Freuds psychosexual theory vs ericksons psychosocial theory
Paul Valery said “The purpose of psychology is to give us a completely different idea of the things we know best” (ThinkExist, 2010), that demonstrated different psychologist can give us different idea on one situation. Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory are two well-known theories of development. While Erickson was influenced by Freud's ideas, his theory differed in a number of important ways. Like Freud, Erickson thought that personality develops in a series of programmed stages. Erickson’s theory is different to Freud’s; it describes the impact of social experience across person’s whole life. Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory are different. Their theories can be contrasted in terms of stages of before early childhood, childhood and adult.
First of all, the development theory is different in before early childhood stages between Freud and Erikson. Both Freud and Erikson’ theories have two stages in this part. Freud’ defines this part as oral stage (0 - 18 months) and anal stage (18 months - 3 years) (Sammons, 2010). In the oral stage, the child enjoys feeding, sucking, swallowing and putting things in mouth. The children equate their mother and feeding with love, so withdrawal or forceful feeding can lead to later problems. In the latter half of this stage, the child is weaned onto solid food and starts having to wait to be fed. This causes frustration and aggression. In order to deal with these, the children develop an ego, and start to differentiate themselves from the people around them (Sammons, 2010). And in the anal stage, the children derive pleasure from expelling or withholding faces. The children are expected to expel feces only at the appropriate times and locations. It realizes that its parents’ approval or love depends on this, the first sign that love is not unconditional. However, it also realizes that it can control its parents by controlling its bowel movements (Sammons, 2010). Erickson’ first stage in this part is trust vs. mistrust (hope).In this stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development occurs between the ages from 0 to 18 months (CDI, 2004). Children develop a sense of trust when parents or other person who is responsibility to care provide reliability, care and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Erikson’ second stage in this part is autonomy vs. shame and doubt (will).The second step of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is focused on children developing a superior common sense of personal rule (CDI, 2004). Erickson believes that learning to manage someone’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of self-determination. Children who successfully complete this stage will feel safe and positive, while those who do not are left with a sense of adequacy and self-doubt. If a child successfully develops trust, they will feel safe and secure in this world. Failure to develop trust (to develop mistrust and doubt) will result in panic and a belief that the world is incompatible and volatile.
Second, the development theory is different in childhood stages between Freud and Erikson. In this part, Erickson has three parts and Freud has two parts. Freud thinks that from the years 3 to 6, there is the phallic stage, At this point; girls and boys depart as the Oedipus complex begins. If the Oedipus complex is successfully negotiated, the children develop a superego by incorporate the morals and values of their same-sex parent (Sammons, 2010). The Latent stage is from 6 to puberty. In this stage, the children repress all of what has happened before. They focus on adjusting to their environment and acquiring the knowledge and skills they will need as an adult (Sammons, 2010). Erickson decides this part as three stages. First stage is initiative vs. guilt (Purpose) (3 – 5 years) (CDI, 2004). Children are beginning to emphasize their power and manage the world by directing participate and other social relationships. Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. Second stage is industry vs. inferiority (Competence) (6 - 11 years) (CDI, 2004). Children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged by parents and teachers develop a feeling of ability and belief in their skills. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feeling of inferiority. Last stage in this part is identity vs. confusion (fidelity) (12 - 18 years) (CDI, 2004). Children are exploring their independence and developing a sense by themselves. If children received suitable encouragement and corroboration through personal exploration, they will come forward from this step with a strong sense of self and a feeling of autonomy and organize. The other children who stay on uncertain of their beliefs and needs will anxious and confused about themselves and the future.
Finally, the development theory is different in audit stage between Freud and Erikson. Freud has only one stage in this part, genital (Puberty-death). At puberty, the sexual drives from the id are re-awoken, and the remainder of adult life is dedicated to the pursuit of sex and sexual relationships (Sammons, 2010). Unlike Freud, Erickson has three stages in this part. First, Intimacy vs. Isolation (Love) (19 – 40 years) stage (CDI, 2004), it covers the period of early adulthood when children are exploring personal relationships. The people are successful at this stage should develop committed and secure relationships. According to the theory of Erickson each step builds on the skills which learned in previous steps. Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Second, in Generativity vs. Stagnation (Care) (40 to 65 years) stage (CDI, 2004); People continue to build their lives, focusing on their careers and families. People who are successful during this stage will believe that they are contributing to the world by being energetic in their home and society. The person fail to accomplish this skill will feel be isolate out of the world. Finally, integrity vs. despair (Wisdom) (65 to death) stage (CDI, 2004) happens in old age, it is focused on reflecting on the previous life. Those who are unsuccessful during this stage will think that their life has been wasted and they will practice a lot of regrets. Some of them obtain the feelings of bitterness and despair. Older person need to look back on life and feel a complete sense. Success at this step leads to feeling of intelligence, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
Therefore, Freud and Erickson have different ideas on their developmental theories. Both Freud and Erikson’s theories have stress and weakness; we cannot say which one is better. That is may the mystery of psychology. Also different theories fit for different human group. Correctly using fitful theories can give more help in their devilment stages.
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