Physical Education Essays

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Physical Education Essays

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What Is Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative movement disorder, affecting one in 55 people over the age of 65 years (Rijk 2000). It is the second most common neurological disease after Alzheimer’s (Thomas and Beal 2007). The prevalence being 1-2/1000 (Korrel and Tanner, 2005). The commonest cause for PD is either Sporadic or Idiopathic. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed to be the factor responsible for PD, such as exogenous toxins, genetic mutations, and inflammation. However, the most accepted hypothesis suggests that PD may be caused due to an interaction between genetic and environmental factors, which may induce mitochondrial respiratory...

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Relevant Concepts Linked To Physical Activity

This chapter aims to discuss the key theoretical perspectives of physical activity and highlight the relevant concepts; focusing specifically on benefits and barriers. The chapter highlights the lack of research conducted on the physical activity levels of male adolescents and more importantly their perceptions. The lack of research in this area may result from the fact that previous research has predominantly focused on the physical activity levels of adolescent girls. This is understandable given the fact that girls are less active then boys’. However, it’s important to note that although boys’ are more active then girls, they are still not...

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What Is A Stroke

Stroke is defined as a clinical syndrome and or signs of focal and at times global (applied to patients in deep coma and to those with sub cranial hemorrhage) loss of cerebral function with symptoms lasting more than 24 hours leading to death with no other apparent cause other than that of vascular origin. (park and park, preventive and social medicine, 17 edition, 2002). The 24 hours threshold in the definition excludes transient is chemic attacks (TIA)....

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Measuring Adiposity Among Rural Pre School Children

Objective : Obesity has emerged as an epidemic in developed and developing countries during the last quarter of the 20th century affecting high and middle income people. Obesity is the most rapidly growing form of malnutrition in the developed as well as developing countries experiencing an economic transition. Obesity in children is a cause for concern because it may predict adult obesity and increased risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. The adiposity in preschool children is measured by using weight for length, waist-to-height index and body mass index. While BMI is the recommended method for population based screening...

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Do Children Have Sporting Role Models

Pupils answered a question asking if they had a sporting role model. Results (figure 1) show that of all the children who took part in the study, 57% stated that they did indeed have a sporting role model. Whereas quite a significant number of respondents (43%) stated they did not have a sporting role model....

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High Intensity Training Effects On Aerobic Capacity

Research suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) as opposed to continuous training allows athletes to work for longer periods of time as this method is better at utilising the metabolism of fats, sparing the use of the glycogen stores (Billat, 2001). As a result, athletes often implement various interval training sessions into their programmes by manipulating the work-rest duration of the exercise being performed (Seiler & Sjursen, 2004). These sessions can be separated into two categories of either anaerobic or aerobic training. Anaerobic sessions employ longer recovery periods of up to 2 minutes and shorter high intensity bouts of up...

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Effects Of Football On Core Body Temperature

The aim of the study was to find out the effect of high intensive football match on selected physiological variables. For this purpose 20 male football players with the mean age 24.6 ± 1.74 year were acted as a subject. Oral body temperature, body weight was the selected as physiological variables, which were measured by digital thermometer, & weight machine. All the data were collected fifteen minute prior and instantly after the end of the match. Paired “t” was used as a statically tool which revealed that there were statistical significant was observed in all the selected physiological variables. The...

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Effects Of Brain Injuries

Persons with injuries to their brain can have difficulty walking due to balance problems, muscle weakness and coordination challenges. Several types of therapies have been developed to help people improve walking function. Currently, many are either too costly or not accessible for a large number of individuals. Elliptical trainers (or cross trainers) are commonly found in many fitness centers and some rehabilitation hospitals and clinics. The leg motions when exercising on many elliptical trainers are similar to walking, and it has been suggested that these devices might be useful in helping people with brain injuries work...

