Environmental Sciences Essays

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Environmental Sciences Essays

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The Usage Of Cellular Devices

Context: The usage of cellular devices has been advanced in recent years and expected to increase rapidly in the coming years. Thanks to rapid development of technologies which is making us comfortable in the field of communications. The development in technology is causing many serious hazards to the environment and also the mobile operators are facing problems with increasing energy costs and regulatory pressures to reduce carbon foot print to operate green networks....

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The Four Different Spheres

The Great Barrier Reef is the largest reef system in the world, stretching around 2300 kilometres. It is located on the North East Australian coastline and due to its area faces both positive and negative interactions with the atmosphere. The reef lies in an area classified as Australia’s Cyclone Zone, and for many thousands of years the reef has been struck by severe tropical cyclones, that have resulted in the changing nature of the ecosystem. The degree of impact on the reef is subject to the intensity and extent of the storm, though the overall outcome of a storm is...

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A Study Of Biofuels For Transportation

This Transport Fuel, based assignment, consists of two main parts. Part one, is the more mathematical one, i.e. It consists of two different mathematical exercises, and questions (the first one has 4 sub-questions, and the second one, 2), of calculating total yield per year if bioethanol from wheat and sugarbeet. Also calculations of the percentage of gasoline displacement by energy and amount of land for 5% gasoline displacement. Finally, simple calculations of biodiesel production from an algae farm and possible replacement of aviation fuel by such production....

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Sustainability Issues In Civil Engineering

Sustainability is the prevention or reduction of the effect of environmental issues for humans to live a sustainable life and as part of the effort is to return human use of natural resources to a sustainable limit at which it can be replenished. The fact that sustainability issues affect the ways in which project are been chosen, planed, designed or implemented does not mean human life should be stagnant, rather, according to Mahri (2001), environmental issues needs to be put into consideration as a principal means of achieving sustainable development, also sustainable development enhances the quality of life...

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Overview Of Nanoscience And Nanotechnology

Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to bring about grown-up nanotechnology. Connection between different fields such as physics, biology, engineering, chemistry, computer science and other, nanoscience is expanding very quickly [1]....

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Firmness Is A Primary Edible Quality Factor

Firmness is a primary edible quality factor that directly contributes to apple fruit texture. Despite the well-developed understanding of the process of firmness loss in storage, there is very limited information about potential pre-harvest and at-harvest causes of the variation in fruit quality in the marketplace. The objective of the present study was to address the respective roles that the factors of time and intensity of crop thinning, fruit size and fruit dry matter concentration (DMC) each may have in determining fruit firmness of ‘Royal Gala’ apple at harvest and during storage. Loss of firmness during storage of all thinning...

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Examining Water Provision Methods In South Africa

Water resources are important for the growth of livings in arid areas of the world. When there is scarce of water for the cropping seasons then water shortage becomes more absolute and cause severe problems for the domestic and personal hygienic and health problems in those areas (Hoek et al., 1999). Since the water resources are limited in some developing countries and water scarcity is directly linked with the arid climate. The degradation of water resources is also created through the pollution and other stresses related with population growth and urbanization....

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The Energy Alternatives In The Persian Gulf

The last few decades a remarkable number of land reclaiming projects has been started in the Persian Gulf. Coastal countries seem to realize that revenues from the oil industry are not increasing anymore, and the UAE were the first to come up with alternatives. Al-Ghadban and Price (2002) calculated that over 40% of the coast of most Gulf states had been subjected to modification by the early 1990’s, causing a total loss in biodiversity and productivity....

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The Effect Of Pollution From Air Transportation

There are mainly six different kinds of pollution with reference to Sengupta, D., et al., (2001) in the world today. They are air, water, land, noise, radioactive and thermal pollution....

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The Potential Future Of Solar Power

Solar power is considered to be a clean energy source of the future having the most potential. There are various ways and systems for converting sunlight to electricity. These include flat-panel photovoltaic systems, thin-film solar systems and concentrator solar systems. Intensive research is currently taking place in order to make solar-energy generated electricity competitive with coal-generated electricity. The research is done in order to identify the ways of lowering the cost of electricity produced by solar power and making this production more efficient. There have been many new developments and innovations done in the field in recent months. With rapid...

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Potential Of Renewable Energy Sources In Pakistan

Energy is an essential ingredient of socio – economic development and growth. Pakistan, despite of enormous potential of indigenous energy resources, is dependent on external resources for meeting their energy demand. Moreover, Pakistan is among those developing countries with low energy consumption. Only 55% and 20% Pakistan’s population has access to electricity and natural gas respectively. About 68% Population is living in rural areas and most of them have no access to electricity. At present, the people are facing severe electricity load shedding problems due to shortage of power supply. The country is facing huge economic losses due to the...

