remember. It was a huge success as the crowds were pleasantly taken by surprise. More than the cricket on field the idea was to have fun; cricket just provided the means. This was the ‘fast food' of cricket and the people just loved every single bite. Since then Twenty20 has slowly risen in popularity. The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in theTwenty20 Cup (now known as the Friends Provident T20). The first season of Twenty20 in England was a relative success, with theSurrey Lionsdefeating theWarwickshire Bearsby 9 wickets in the final to claim theTwenty20 Cup

1.3 Problem Statement

This study focuses on cricket's problem of enduring a severe and long held image problem which is proving difficult for the game to turn around and which is without doubt affecting the potential of cricket to draw vital media and monetary support. Critics have been leveled against introduction of twenty20 cricket. Public Relations activities being critical to the future of the game have not been implemented to the level that it should be or many in the game would like it to be. Many have argued that since Twenty20 encourages far-from-technical cricket, youngsters wanting to pick up the game will be misguided into believing that cricket is all about trying to hit 6s and 4s no matter how you do it. Besides, test cricket which is considered the ‘pinnacle of the game' may soon suffer the absence of quality international players as cricketers such as Andrew Flintoff of England have retired from Test Cricket to accommodate themselves in Twenty20 Cricket amongst other international cricketers such as Paul Collingwood and Kevin Pietersen skipping the Domestic County Cricket season in the United Kingdom to play for the cash lucrative Indian Premier League. The implications of such incidents may only result in English Domestic Cricket losing out on valuable players and as a result failing to attract audiences and generating revenues for the English Domestic game. English and Wales Cricket Board has played a critical role in the introduction of twenty 20 cricket to the world but there has always been a lingering feeling that the English International cricket team has been inconsistent in their performances at the one-day international level (50 over cricket). Some experts in the game have linked the inconsistency of the international side to the structural problems in county cricket. Other people argue that twenty 20 cricket will create the misconception that cricket is a batsman's game and that there is very little incentive in bowling since it is the bowlers that are usually the ones at the receiving end. In twenty 20 cricket, at most times the pitches prepared are tailor made for batsmen to go for their strokes and put up big totals on the board. In such a scenario very few youngsters might take up bowling or bother learning the finer points of the craft. The sport of twenty 20 cricket faces another problem of lack of five test match series except for the Ashes. What could be better suited to sustain the interest of the cricket fan than have England tour India or vice-versa for a five test match series. Instead, we have two-Test series arranged at the last minute by the English and Wales Cricket Board. Nobody can anticipate or attend; nobody is satisfied - except perhaps the broadcasters whose contracts are fulfilled. There is need for English and Wales Cricket Board to understand that there is no requirement for saturation and committing overkill by scheduling cricket all year around. Instead, just stage and promote the 'icon' series properly, and Test cricket's unique qualities will take care of the rest.

1.4 Research Questions

This research responds to the problems associated with this study by attempting to evaluate the influence of twenty 20 cricket in accordance with the perception of different stakeholders. Hence the research questions that this studied tried to answer is listed as indicated below:

  • What is the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket Board
  • To what extent has public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 Cricket
  • Which is the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricket, One Day Internationals or Twenty20
  • Have public relation activities been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiences
  • What measures have the English and Wales Cricket Board put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.

1.5 Research Aim and Objectives

In order to obtain the goal of the study, the main aim of the study as well as specific objectives in relation to the impact of twenty 20 cricket on international cricket were formulated with research problems and research questions in mind. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of twenty 20 cricket on international cricket. To be able o obtain the mentioned main objective of the study, five specific research objects were formulated. The specific research objectives are stated as indicated below:

  • To determine the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket Board
  • To find out whether public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 Cricket
  • To establish the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricket, One Day Internationals or Twenty20
  • To investigate whether public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiences
  • To find out the measures that the English and Wales Cricket Board have put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.

1.6 Significance of the study

Sport industry contribute quite considerably to the development of different nations across the globe; hence this study is going to play a very important role in demystifying the implication of the introduction of twenty 20 cricket in the world of sport. Such information can be used by different stakeholder such as nations, industry players, players, spectators and the general public as well as students. Industry managers can use this study to gauge the implication of twenty 20 cricket and the impact it has on the world of sport. This is quite critical because it can be used by different stakeholders to make appropriate strategies that will be for their good and the good of the public. Perception of different stakeholders especially spectators of twenty 20 cricket will be very significant in making decisions in relation with the twenty 20 cricket sport. This research will also contribute to the pool of knowledge where students will be able to gain necessary knowledge to help them not only be informed but to also acquire relevant information necessary for the completion of their studies.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 The Business of Sportianment

Standard Bank of South Africa is a financial services provider, which is a subcomponent of the Standard Bank Group. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), since 1997, the bank began providing sponsorship to cricket in South Africa. This initiative rejuvenated the back the playing of cricket at local level. The game had dwindling spectator s watching the matches. This was also coupled with declining interest. The Bank alongside the Cricket South Africa came up with the model of the 20-A-sidec cricket. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was in the Year 2004. This involved lessening the one-day game of cricket. The concept of the 20-over was meant to last for only three hours. This had reduced number of overs. This made the game more interesting, faster than before and furious. This new version of the game of cricket was later to be named the Standard Bank Pro20 series. The objective of the Bank venturing in Pro20 cricket was to build on their existing high levels of association with cricket in South Africa and demonstrate to their chosen audience (Randall, 2004).

According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was in order to show their brand was among those, which was ahead and was able to undergo changes to a better brand. The move by the Bank to place the brand closer to the youth that is through sponsoring the local sport of the cricket game in South Africa. Since the Bank had grassroots involvement with the local play of the sport of the cricket, they also wanted to collaborate with Cricket South Africa so that to repackage the local experience of the game (Suite 101, n.d.). According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this is so that to bring vibrancy in the game making it more vibrant and lively. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), the company opted for internal marketing campaigns as well as sports hospitality; through this, it viewed the strategy of additional opportunity to interact one on one with interested parties of the game on how it is play. The drive for having a new version or revised version of the game was because it meant to bring a renewed feeling among the traditional perception of the game. This is not for the sake of those who play the games alone but also for those who the sport as a way of entertainment. Off the pitch activities were brought as a form extra play and entertainment. This meant to act as an additional treat for excitement viewers were getting on the field. The composite of what resulted made the game more exciting and unique. The best phrase used to recognize the resultant product of this was sportainment. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was a composite of both sports and entertainment.