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Effectiveness Of Advertising In Games

Harold G Shane, one of Americas most respected educationists in a lecture at the University of Chicago, wrote an article that marked bicentenary celebrations of American independence in 1976 and projected on what the future held for the American education system in the next 25 years. He observed that despite dwindling natural resources in the world, the human mind was adequately equipped to overcome most if not all the challenges that will result from green house emissions, dwindling resources, surging population growth among others. He explained that over the last half a century, the human race had witnessed space technology,...

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Caffeine Supplements And Sports

Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance found in the seeds, leaves, or fruits of over 63 plant species worldwide. Caffeine is part of a group of compounds known as methylxanthines. The most commonly known sources of caffeine are coffee, cocoa beans, tea leaves and cola nuts. (Nutrition Guide - Glossary of Nutrition Terms 2010). It is also added to medicines for colds, aspirin and chocolate. (WLR staff, Olsen K., 2009). Additional, caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance and, depending on the dose, can be a mild central nervous system stimulant. Normally is excreted within several hours of ingestion and does not accumulate in the body. (Nutrition Guide - Glossary of Nutrition...

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Exercise Program For Individuals With Cerebral Palsy

The term ‘cerebral palsy’ describes a group of movement disorders which affects the development of posture in an individual, and therefore causes activity limitations. This disorder is also attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occur in the brain (13). If a person is diagnosed with this disorder, he/she may have spastic cerebral palsy, which is characterized by spasticity, hypertonia (9), or he/she could have displegia, which refers to weakness and decreased movement coordination in the lower limbs (6). This is a life-long disorder, but, if managed correctly, the disease does not progress over time, and the side effects...

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The Many Sources Of Caffeine

Caffeine is a natural substance found in the seeds, plants, or fruits of over 63 plant kinds all over the world. Caffeine is part of a group of compounds well-known as methylxanthines. The most frequently popular sources of caffeine are coffee, tea leaves, cocoa beans, and cola nuts. (Nutrition Guide - Glossary of Nutrition Terms 2010). It is also added to medicines for colds, aspirin and chocolate. (WLR staff, Olsen K., 2009). Additional, caffeine is a pharmacological energetic substance and, depending on the dose, can be a mild central nervous system tonic. Normally is excreted within several hours of ingestion and does not accumulate in the body. (Nutrition Guide - Glossary of Nutrition...

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Life Shortening Disorders That Effect Lives

“Cystic Fibrosis is the most common profoundly life-shortening inherited disorder among white populations, affecting 1 in 3,300 live white births. Despite discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene in 1989, no curative treatment has yet been developed. A defect in chloride ion transport across epithelial surfaces results in the accumulation of viscid mucus, endobronchial infection, and inflammation leading to progressive lung damage, and premature mortality” (Orenstein et al. 2004)....

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Fluid Mechanics Assignment Reciprocating Pumps Introduction

Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump, which causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then displacing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. The fluid enters a pumping chamber via an inlet valve and is pushed out via a outlet valve by the action of the piston or diaphragm. They are either single acting; independent suction and discharge strokes or double acting; suction and discharge in both directions....

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Sleeping Disorders And The Effect On Bodies

As everyone knows, sleep is an essential part of a normal,healthy life which couldn’t be less ignored than eating and drinking. Our bodies need this down time to rest and rejuvenate itself .Sleep is a dynamic process during which the brain is active (ironic,but yes ,active!). There are recognized stages of sleep, each of which is characterized by different types of brain wave activities ,which are the Beta, Alpha, Theta and Delta waves. Falling asleep and waking up are controlled by a few chemical changes in the brain and the blood as well as certain organs. Foods and medicines that...

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Characteristics And Breathing Patterns Among Malaysian Background Of Study

Archery is a type of sport where score of the shoot determine the winner. It is a static, non-contact sport that needs the archer to have muscular strength and also muscular endurance due to the long competition durations the athlete will have to endure (Balasubramaniam, Riley and Turvey, 2000; Ertan, Kentel, Tumer, and Korkusuz, 2003). Besides strength and endurance, the most crucial component in determining the outcome of every shot is postural stability. In archery, athletes must have the ability to shoot an arrow to a specific target within a certain time limit and the shot must be accurate...