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A Study Of Effective Community Participation Strategies

Community participation is the creation of opportunities to enable all members of a community to actively contribute to and influence the development process, while sharing equitably in the fruits of development (UN 1981). Midgley, Hall, Hardiman and Narine (1986) define community participation as the direct involvement of ordinary people in local affairs. Community participation can be summed up as a means of educating citizens in order to increase their competence. Reid (2000) defines community participation as a vehicle for influencing decisions that affect lives of citizens and an avenue for transferring political power. However, it can also be a...

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Impact Of Biotechnology On Natural Resources

In this review, we focus on the biotechnology approach towards the waste management in the wastewater treatment and also the hazardous industrial wastes. These two types of wastes are taken into consideration as the major pollutants are from the industrial wastes consisting of toxic constituents. The biological treatments involved in wastewater treatment as well the hazardous wastes are focused and to show that they can replace the physical and chemical treatments which pollute the environment and to reduce the human risks. Future research and developments are also explained to have a detail study of the waste management through biological treatments....

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Electronic Waste An Investigation Of Disposal Issues

Electronic waste (E-waste) is the result of obsolete electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones. E-waste is distinct from other forms of industrial waste chemically and physically; it contains both valuable and hazardous materials and causes harm to environment and human health when handling and recycling method are not used (Robinson 2009, p.184). Rapid changes in technology, poor coordination between new software and existing hardware, and the expense of reusing or recycling result in a large amount of e-waste annually. These electrical obsoletes are either landfilled, or exported from rich countries to poor countries (Robinson 2009, p.184). Since at...

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Crisis Forecast In Energy Sector

energy be it a natural resource, a commodity, a societal necessity, or a strategic drive; it is truly the most indispensible growth factor for the world’s economy and human well being.”...

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Figure Component Of Lca Analysis

Climate change has been a predominate threat to the ecosphere. Sign of severe stress has been shown on global environment, affecting the ecosystem with severe problems that our interdependent economy and social system cannot escape by its influence. Global population is increasing, in 2000 population has reach 6 billion [i] and by 2015 8 billion people will populate the world. In 1980s, the concept of sustainability emerges in the World Conservation Strategy, in the convention they have concluded:...

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Governments Role In Ensuring Environment Protection

Wide spread on climate change and global warming has been immensely forced the nations to the sustainable development....

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Energy Performance Certificates In The Residential Sector

Throughout the world the real estate sector is accountable for around 30% of global carbon emissions and 40% of global energy consumption (RICS 2005). Being one of the largest sectors in both carbon emissions and energy consumption it was obvious that it should be targeted. In 2003 the European Union implemented the Energy Performance of Building Directive (2002/91/EC on the Energy Performance of Buildings). Its purpose is to “promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the Community”. The European Union felt the best way to achieve this was to ask member states...

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Solar Water Heaters In South Africa

In the developed countries renewable energy (RE) technologies such as solar water heating are most often introduced for environmental reasons - to reduce GHG emissions mandated under the Kyoto Protocol. South Africa signed the Protocol in 2002, but it does not commit non- Annex 1 (developing) countries such as South Africa, to any emission targets in the first commitment period (2008 to 2012), and it creates no external pressure to reduce emissions. Disseminating solar water heaters (SWHs) in South Africa addresses two major concerns: reducing peak load at a time when electricity generation cannot always meet demand, and reducing greenhouse...

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A Study Of Egyptian Water Resources

First of all the Nile River is one of the most important rivers all over the world as it is the longest river in the world. It is 6,671 km but not the largest one in the water quantity. It is important to stress that the Nile River is the longest but also the losses along the river are very huge. So nowadays, Egypt and the Nilotic countries try to decrease these losses by making projects on the Nile like what will be presented in this research, which is the Jonglei canal, in addition to building dams for different purposes....

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Implementing Environmental Management Systems

The International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined environment as “the surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora fauna, humans and their interrelation” (ISO, 1996). Environment plays an important role in human life and health and other creatures on the Earth's surface but unfortunately, growing of environmental problems in all parts of the world due to wrong human practices in searching of realization of the benefits and profits and don’t care any consequences or environmental problems may resulted from such wrong practices....

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Achieving Construction Sustainability Through Reclaimed Materials

The construction industry is under increasing pressure to become sustainable. One way to address this is through the use of reclaimed materials. Reclaimed materials are those that have been previously used in a building or project, and which are then re-used in another project. The materials might be altered, re-sized, refinished, or adapted, but they are not reprocessed in any way, and remain in their original form. Materials that have been reprocessed and reused in the building industry are referred to as recycled materials....

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Learning From South Australia

There is, however, a responsibility on all those involved in tourism development to ensure that tourism is more sustainable. This is not just about controlling and managing any negative impacts. Tourism is in a special position to benefit local communities economically and socially, as well as raising awareness and support for conservation....