The phrase developed meant to give priority to the essence of Standard Bank Pro20 cricket. According to standard Bank Pro 20 cricket (n.d.) the game took the design that features three pillar experiences. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are mainly cricket, stadium and broadcast. The nexus between the three pillars gave the stakeholders the integrated treat of sportainment. The innovation into the sport of cricket thought out and imported courtesy of the collaborated effort of Standard Bank South Africa jointly with Cricket South Africa (Cricket Web, 2010). The effort involved the bringing in of new dugouts for players at the ides of the field. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this meant to enhance game watching by the audience seated on the bench with clarity. The game increased he speed at which the players played the game (BBC, 2006). This saw the facilitation of faster changes in the batsmen. The new type of the dropped some of the old team tactics and umpire kit designs; this meant to improve the appeal while watching the game. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), they took the measure to move the umpires into the field carried by vehicles that bore the name of the brands on the side. There was notable change on the play of the game. This was especially on the batting style. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), there was the introduction of a free hit for a no ball. In the stadium there, standard Bank tailored the Hard Hats for fans. There was distribution to fans of headgear for protection against the significant number of fours and sixes expected in the new boundary-bashing version. There was improvement done that came with additional cameras for broadcast purpose. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are non-fixed and could be moveable that is from one place to another. When there are international matches in the Pro20 cricket series, more pomp and color were in addition to the stadium. Professional dancers would be ushered into the podium. A DJ booth will come in handy, which are in position placed at an elevated level. The common horizontal digital boards for advertising were removable and in their place put enhanced ones. These new ones have more features. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are wider vertical Power Towers. They used to communicate messages. In addition, they have images that parallel the action that is taking place in the field. When SuperSport came on board, this came with untested initiatives to support. These provided with the cricket and stadium an experience. The experience is for live ball-by-ball viewers. The commentators trans-located: newly to the grandstands, as it was not like before. Previously, these were host at the media suite as well as the commentary boxes. In this new position, they are able to interact with spectators. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this is especially at the breaks of the games. The new facelift accompanied with providing the fielding captain with an earpiece together with a lapel microphone. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), the commentators capacitated so that they can link directly link in perception and mind with the players. This is at opportunity moments of the game. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), live interviews conducted with the outgoing batsmen after each wicket. Heart-rate monitors attached to some of players on the field. This meant to provide those watching via television broadcast with additional action from the field (Hubbard and Thomas, 2007).

2.2 The Business Side of Cricket

According to Easton (1996) the communication to influence people's ideas, theories as well as feelings used through analogies. This is a common practice in the field of business. A clear analogy occurs between the battlefield of sports and business occurrences. In order to win a game of cricket ones needs a well thought out strategy (Savicca, 2011). This is a similar case as in the business fraternity. There is need to think about how the situation will be in the field. This is like an objective visioning the business venture that is, accompanied with an analysis of the strengths as well as weaknesses. There is a lookout for threats as well as opportunities lingering around the business. The cricket strategy for having the vision is to develop a new product. According to Easton (1996), this has bases on a crop of new players. There is need to prepare for strong wickets which will assure the goes back home after a game with the victory. This is like a market strategy. This is where chances for success are vital. Like a business scenario there is need to know what kind of product one is offering to the market. This followed by a winning formula, which is the marketing mix. According to Easton (1996), the same applies to the game of cricket.

There is need to know the kind of players one has and how to formulate a workable strategy to win based on their skills. In describing what kind of product that is needed in the sport of cricket; there is need to screen the kind of players one has at his disposal. According to Easton (1996), just like determining the price of the product; the analogy in the game of cricket is the level which to depend on players that you field during the playing of the game, that is, what role best fit each player when on the field of cricket. This resembles how to distribute resources in the case of a business set up. The thought one has to have is about the strength that will promote the possibility for a victory, that is, how one ensures that, the other team has been defeated. According to Easton (1996), this thought out done even before the game begins. Just like the way one thinks out how the marketing mix is going to be done; one has to formulate a strategy that enables to understand the game when playing at home as well as when playing at the opponents' home turfs. As it happens elsewhere, one has to keep watch on the ongoing in the marketing front. One has to compare business performance with the occurrences in the market sales and profit as well as the market share. According to Easton (1996), in the case of the game of cricket one has to compare their performance within the league and find out how to improve play. That is at the team level. At member level, one can assess their capacity in the bowling and batting. The opportune to sell in business is just as important as the way it may be in a game of cricket. Any skipper who has had to sell to a seasoned opening batsman that he should bat further down the order will need the very best selling skills. A skipper ought to know how the team would move in to their victory. These are the success factors of the game. According to Easton (1996), skipper must ensure that the score is at five an over or endeavor to make sure the opposing team's best batsman remains always off the strike throughout the game. The rest of other team members should have already known the game plan that the skipper has in mind. This enables the team to launch their tactics without any ado. Because the opponent has opinion that is always to be on toes to know the tactics on application by the opponent by reviewing what has done throughout the past games played, then the team has to deliver a good product. These make the defeats inevitable. According to Easton (1996), in order to make good out of a game through a win then these success has been register through understanding how to cohere as a team. There is need to understand capabilities of each member in the team so that to get the best out of them. These same applies to a business deal there is need to know the capacities of different dealers in the chain to make good out of them. According to Easton (1996), it is true that the business is for the people by the people. Thus, those participating in a transaction are the ones who make up the business.