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Weight Management In Obese Cats

Feline obesity increases the risk of disease and reduces quality of life. Studies of this prevalent and significant health problem have included investigating risk factors as well as weight loss programmes. Research into weight loss programme success long-term in humans, and recently in dogs, has demonstrated the rebound phenomenon; however, similar data for cats are not currently published. The purpose of this study was to investigate if cats maintain their target weight following a successful weight loss programme, and to identify and explore any influencing factors in a cohort of client-owned cats that had naturally occurring obesity....

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Energy Systems Assignment Task

For example: goalie position is in the aerobic glycolysis (breakdown of glucose) system. They are treading water in one position until someone takes a shot. When someone takes a shot, the goalie has to react fast and powerful to get maximum power....

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Laminar Burning Velocity With Oxygen Enriched

Several studies on the laminar burning velocity of syngas mixtures have been conducted by various researchers. However, in most of these studies, dry air was used as the oxidizer, whereas very few studies have been conducted on syngas combustion in oxygen enriched air. In this work, a numerical and experimental study on the laminar burning velocity of a mixture of H2, CO and N2 (20:20:60 vol%) was performed using air enriched with oxygen as the oxidizer, varying the oxygen content from 21% up to 35% for different equivalence ratios. Numerical calculations were conducted using three detailed reaction mechanisms and...

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Biomechanical Parameters Between Male And Female

The aim of the present study is to compare selected biomechanical variables of male and female long jumpers. A total 12 six male and six female All India Intervarsity level long jumpers were randomly selected from the All India Intervarsity Athletic Championship, held at Chennai, India as subjects. To acquire kinematical data two digital Sony DCR SX40E video recording cameras, operating at 1/2000 with a frame rate of 60 frames per second, were used during the event. The selected kinematics variables for this study were approach speed, last stride length, velocity of last stride, angle of foot planting knee angle...

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The Effect Of Exercise On Heart Rate

The heart is a muscle that is used to pump blood throughout the body and helps circulate oxygen and red blood cells to muscles and organs. Heart rate is the measure of how many times a person’s heart beats in a certain amount of time. Its is measure in BPM(beats per minute). This can be affected by the work of the muscles in the body. The more strain the muscles of the body are under or the more work they do means a higher heart rate. Recovery rate is derived from the measuring the heart...

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Does A Warm Up Help Us

A warm-up is usually performed before participating in technical sports or exercising. A warm-up generally consists of a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity (pulse raiser), a joint mobility exercise, stretching and a sport related activity. For example, before running or playing an intense sport one might slowly jog to warm muscles and increase heart rate. It is important that warm ups should be specific to the exercise that will follow, which means that exercises (of warm up) should prepare the muscles to be used and to activate the energy systems that are required for that particular activity. The...

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Atp Cp System Lactic Acid System

Both studies used similar methodologies in looking into the effects of HIIT on the increase of anaerobic capacity and VO2max and fat-loss in trainees – two controlled groups of moderate-intensity and high-intensity subjects that perform similar protocols for a period of six weeks....

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Control Of Cerebral Blood Flow And Metabolism

This project focuses on the effect of sympathetic activity on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in health and disease. Using a 3-Tesla MR scanner we will measure changes in global CBF and diameter of the middle cerebral artery during both physiological and pharmachological activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, we will determine cerebral sympathetic activity by noradrenaline spillover by infusing radioactive isotopes during tilt and during exercise in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. Changes in CBF and cerebral oxygenation during maximal exercise will be evaluated in order to establish whether a limited oxygen delivery to the...

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The Effectiveness Of Shimmer Technology

Successful competitive rowing requires cardiovascular fitness, anaerobic power, and proper technique to move the boat as rapidly as possible over the course of a race. (Kleshnev 1999). Providing feedback to performers on the quality of their performance and ways they can improve it is a fundamental pedagogical mechanism. This project sought to answer the following questions (1) to what extent can Inertial sensors like SHIMMER be used in a sporting context. (2) Can the kinematic data provided be used as real-time feedback to rowers (3) Is the accelerometer data provided a viable form of visual feedback for rowers. 18 University...

