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Platinum Resistance Thermometer

Platinum Resistance Thermometer How it works: The simplest resistance thermometer configuration uses two wires. It is only used when high accuracy is not required as the resistance of the connecting wires is always included with that of the sensor leading to errors in the signal. Using this...

MIS Voltage Capacitance

LAB3: MEASUREMENTS OF C(V) CHARACTERISTICS OF MIS-STRUCTURES Objective: To study C(V) characteristics of MIS structure including the effects of frequency and illumination, to determine the parameters of MIS-structures. Description: By considering an ideal p-type MIS, the semiconductor and metal gate have identical work functions. It is assumed there is no charge at the interface....

The constant variables that are measured

Introduction: Basketball is a very popular game that can be played both outdoors and indoors. The main aim of the game is to score as many points as possible, in order to win. However, since it is a matter of getting the ball into the hoop in order to score points,...

Physics Essays - Cardiac Ultrasound Machine

Transducers used in the Cardiac Ultrasound Machine. Abstract: Ultrasound imaging depends on the ability of piezoelectric crystals to generate sound when excited with alternating current and the reverse effect of charge accumulation or current flow when such crystals are subjected to pressure from sound waves. The first known ultrasound imaging...

Reflecting And Refracting Telescopes Physics Essay

The telescope's invention is often pegged in 1608 with the award of a patent to Lippershey by the States-General, the name for parliament in the Netherlands. However, an Englishman, Thomas Harriott constructed an early, low-power version of the telescope and used it in August 1609 to observe the Moon, at...

The concept of moving in Time travel

INTODUCTION Time travel is the concept of moving between different moments in time Time is a component of the measurement used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify the motions of objects.... in a manner analogous to moving between different points in space...

The modern world of fiber optics

HISTORY OF OPTICAL FIBER- Fiber optics, though used extensively in the modern world, is a fairly simple and old technology. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a...

Did a Meteorite Cause the Extinction of the Dinosaurs?

Did a Meteorite Cause the Extinction of the Dinosaurs? Introduction This case study will try to answer the often debated question: did a meteorite cause the extinction of the dinosaurs? This report will be split into three sections: Scientific theory, evidence and the ...

The extinction of the dinosaurs

Was it an asteroid that killed the dinosaurs? The extinction of the dinosaurs started in the cretaceous period, around 65 million years ago, and caused the loss of up to 70% of all life on earth. The way in which the dinosaurs died is a much argued topic which can be...

3D coverage of the earth

GPS stands for global positioning system, it is a network of satellites orbiting earth at an altitude of about 20x106m. These satellites allow 3D coverage of the earth, allowing the position of any receiver to be calculated at any time. GPS has a wide variety of applications, in cars, planes, watches,...

A branch of science

INTRODUCTION:- Robotics is a branch of science dealing with study and making of mechanical devices termed as robots.The first thing which comes into our mind by hearing the word is... What is a robot? No doubt,a human can do his/her work. But a human being after performing a little part of his/her...

An x-ray machine

How does an X-ray machine work? An X-ray machine is essentially a camera instead of visible light, however, it uses X-rays to expose the film. X-rays are like light in that they are electromagnetic waves, but they are more energetic so they can penetrate many materials to varying degrees. When the X-rays...

Magnetic MEMS

INTRODUCTION MEMS technology applications have been growing vastly in various fields from past few years. MEMS technology has gains its importance in biomedical and IT field as sensors and data storage devices. Magnetic MEMS applications have proved to be another important technology beside MEMS technology, since developing of a magnetic layer...

Magnetic storage devices

INTRODUCTION: Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are the term that refer to the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a magnetizable material to store data and is a form of the non volatile memory. Using one or more read/write heads the information...

The FIB instrument: Technology explained

Introduction:          Focused ion beam also known as FIB is techniques used in semiconductor industries for analysis, deposition and ablation of material. There is a vast increase of technology in the recent years in which many developments occurred in the semiconductor industry. It's been harder to design, test and debug semiconductors and...

The field of nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power and nuclear weapons, but the research has provided wider applications, including those in medicine (nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging), materials engineering (ion...

Robotic project

Introduction This robotic project describes to the basic mobile robot design, and the objective is to let the builder understand how to build the basic mobile robot. This project is divided into two main stages: mechanical stage and electrical stage. Both stages are interrelation. For the mechanical stage, builder use the provided...

Dispersionis the phenomenon

DISPERSION Inoptics,dispersionis the phenomenon in which thephase velocityof a wave depends on its frequency,or alternatively when thegroup velocity depends on the frequency. Medium having such property to cause dispersion are calleddispersive media. Dispersion is sometimes calledchromaticdispersionto emphasize its wavelength-dependent nature, orgroup-velocity dispersion(GVD) to emphasize the role of the group velocity. The speed...