Leadership in a game of cricket is held to create an authority that will drive the team to a common purpose. The common for the team during a game is to win. The team just like a business will for the human communities that have brought together for a common purpose. That is why some underdogs have surprised the big names of the game. According to Easton (1996), understanding the team members, how they react, their skill levels and how best to utilize them, and aligning them to achieve a common goal is vital to the leader's success. During the headingly test, Mike Brearly the skipper demonstrated this brilliantly. According to Easton (1996), in the game of cricket just as in the business front there is need to understand each such that role are set out clearly for every player. This can be on bases of what one is best base on what to do. It should also matter on placing people based on how they consider themselves during a win or loss. According to Easton (1996), this can be likened to LIFO terms; this is in the way they to assess he behavior when the going is well and how their behavior when they are under pressure. The team may design in a way these factors well taken care of. According to Easton (1996), for instance, who comes in handy to be supporting the captain? Who is suited to do the try as well as serve as the captain of the side? Who will give their place up as a substitute in the batting in order to save the team from a loss? There exit several types of mixes and types that make up the world of cultures in business. These could include the power, people, task as well as role. Just like in business the game of cricket, this is the same (Fischer, n.d.).

2.3 Actuating a Sport as a Business

According to Goldman and Johns (2009), any game at the level of business of sport must show how it is economically significant at all the levels of the society. This makes it an important component both as an economic activity as well as wealth creation. Market research has shown those willing to invest in sports sponsorship; this has risen since 2003 by a twenty-nine percent proportion, which best estimated to be US$2.4 billion. This makes part of a proportion of the larger global sponsorship industry. This best estimated to be about US$28 billion in 2004. In the case of South Africa, the amount of money put into the sport as a direct expenditure in terms of sports sponsorship has increased. In 1991, the amount spent in terms of sponsorship was R 207 million but this rose such that in 2000 the amount was R 1billion. Recent case studies show that the amount spent in the sport has risen to 2.6 billion Rand. These studies have further shown that another R 2.2 Billion has spent on leveraging sponsorship. A case in point to identify with is the 1984 when the Los Angeles hosted the Olympics. The Olympics significantly boosted sports marketing. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), this event turned athletics into a sponsored business. This became the first to be operational on revenues generated by private sponsor revenues. The other Olympics operated on a bid to generate profit.

In addition to the competition that is experience on the field, sports teams also compete for favor from spectators, media coverage, brand sponsors, product consumers as well as bidding investors. From this perspective, this is making sporting action become a business entity. This is with professional management. Those in management will rather perceive those in their sport team as a brand and are important to sell in the sport club. Thus, the sports icons are rather making sure every sports event is a value addition. This makes them important in the public eye. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), these makes them become valuable and can attract and influence the perception and attitude of other stakeholders the game. Sports Clubs like Manchester United, Real Madrid as well as the New York Yankees have set pace in showing the value of product branding in games is all about? This act makes the sports seem rather to act independently when displayed. The venture is such that the brand can sell independently of the athlete success. Take for instance the case of Real Madrid. In the football season of 2003/2004, they made up to €64.3 million in the form of merchandising sales. Out of the revenue generated, the brand sold 1.5 million shirts mostly to other countries. The clubs at the helm of football action, mainly based in Europe collectively grew by a margin of 11%, which is equivalent to € 3.7 billion in 2006/2007. During this time Real Madrid was rated as the first club to make up revenue of €360 million. Research has classified the art of sports marketing in to two versions. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), there is marketing of sports as well as marketing with sports. The marketing of sports involves marketing strategies of sports events as well as sports kits to a target audience of the players, athletes as well as spectators. The marketing with sports involves the use of sporting events as well as sports players in giving non-sporting event or product a market boost. These two forms of marketing provide a potential wide field for conducting research. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), there are research calls that seek to attract attention for the academic spheres to see the value and potential there is in the sports arena.

Researchers in the field of marketing with sports consider it under the class of sponsorship (IMR Publications Limited, n.d). Sponsorship has seen to be as an opportunity paid for so that to exploit inherent potential of a product that exists meant for commercial purpose. There has occurred a change from the original more of a generosity approach from companies with spare for clubs to a strategic corporate approach with product model sort of. Some researchers have thought sponsorship as potent to groom and model a brand through awareness. This is with likeness to it and deep appreciation. There has also been the change for the art of sponsorship literature. The relationship of sponsorship has emerged from that of transaction based to more of strategic partnership. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), this has brought due to the fusion between the art of sports and business practice. Indeed the art of sportsmanship has received some academic attention. The art in sponsorship has generated from the practices of sports. The increased interest in sports sponsorship has made it the benchmark in research and management of sponsorship. Researchers have perceived that the theoretical relevance of researching sports marketing when it was as stated that it is a unique market product from others. This is because the marketing surrounded by the uncertainty of the sport. Sports' marketing thought to a challenge in which its outcome is felt on the stage (Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya USA, 2011). According to Goldman and Johns (2009), this is by creating opportunities for simultaneous fulfillment of objectives among the sport customers, sport businesses, participants and other related individuals, groups and organizations.

2.4 Role of Public Relations in Building English Cricket

According to Hopwwod (2005), the game of cricket is a spectator sport. The traditional structure of the game is facing huge criticism, as it does not attract a large crowd following, that is, it is not popular among many. That is why the body that overlooks on cricket issues in the UK, the England as well as the Wales Cricket Board is offering funds for the game. Hopwood (2005) explains that, they are also putting in place promotion activities to capture the following of the masses. This is providing playing kits to inner city schools to marshal greater participation of the sport among the women. In these countries, playing at the level of the national team attracts sponsor funds as well as comprehensive support from the England and Wales Cricket Board. Hopwood (2005) explains that, when playing professional cricket there are challenges for the county teams such that for them to remain of importance with business and sporting perspective, there is need to adopt a tactical approach that has bases on consumer necessity vision. The current business environment is comparatively competitive; this is the daring truth. This is the truth in order to promote among and sustain customers as well as other interested and loyal sportspeople on board. Hopwood (2005) explains that, the provision of innovative products and services is not enough to meet the demand to rejuvenate the sport among the people. The current breeds of organizations are coming to the realization that they can occur as a different entity from what they are providing to the market (ICC Development (International) ltd, 2009). With this, they can gain competitive advantage by make improvements on their public relations. According to Hopwwod (2005), these could be part of the building strategies for relationship as well as communication. How these apply to the business, fraternity applies the same to the sports organizations.