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Analysing The Effects Of Forest Fires

Problem Area, Facts and Figures. A forest is an area which consists of a high density of trees. It contribute a major part of the ecosystem which are dominated with trees and other woody vegetation all the living organism of forest such as (plants, trees , herbs ,fungi, mammals birds , insects, reptiles , amphibians and other microorganism ) interact with each other and with the non living part of the environment to make a forest...

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Benefits Of Water Pollution

Effects of Water Pollution: The effects of water pollution are wide-ranging and these are highly dependent upon the type of chemicals that are dumped into the major water sources. Water pollution has an adverse effect on plants and creatures living in the water. In nearly all situations, the effect is destructive not only to the areas and individual species, but also to the natural biological populations....

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Analysing Energy Storage Systems

For a long time, the world has been relying on energy from fossil carbon that has for many reason dominated the energy market because it is easy to transport, among other reasons. As time passes by, the energy on earth is increasing. The earth itself from its mode of formation absorbs solar energy from the sun and stores it in its epicenter and it can not emit it back in the same rate. This adds to the many forms of energy that man is creating and using everyday. Therefore, the energy at man’s disposal for use is enormous yet his...

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Future Of Conservation Due To Climate Change

Conservation is a moral philosophy that centres on the way that resources are exploited, the way they are distributed and how they are protected (Jepson, Ladle 2010). It focuses on factors that are considered important to the protection of the natural world and the upholding of its health. This includes the conservation of habitats, particular materials, biodiversity, energy and other things that are important to the security of the natural world (Ladle, 2008). Conservation can be seen as being a biological philosophy that values the environment and the way it is managed; managed in a way that does not damage, weaken or...

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Present Trade Policy Israel

The Drpartment of Import Policy, located in foreign Trade Administration is responsible for the import policy of Israel. Since 1990, era of liberalization, International Trade Policy has been simplified. The policy fully complies with Israel's commitments taken in the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Israel has open and transparent Importation regime. While in principle almost all products are allowed to enter Israel, for some products there are licenses requirements. The Free Import Order outlines the conditions and requirements for importation of goods into Israel, using the Harmonized System as the basis for information. Assistance in classification is available in Classifications and...

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How Feasible Is The Use Of Biofuels

The biofuels are fuels obtained from biomass. There are different types of biofuels, the most well known ones are bioethanol and biodiesel: bioethanol is produced from seed with a high contain in sugar after having suffered a fermentation process; meanwhile biodiesel is produced from oil coming from vegetal oil, animal fat o waste grease on an esterifatification process....

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Carbon Cycle And Climate Change

Carbon flows between four main compartments: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the terrestrial biosphere which is composed by terrestrial biota and soil carbon and the lithosphere. These four compartments are pools that store and exchange C at different rates and quantities, and with different lifetimes. The largest amount of C is stored in the intermediate and deep ocean, but also vegetation, soils, surface ocean and the atmosphere are considerable C pools (Fig. 1.1). Moreover, these last compartments present higher turnover rates than intermediate and deep ocean, which is supposed to be quite neutral for the C cycle in coming decades (Bolin...

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The Effects Of Timber Harvest

Alaska. Little study has been given to the effect of timber harvest on estuaries. We are providing an analysis of timber harvests on East Duncan Canal estuaries. The two main studies we observed are biogeochemical cycling and hydrological processes. Alternative 4 from the U.S. Forest Service’s Tonka Timber Sale is used as a management plan to monitor the harvest of timber with adaptations for roads. Effects were found to be mixed, and direct impacts to streams and downstream at the estuary minimized with buffers. Short-term, there may be an increase in nutrients as a result of increase in temperatures; however,...

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The Environmental Impacts Of A Dam Construction

Within recent decades, the environmental impacts of dams have been debated by people all around the world. While dams do perform important functions, their effects can be damaging to the environment. People have begun to question whether the positive contributions of some dams are outweighed by those negative effects. Below shows some environmental effects from dam construction:...

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The Relationship Between Centripetal Force And Velocity

Investigate the relationship between centripetal force and velocity in circular motion, when a stopper is swung with a string in which different weight hangers are attached to....

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Challenges Of Urbanisation And Climate Change

Today, the earth holds more than 10 billion of people, and half of this population is living in the urban areas. As the population continues to expand in the coming years, many people will search for their means of survival keeping within them perception that living in the city would give them better opportunities in life....

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Focusing On Green Computing

In the era of the digital world, companies focus mostly on technology, networks, communications and IT related services to achieve better performance in order to gain competitive advantage in the global market. Whether we are in the business sector, at work or at home, we must admit that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become our main pillar of communication in our day-to-day life. With the increased new demands of hi-tech gadgets and in order to keep pace with the digital trend, there has been a significant emergence and growth of several technologies such as iPhone, iPad, computers, servers, laptops,...

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