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Important Growth Factor Of Aerobic Fitness

According to Dencker (2010) aerobic fitness is one of the single most important health indicators. Aerobic fitness is a very important factor in growth and development during childhood and adolescence. A high level of aerobic fitness during the growing years indicates good development of the muscles, bones, and cardio respiratory system. Physical activity appears to promote mental health in adults and enhance self-esteem in young people (PASS, 2008).Since aerobic fitness is a measure of the ability to sustain prolonged efforts; it determines the degree of fatigue that almost everybody experiences in daily life. The higher your aerobic fitness, the less...

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Mechanical Analysis Of Overhead Throwing In Cricket

This paper considers the kinematic characteristics of over arm throwing with particular emphasis on the techniques of throwing in cricket. The technique is subdivided into: (1) Wind up phase, (2) late cocking Phase (3) arm acceleration and (4) instant of ball release. The study was used to form the samples as, 10 elite cricket players. The ages of the players were (mean ± 23.50). The physical characteristics of height (Mean: 1169.4-172.4cm)), weight (57.8-61.3). Each over head maximal and sub maximal successful attempt for each throwing distances 20m and 10m with 1800,1120 and 450 approach angle at 900 target ...

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External And Internal Anatomy Of Pig S Heart

The aim of this practical is to dissect accurately a fresh pigs heart, observe it and give the result of drawing and labeling the external and internal structures of this heart....

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Benefits Of Exercise On The Human Body

Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health or wellness. It is performed for various reasons. These include strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance and for enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health, helps prevent depression, helps to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, and can even augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which again is also linked with...

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Physical Training In Sports

In Badminton, the plyometric training is not extensively researched. The review of the related literature for this study is organized into five main sections:...

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Upper And Lower Extremity Injuries In Sports

This paper will look at the different types of injuries that occur in Icelandic Football, American Football and Tennis. It will compare the frequency of occurring injuries in the upper body extremities versus lower body extremities. Sports Injury refers to the types on injuries that can occur during a certain sport or vigorous exercise. Arnason, Sigurdsson, Gudmundsson, Holme, Engebretsen and Bahr (2004) claim that overuse is one of the most common risk factors for the occurrence and recurrence of injuries. Previous injuries and old age also highlight the most common risk factors for injury in athletics. ...

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Established Club In Greensboro

Fitness plus is an established club located in the Greensboro, North Carolina in USA. The club is located in the large suburban office park and opened its door to the customer back in 1991. It took two years to establish itself in the area and by the year 2000 due to its popularity the membership number doubled....

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Performance Enhancements Within Sprinting

Examining the placebo effect of a performance enhancement product on sprinting performance. Purpose: The placebo effect, a favorable result from believing that one has obtained a beneficial treatment, maybe an important occurrence in the athletic performance. I have therefore examined the placebo effect of drinking Aquamirum G water on sprinting performance. Methods: 5 runners (2 female, 3 male) performed 3 stimulated 50m time trials on an open air running track. In the first trial, they were requested to establish a baseline performance (12.47 ± 2.29 sec, mean ± SD). For the second trial (control) 10...

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Essential Anatomy And Physiology

Homeostasis refers to the body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even while continually subjected to external changes. Body temperature, blood volume and heart rate are just a few examples of the hundreds of conditions the body regulates to maintain homeostatic balance. This internal equilibrium is so important that virtually every disease or disorder in the body can be traced to a homeostatic imbalance....

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Aerobic Performance Of Runners

The aim of the study is to determine the relationship of nitrate supplementation and improved 5 km time trial performance. Participants will undergo a 5km time-trial after consuming 6g or 12g of L-arginine and the results of the time-trial and VO2max measurements will be the markers of endurance performance....

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