Hopwood (2005) explains that, the ways transactions are conducted in the modern sports are of common application known to be of commercial in nature and the market pressure imposes an instrumental rationality. These are imposed on the sporting outfits, just in the same way it does so on the institutions that comprise civil society as a whole. According to Hopwwod (2005), at grass root level, cricket enjoys massive following though not like football which has widespread support. The following in the case of cricket is more of loyal. This sport suffers from persistently and long-held image problem. Hopwood (2005) explains that, this is becoming chronic to resolve. This has become a critical problem to resolve because it is proving to be a backdrop to attracting the necessary media and financial back up. The England and Wales Cricket Board have developed a marketing tool and endeavors to publicize best practices all over the 18 premier class county clubs. However, the clubs have been mandated to promote the game at grass root level. According to Hopwwod (2005), through research, it has been found that there is no common pro motion strategy that exists currently to push the game forward. Public relations are an important instrument to an organizational communications armory, since these are of just as much value to the sporting organization as it is to the business organization. Hopwood (2005) explains that, research conducted on the key organs of promoting the game gave the key indication that public relation s is essential to prosperity of the sport. Daring the truth in the face is that public relations are not formally practiced in the manner it should be. Yet public relations are touted as the key for marketing the game in to the future world. According to Hopwwod (2005), the factors of profit and loss are rife in the professional sport making in the today's economic market. That is why sports cannot be challenged in their contribution to the global economy. Much as said so the most peculiar factor of all is how the game of sport is not actually organized same way as business. Hopwood (2005) explains that, one reason why the game of sports can be attributed to this is that they are not associated to capitalism and entrepreneurship. This factor is mainly influenced by their historical developmental traditions.

Contemporary cricket organization is struggling with not only the legacy of the privileged past but also with the fact that it is freighted with extraneous moral overtones. According to Hopwwod (2005), the general behavior of describing things that are not commonly accepted to the cricket game as a common practice has led to people believing that cricket has well set standards for a good sportsmanship behavior. This is thought to belong to the era of Whiteman rule and gentility. Due to this legacy, there are direct effects to professional cricket play. The game has rather learnt to chase after the speed of change of the age. This has overtime seemed to be lost due to pleasures of life times of his glory and made good out of social attitudes. Due to some of the issues shortly mentioned, cricket has rather found itself in rough waters. In most spectator sports, things are handled rather like in a business set up. Due to this fact, they have had to obey the factors of operating like the business itself. In the game of cricket, there is laxity in expressing the game as a business. Hopwood (2005) explains that, the game has rather learnt that it has to develop some survival strategy in the way it fights for the attention of media and fans. Hopwood (2005) explains that, for it to achieve the necessary attention, it needs to adopt the modern strategies and develop behaviors that suit it as a commercial business. In order for the sport of cricket to maintain a positive and credible following outside there it needs to regard itself as part of the entertainment market. After attaining that, it needs to achieve the necessary competitive capacity in the global market. A key component of attaining and maintaining the required ingredient is building and maintaining cordial relationship with most of all ranges of publics. Hopwood (2005) explains that, this objective can be achieved strategically mainly through execution of excellent public relations. For an enhanced future for the game of cricket then there is need to tackle those problems associated with the public relations. The game ought to be attractive to a demographically wide range of personalities rather the current traditional following it has. Public relations should offer solutions. Hopwood (2005) explains that, this is because it is best fitted in the contemporary world to do so. In the UK sport generally, the sport has yet to capture the market, as it should. Hopwood (2005) explains that, this means there should be a strategic organization so as the game can make good out of the potential opportunities. This is offered by adopting a strategic public relations philosophy.

2.5 The Quantifying One-Day Cricket

There are several possible outcomes in a day's cricket matches (de Silva et al., n.d.). This is fundamentally different from 2020 cricket all together (Cricket-Time, n.d.; World of Twenty20 cricket, n.d; Cricket Live Score (n.d.). Not everyone loves the setting of 2020 cricket (Jesoft Enterprise Ltd, 2011). The first team to be batting could win a non-abandoned match; the match can end at par; the much abandoned as well as the match could end in a case where the team that bats second wins a non-abandoned game. The number of runs between two teams can indicate the strength of the win by the first the bats first. When teams end at par, the strength of wins for both teams is equal. This case of situation is rare to occur. These means there is zero victory for either team. A game abandoned when one of the team is declared a winner or when the other is declared null (de Silva et al., n.d.). In the last scenario, when there is a projected score for the second team batting and the magnitude of the victory assessed by calculating the run differential; there is a win. However, in this case where second team is batting the clear winner is not known in most cases. These is because the game ends soon after the second team batting scores more runs the team that bats the first (de Silva et al., n.d.). Nevertheless, the team that is second to bat may have a remainder of wickets and overs to play. When there is no quantification, statistical analyses are primarily based on binary data that either indicates the wins or loses. There are researchers that have done the calculation of the effect of the home team advantage in one-day international cricket matches using logistic regression (de Silva et al., n.d.). There is a general understanding on statistical principle that sheer summarizing the data should not waste data. By therefore quantifying the magnitude of victory for a single day's cricket matches, future statistical modeling can better utilize the information (de Silva et al., n.d.). This is as adopted from the matches. In assessing, the magnitude of a win by a team can help in knowing the team's strength. These could be used when betting on a game's outcome. This can also be used in breaking ties that occur during games (de Silva et al., n.d.).