Dependency of mobility on temperature

The performance of a PLEDs or FET s depends upon the mobility of the charges. Previously it was believed that the mobility of charge particle s in a device depends only on temperature and the field applied, but until recently it was found that mobility also depends up on the...

Magnetic recording

INTRODUCTION Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are terms from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a magnetisable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile memory. The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads....

Geschiedenis van de ruimtevaart

Het is 1947 de tweede wereldoorlog is net goed en wel afgelopen en Amerika en de Sovjet-Unie hebben een volgend conflict: de koude oorlog. De twee wereldmachten houden een wapenwedloop om naast de aarde ook de ruimte voor zich te winnen. De strijd begint door het lanceren van de Spoetnik-1 op...

Study areas and datasets

The study focuses on the three study areas of the tropical forests: 1. Rajpipla in Gujarat 2. Bilaspur in Chattisgarh and 3. Dandeli in Karnataka As the different frequency bands in microwave range respond differently for different biomass ranges, three study areas were selected depending on different biomass ranges. The study areas selected in...

Berekenen met als resultaat

Is de valbeweging eenparig versneld? Ik wil weten of de valbeweging eenparig versneld is door te onderzoeken, met behulp van een gele strook door een tikker heen te laten bewegen en te berekenen met als resultaat of de valbeweging eenparig is versneld. Werkplan Stappen in de uitvoering; De lange gele strook (met daaronder...

The most common problems

Vision Correction to Improve the Quality of Life Refractive error is one of the most common problems in the world. Refractive error is the inability of the eye to accurately focus the rays of light coming from distance in the retina. According to World Health Organization (WHO) there are about 153...

An optical switch coupled

1)Introduction: An optical switch coupled between the communication lines where the wave length is use to carry the traffic or the communication links. The optical fiber is the back bone for high speed internet. This increases the access speed for the internet. Optical fiber has a good gain property, which...

Integral part of life

Commuters dashing, timers ticking, deadlines looming; for most of us time is an integral part of life. It seems simple enough seconds, minutes, hours, is there even a problem with it? From the mundane point of view the answer is simple; it works. However, most theoretical physicists and philosophers have...

Electronic displays

Introduction This essay gives a brief report about the electrophoretic displays and the semiconductor polymers that are used in electronic displays. These electrophoretic displays are controlled by the motion of particles; this motion is due to the induced charge on the surface of the particles when external electric field is applied....

Variational methods applied

Variational methods applied to a quadratic Yang-Mills-type Lagrangian yield two sets of relations interpreted as the field equations and the energy-momentum tensor for the gravitational field. A covariant condition is imposed on the energy-momentum tensor in order for it to represent the radiation field. A generalized pp-wave metric is found to simultaneously satisfy both...

Set-top boxes internet protocol television

ABSTRACT This paper presents a brief discussion of set-top boxes. It includes information regarding how set-top boxes are used in internet protocol television and categories of set top boxes. The working of each part of digital video broadcast set top box is discussed with diagram including applications and future...

Consumo da energia elétrica

2.1. Primeiras palavras Após a revisão dos conceitos básicos de eletricidade vamos estender estes conhecimentos para corrente alternada que representa a forma mais usual de consumo da energia elétrica. A grande vantagem técnica da corrente alternada sobre a corrente contínua está na possibilidade de alterar a sua amplitude (valor eficaz) através...

The history behind optic fibers and its invention

From 1985 when at Southampton University was proved a new techinque in the fabrication of optic fibers doped with rare materials which prezent few loses, the optic amplifiers with structure based on these fibers where identified as very important dispozitives in aplications of fiber optic amplifiers. In principle, this is...

Esta unidade temática

5.1. Primeiras palavras Esta unidade temática apresenta as técnicas do consumo inteligente da energia elétrica, sistema de tarifação, racionalização do consumo e correção do fator de potência. 5.2. Problematizando o tema O gerenciamento da conta de energia elétrica de uma indústria tem um peso muito importante no custo final de um produto....

The increase of greenhouse gases

What alternative energy source is most likely to meet man's requirements in the future? The increase of greenhouse gases and other pollutants has caused man to change its main energy source to a renewable one. Carbon dioxide is the single most important factor in global warming which has caused the greenhouse...

Chapter 1-2

Chapter 1 Introduction Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of abnormal cells divide purposelessly without control. Cancer cells are able to invade and damage the adjacent tissues and organs. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body via...

Magnetic medium

INTRODUCTION Magnetic storage devices are used to store data in magnetic medium. In this term paper we will discuss about its types and working principle. The main logic is that the data will secure in these storage devices and Data will store fastly in these devices. In this term paper we will also Discuss the...