2.6 Theory Y Managers of a Team

According to Weisbord (2011), Theory Y mangers have proficient work teams. These teams have pooled skills. The work teams of this nature are multi-skilled. In this case, there is division of labor. The division of labor is associated with the existence of a wall. In Theory Y the management thinks that the team is ambitious with what it's up to. In this case, the team is self-motivated. According to Weisbord (2011), the team should tame or exercise self-control. This means the teams disciplined depending on what they want. In a theory type of a team, everybody expected to enjoy what they engaged in. The engagement of the team may involve either manual work or psychological involvement. In such a team, no one feels as if burdened by work. There is a feeling of freedom of creativity in this kind of environment for a team. With innovation, the talent up held in the team comes in handy. Thus, problem solving does not cause any problem. According to Weisbord (2011), for managers staffing this kind of team; they are less attached on staff handling of tasks. This is because they believe that the teams are well skilled to handle any task with minimal supervision. In this case, team members are willing to take up duties with minimal supervision. Since they are self-motivated, they are willing to restrain themselves in character to achieve set objectives to which they are committed. According to Weisbord (2011), the Theory manager feels secured with his team because he believes when they are given the right condition there is no need to supervise the staff working under him. The team is responsible enough to understand and do what is needed of them. to the manager under this Theory consider the motivation of their staff is based on successful completion of task. According to Weisbord (2011), this Theory is interpreted as the positive set of believes about the people one is managing. The Humanistic sides of Teamwork play at work one can realize that McGregor was pushing for open-minded managers who allow those under them to work without undue pressure so that they can be productive. With this kind of set up, there is a likelihood of attaining trust horizontally or vertically along the ladder. The component of trust is important in a set for human resource purposes. According to Weisbord (2011), human resource is critical when there is need for a team to bond. There is bound to be flow of meaningful and effective communication in case where human resource development is.

CHAPTE THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Background

This chapter of methodology is about the procedure taken by the researcher to collect data and find answers to research questions, which is the main purpose of dissertation. This chapter entails in detail the research methodology employed in the study, research methodology, research design, data collection, as well as analysis method utilized to accomplish the research objectives and determine solution to the research question are a part of this chapter. A combination of both Qualitative and Quantitative methods for data collection in the form of in-depth interviews on Online Questionnaires are considered more appropriate for this study.

3.2 Data Collection

Data that was used in this study were both primary and secondary data. Secondary data are collected from already existing sources of information such as research materials, periodicals, books, company records, archive papers, internet among others. Examination of secondary sources of data leads making inferences crucial for comparison with primary data. Collection of secondary data is not as hectic as collecting primary data because collecting of secondary data carried using available sources of information. Time was of senescence in order to collect necessary secondary information to be used in the study.

Primary is first hand information derived from the field of research. Primary data is known to play a very crucial role in ensuring accuracy and validity of the study. Primary data has a clear and precise structure and data collected is inferred by statistical analysis. This ensures accurate and precise findings that naturally enhance the value of the research study. Collection of primary data is not an easy exercise and it requires ample of time in order to be carried out intensively and successfully. Primary data as well as secondary data are both significant for any particular study. This research made use of both primary data and secondary data where secondary data were derived from existing literature, archives I internet as well as other necessary sources. Primary data was collected through administering of questionnaire as well as conducting interviews. Secondary data were collected from websites of cricket sports, relevant books, internet and other existing literature. Primary data was collected from fans of twenty20 cricket, cricket officials and other stakeholders who were deemed to have accurate information with regards to the topic of the study. Compared to primary data, secondary data has been established to be associated with advantages such as it data collection if relatively fast and that the cost of data collection is quite smaller. On the other hand, collection of primary data needs ample time and at the same time it cost relatively higher compared to that of secondary data. Primary data used in this study was collected through the use of structured questionnaires and interviews contain set of questions that are related to the research topic, research question and objectives. Questionnaires formed the main method of primary data collection that was used in this study.

3.3 Data collection Methods

Interviews as a method of data collection is appropriate by way of providing rich detail and the ability to understand what the individual being interviewed really thinks about an issue. It has been established beyond reasonable doubt that that in-depth interviews allow an interviewer to not only gain an understanding into the problem being researched but also helps in gaining insight about the interviewee. Besides, an in-depth interview allows for introspection on part of the interviewee and is still controlled by the interviewer. Therefore unstructured interviews are ideal for this project in allowing the interviewees to freely talk about the image, public image and their own beliefs in a non-directive way. Interview method of data collection for this particular research topic will focus on its target audience being an individual from the English and Wales Cricket Board board such as the English Cricket Board's secretary among other stakeholders such as cricket sport officials and cricket fans

In addition, administering of online questionnaires is appropriate method of data collection, which provides the researcher with a high and speedy response rate; apart from the fact that data collected through this method can be directly inputted into statistical or spread sheet packages for analysis. The internet questionnaires method of data collection for this particular research topic will focus on its target audience- the cricket fans and officials on the internet since it is the best way to interact and find cricket audiences. A comparison between two generations of audiences will be questioned on how they perceive the image of cricket and their preferences with regards to Test Cricket or Twenty20. The targeted places the researcher will look to gather and assimilate the data are cricket websites, twitter, facebook among others through the use of various social networking channels such as message boards.

Necessary Precaution will be taken during the research to ensure that the accuracy and validity of the data and the research are upheld. Due to the nature of the study, it is highly certain that many of the proposed methods for data collection stated in the methodology will not always be accurate or entirely possible to do. This is due to several factors which need to be taken into account. For instance, undertaking a survey online through a message board leads to anonymity issues since the researcher wants a good representation of two generations to answer the questionnaires. However, there is no guarantee that the intended audiences are the ones whom will respond. Moreover, there is need to take into account the fact that the researcher will require the time of the elite members of the ECB leading to an issue of accessibility problem as there are no guarantees that an interview can be done due to the time constraints of the mentioned board members. In is crucial to take precautionary measures to ensure that this interview is successfully done as it forms a critical part of forming the research and in turn adds to the credibility of the study.

3.4 Sample Selection

The study's main was to determine the impact of twenty20 cricket in the international cricket. Therefore, in order to ensure vapidity, accuracy and reliability of the study appropriate tools were employed to identify suitable sample population that would produce potential respondents. Non probability was identified to be the most appropriate method to identify respondents to use in the study. Since, non probability method consist of purposive sampling and snowball sampling, the most appropriate sampling method used in the study is purposive sampling due to its suitability, which entails selecting samples from the target group to represent the whole population.

3.5 Data Analysis

The collected primary data was analyzed using descriptive statistics analysis. Inferences was made with secondary data in order to determine whether the literature available support the research findings.

3.6 Validity and Reliability

Validity and reliability are very crucial aspect of research that should be taken into account during the entire process of the research. Reliability is considered to be the instrument measures the object or phenomenon that it is supposed to measure while validity is aim to create measurements for the data collection specified to fit with the concepts being studied. According this research, validity was ensured through the means of constructing and carrying out interviews in a manner that data derived is measured in a proper way through content analysis. Other measures that were taken to ensure validity of the study include proper design of research and choice of appropriate method of data collection.

3.7 Research ethics

Standard of professional behavior was upheld during the study in order to ensure integrity of respondents, the environment and other stakeholders. Technical competence is an ethical obligation since it ensures that the researcher does his or her work in all fairness and integrity as well as awareness that his own credibility relies on it. Some research ethics that were observed by the researcher include informing the participants the purpose of the study, the significance of the research findings, being able to answer any question from the respondents with regards to the study, acknowledging the right of respondents to refuse to participate in the study, requesting permission and consent of respondents to continue with the research process and respecting the right of respondents to withdraw from the study at any given point of the process.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESEARCH FINDINGS

Demographic Information

In order to obtain the objective of the study seventy questionnaires were distributed to potential respondents and out of the seventy questionnaires a total of 57 questionnaires were successfully filled and returned. Potential respondents were provided, which with the assistance of the researcher filled the questionnaires accordingly.

Age

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

<18 years

9

15.8

15.8

15.8

18-24 years

14

24.6

24.6

40.4

25-34 years

20

35.0

35.0

75.4

35-40 years

13

22.8

22.8

98.2

40-60 years

1

1.8

1.8

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

Out of seventy questionnaires that were issued up to 57 questionnaires were successfully filled and used for analysis. Respondents of different age groups were interviewed. Respondents who were below 18 years comprised 15.8%, 24.6% were between 18 and 24 years, 35% of the respondents were of between the age of 25 and 34 years, 22.8% of them were between the age of 35 and 40 years while the respondents who were between the age of 40 and 60 years comprised 1.8%.

Age

Gender of the respondents was also sought in the study and it was established that majority of the respondents males and they comprised 66.7% while their female counterpart comprised 33.3%. There was no gender discrimination since respondents were selected randomly.

Gender

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

38

66.7

66.7

66.7

Female

19

33.3

33.3

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

In addition, the study sought to ascertain the level of education of the respondents. The respondents were asked the highest level of education they have attained. It was established that majority of respondents attained postgraduate and above.

Education

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Senior Secondary

9

15.8

15.8

15.8

Graduate

10

17.5

17.5

33.3

Postgraduate

24

42.1

42.1

75.4

Masters

13

22.8

22.8

98.2

Others

1

1.8

1.8

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

Respondents who whose education level was senior secondary comprised 15.8%, 17.5% of respondents were graduates, 42.1% of the respondents were postgraduate, 22.8% of the respondents had attained masters degree. The study also found out that 1.8% of respondents attained other level of education other than masters, postgraduate, graduate and senior secondary. Level of education is very important for the reliability and accuracy of the study.

Do you know Twenty20 Cricket

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

52

91.2

91.2

91.2

No

5

8.8

8.8

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

In addition, respondents were asked whether they are informed about twenty 20 cricket game. Majority of respondents of more than 90% who participated in the study agreed that they are well informed about twenty 20 cricket game while only 8.8% of the respondents said no.

Twenty 20 Cricket has improved the image of English and Wales Cricket Board

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Do not agree at all

10

17.5

17.5

17.5

Agree partially

15

26.3

26.3

43.8

Neither agree nor disagree

7

12.3

12.3

56.1

Agree

5

8.8

8.8

64.9

Agree totally

20

35.1

35.1

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

Respondents were also asked to state whether twenty 20 cricket has improved the image of English Wales Cricket board. Respondents who did not agree at all with the statement comprised 17.5%, 26.3% agreed partially, 12.3% of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement while 8.8% of the respondents agreed that twenty 20 cricket has improved the image of English Wales Cricket board. The respondents who totally agreed that twenty 20 cricket has improved the image of English Wales Cricket board comprised 35.1%. From the analysis and as presented in the figure below the proportion of respondents who agreed to the statement and those who did not agree to the statement that twenty 20 cricket has improved the image of English Wales Cricket board were equal. This reflect the criticism that exist about the impact of twenty 20 cricket on the image of English Wales Cricket board.

Twenty 20 Cricket has improved the image of English and Wales Cricket Board

Public relations activities have an impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Do not agree at all

5

8.8

8.8

8.8

Agree partially

3

5.3

5.3

14.1

Neither agree nor disagree

7

12.3

12.3

26.4

Agree

14

24.5

24.5

50.9

Agree totally

28

49.1

49.1

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

Respondents were also asked whether public relations activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket. The study established that 8.8% of the respondents did not agree that public relations activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket while 5.3% of the respondents agreed partially that public relations activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket. Besides, 12.3% of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed that public relations activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket. Respondents who agreed and those who totally agreed that public relations activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket comprise 24.5% and 49.1% of the respondents.

Public relations activities have an impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket

Social media activities have an impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Do not agree at all

4

7.0

7.0

7.0

Agree partially

6

10.5

10.5

17.5

Neither agree nor disagree

6

10.5

10.5

28.0

Agree

31

54.4

54.4

82.4

Agree totally

10

17.6

17.6

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

The study also sought to ascertain whether social media activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket. Respondents said they do not agree that social media activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket, 10.5% agreed partially while 10.5 neither agreed nor disagreed that social media activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket. The respondents who agreed that social media activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket comprised 54.5% of the total respondents while those agreed totally that social media activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket constitute while 17.6% agreed totally with the statement. From the analysis it is clear that majority of the respondents either totally agreed or agreed that social media activities have impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket.

Social media activities have an impact on the domestic first class twenty 20 cricket

The most preferable type of cricket between test cricket, one day international and Twenty 20 Cricket

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Test cricket

18

31.6

31.6

31.6

One Day Internationals

10

17.5

17.5

49.1

Twenty20 Cricket

29

50.9

50.9

43.9

Total

57

100.0

100.0

Respondents were also asked to identify their most preferable type of cricket game among test cricket, one day internationals and twenty 20 cricket. Majority of the respondents said that they prefer twenty 20 cricket. Respondents who said they prefer test cricket comprised 31.6% of the total number of respondents, 17.5% of the respondent s said they prefer one day international cricket games while 50.9% of the respondents said they prefer twenty 20 cricket.

The most preferable type of cricket between test cricket, one day international and Twenty 20 Cricket

Public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiences

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Do not agree at all

4

7.0

7.0

7.0

Agree partially

8

14.0

14.0

21.0

Neither agree nor disagree

1

1.8

1.8

22.8

Agree

3

5.3

5.3

58.1

Agree totally

41

71.9

71.9

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

In addition, respondents were again asked during the interview state whether public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the twenty 20 game to the audience. The analysis indicate that 7% of the respondents did not agree at all that public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the twenty 20 game to the audience, 14% of the respondents agreed partial with the statement while 1.8% of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed that public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the twenty 20 game to the audience. Respondents who agreed and totally agreed that public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the twenty 20 game to the audience comprised 5.3% and 71.9% respectively. From the analysis, it is clear that majority of the respondents admit that English and Wales Cricket Board have put in place necessary public relation activities aimed at promoting the twenty 20 game to the audience, especially to the fans and potential fans as well as the general public.

Public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiences

English and Wales Cricket Board has taken measures to ensure Test cricket, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket survive and co-exist at the international level

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Do not agree at all

1

1.8

1.8

1.8

Agree partially

3

5.3

5.3

7.0

Neither agree nor disagree

4

7.0

7.0

14.0

Agree

10

17.5

17.5

31.6

Agree totally

39

68.4

68.4

100.0

Total

57

100.0

100.0

The study also sought to establish whether English and Wales Cricket Board has taken appropriate measures to ensure that test cricket, one day international and twenty 20 cricket survive and co-exist at the international level. It was found out that 1.8% of respondents do not agree at all with the statement that English and Wales Cricket Board has taken appropriate measures to ensure that test cricket, one day international and twenty 20 cricket survive and co-exist at the international level, 5.3% of the respondents agreed partially, 7% of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement. On the other hand, 17.5% of the respondents agreed that English and Wales Cricket Board has taken appropriate measures to ensure that test cricket, one day international and twenty 20 cricket survive and co-exist at the international level while 68.4% of the respondents agreed totally that English and Wales Cricket Board has taken appropriate measures to ensure that test cricket, one day international and twenty 20 cricket survive and co-exist at the international level. Therefore, the result of the analysis of the responses of the respondents indicate that majority of the respondents admit that English and Wales Cricket Board has taken appropriate measures to ensure that test cricket, one day international and twenty 20 cricket survive and co-exist at the international level

English and Wales Cricket Board has taken measures to ensure Test cricket, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket survive and co-exist at the international level

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Cricket is one of the major world sports in terms of participants, spectators and media interest. Cricket sport industry is very rich and it is estimated to have a value of one billion dollar. The Twenty 20 version of the game has been a major factor in attempting to further globalize, commercialize and popularize the game. Twenty20 Cricket has so far enjoyed enormous popularity and has attracted large attendances at matches as well as good TV audience ratings. English and Wales Cricket Board has been in the frontline trying to make twenty 20 cricket sport the sport to watch. This research was aimed at determining the impact of twenty 20 cricket on the international cricket. In order to achieve the main aim of this study, specific objectives were designed in accordance with the topic of study. The objectives that study aimed to achieve include determining the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket Board; finding out whether public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 Cricket; establishing the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricket, One Day Internationals or Twenty20; investigating whether public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiences and finding out the measures that the English and Wales Cricket Board have put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level. The research attempted to identify the changing image of English cricket governed by the English and Wales Cricket Board. Having made the transition from traditional test cricket to twenty 20 cricket at the county and international level the English and Wales Cricket Board are rebranding the English game. This study tried to investigate the organizational image of the English and Wales Cricket Board and identify if twenty 20 cricket has changed the English and Wales Cricket Board's image and reputation over time.

In order to achieve the goal of the study seventy questionnaires were distributed to potential respondents and out of the seventy questionnaires a total of 57 questionnaires were successfully filled and returned. The result of the analysis indicated that majority were eighteen years of age and above. The gender of respondents was 66.7% for male respondents and 33.3% for female respondents. With regards to education it was established that majority of the respondents were graduate and above. This is quite crucial for the validity and accuracy of the study because it implies that majority of the respondents was well informed about the topic of the study. It was also established that majority of respondents of over 90% were well informed about twenty 20 cricket.

ECB could deal with the issue of public relations by adopting a corporate approach and play the role of a ‘head office' by supervising the activities and performance of the various counties, which in turn could assist the ECB in ensuring a better corporate image and identity for the game. Respondents were asked whether twenty 20 cricket has contributed in improving the image of English and Wales Cricket Board and majority of the respondents admitted that indeed T20 has played a significant role in improving the image of English and Wales Cricket Board. Authors such as Oliver (2010), Dowling (2001) and Birley (2003) have supported the assertion that image is very important and twenty 20 cricket is significant in obtaining a good image. One of the main reasons for the struggle of modern English Cricket in its appeal and image is because of the psychology of the ECB and also due to the fact that it carries the legacy of the past, outworn social attitudes and historical traditions. Despite the fact that cricket is not at par with football in terms of its popularity, cricket does have a great deal of loyal following and extensive support. The sport does, however, endure a severe and long held image problem, which is proving hard to turn round and which is no doubt affecting the potential of cricket to draw vital media and monetary support.

In addition, it was established that public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 Cricket. It was also found out that the most preferable type of cricket sport is Twenty20. Besides, the research found out that English and Wales Cricket Board has put in place public relation activities in a bid to promote the Twenty20 game to different categories of people. English and Wales Cricket Board have also put in place necessary measures to ensure that Test cricket, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level. Key objective is to build and maintain relationships that are mutually beneficial via relationship management with various publics and stakeholders by applying systematic and structured public relations. Relationship management is of utmost significance and relevance to people who are the internal and external stakeholders of companies such as employees, customers and shareholders. ECB focuses more towards the England Cricket Team and lesser on the domestic counties by its lack of strategic promotional planning as no major sponsor for the Twenty20 cup, which commenced in 2003 involving domestic county teams was decided until March 2003. Communications for the tournament which had its inaugural games commencing in May 2003 appeared relatively late in that year and very little information was made available about the new Twenty20 cup to its publics which was termed by many as a ‘tactical mistake'. ECB could deal with the issue of public relations by adopting a corporate approach and play the role of a ‘head office' by supervising the activities and performance of the various counties, which in turn could assist the ECB in ensuring a better corporate image and identity for the game.

The traditional structure of the cricket game is facing huge criticism, as it does not attract a large crowd following, that is, it is not popular among many, and hence, Wales Cricket Board is putting in place promotion activities to capture the following of the masses. This plays a very important role in providing playing kits to inner city schools to marshal greater participation of the sport among the women. Provision of innovative products and services is not enough to meet the demand to rejuvenate the sport among the people. The current breeds of organizations are coming to the realization that they can occur as a different entity from what they are providing to the market in order to gain competitive advantage by making improvements on their public relations. Such efforts are important in building strategies for relationship as well as communication. According to Hopwood (2005), public relations are an important instrument to an organizational communications armory, since these are of just as much value to the sporting organization as it is to the business organization. Daring the truth in the face is that public relations are not formally practiced in the manner it should be. Yet public relations are touted as the key for marketing the game in to the future world. It has been established that the factors of profit and loss are rife in the professional sport making in the today's economic market.

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 CONCLUSION

The research achieved its aim of determining the impact of twenty 20 on the international cricket. In order to determine the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket Board; find out whether public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 Cricket; establish the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricket, One Day Internationals or Twenty20; investigate whether public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiences and find out the measures that the English and Wales Cricket Board have put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level, 57 respondents were interview. It was established that majority of the respondents admitted that indeed T20 has played a significant role in improving the image of English and Wales Cricket Board. Image is very important and twenty 20 cricket is significant in obtaining a good image. It was also ascertained that public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 Cricket. In addition, it was also found out that the most preferable type of cricket sport is Twenty20. Besides, the research found out that English and Wales Cricket Board has put in place public relation activities in a bid to promote the Twenty20 game to different categories of people. Besides, English and Wales Cricket Board have also put in place necessary measures to ensure that Test cricket, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.

The arrival of Twenty20 on the cricketing scene has surely divided the cricketing fraternity. Opinion regarding Twenty20 cricket still remains divided as its promoters insist that it will not replace any of the traditional formats but on the contrary will increase interest in them by pulling more people towards cricket as a whole. They also argue that the Twenty20 format is a great way of introducing cricket to the non-cricketing world which is used to fast games such as football. There is no doubt that the T20 version of the game has become the most popular and acceptable in the recent times but it cannot be said that other forms of the games have been overlooked. After the commencement of T20 cricket, many thought that the test cricket will be gradually extinguished from the cricket world. All the legends of cricket still firmly believe that test cricket is the toughest and most resilient form of cricket which gets the best of any player. Certain media sections are discussing whether the fame of Test cricket or ODI are losing its charm and popularity as Twenty-twenty cricket is creating inroads into the calendar of international cricketers. Cricket experts have a strong believe in the fact that test cricket and one day matches will survive and even flourish but there is no doubt that the charisma of twenty20 cricket is a great threat to the other two types of cricket. Due to the fast routine of life, now days, people does not get time to sit and watch all day and night long matches. But people do need some sort of refreshment and entertainment in their hectic lives. So T20 cricket is the best way to provide the fans of cricket fun and enjoyment in a shorter period of time. So in accordance with all these facts we can say that twenty20 cricket seems to be the bright future of cricket.

Moreover, Twenty 20 cricket has set up a new life in world cricket. It has redeemed cricket all over the globe. There were many allegations by the critics that cricket often creates boredom for the spectators especially when the bowler runs to ball a delivery and the batsman ducks it or does not offer any shot, it is not a very pleasant thing to see. However, twenty 20 cricket is probably the best answer to this allegation. This short format of the game is exciting and players never get any chance to relax. It is an eye catcher for the spectators. The entertainment continues throughout the match and situations often take a twist in this format of the game. Most of all keeping in view the hectic lives of the people, we can say that now days no one is willing to waste his/her time in watching full day and night matches of cricket. Before the origin of twenty 20 cricket, people were really bored of watching test and one day watches. This concept of short form cricket has brought fascination and charm in the game since it is just 40 overs and the game is over. The drive for having a new version or revised version of the game was because it meant to bring a renewed feeling among the traditional perception of the game. This is not for the sake of those who play the games alone but also for those who the sport as a way of entertainment. Off the pitch activities were brought as a form extra play and entertainment. This meant to act as an additional treat for excitement viewers were getting on the field. The composite of what resulted made the game more exciting and unique. The best phrase used to recognize the resultant product of this was sportainment. This, according to a number of authors was a composite of both sports and entertainment. The phrase developed meant to give priority to the essence of Standard Bank Pro20 cricket.

Limitations

This study had a number of limitations such as financial constraints which restricted operations of the study. A lot of financial resources were required in order to extensively conduct the research but there were limited financial resources. Time was also a limiting factor in the sense that a lot of activities were supposed to be done but time could not allow them to be done extensively. In addition, the data was collected from specific individuals thereby limiting the data. Twenty 20 cricket is a thrilling composite of cricket sport, which has brought about new dimension to the industry.

Recommendation and Future Research

Twenty 20 cricket is a new sporting activity in the sport industry and it plays a very important role brining substance to the sporting industry. Hence: English and Wales Cricket Board should contemplate put in place necessary measure that will improve its image to different stakeholders of twenty 20 cricket sport. In addition, public relations should be intensified in order to promote Twenty20 among fans. Researchers should therefore conduct further survey as to the reasons why fans of Twenty20 cricket prefer the sport to Test, One Day Internationals.