Data Collection Methods Sampling Procedure And Data Analysis Psychology Essay
1.1 RESEARCH APPROACH
There are several approached used for conducting the research that includes, inductive, deductive and adductive approach. In deductive approach, theories are built to design research strategy and process goes from general to specific. While, in inductive approach, the theory would follows data and categorization was based on grouping information through data analysis (Bryman & Bell 2007). For the present study, mixed approach was used such as combining both inductive and deductive approach.
1.2. Research METHOD
Research methods involved collection of data (Bryman & Bell 2003) and number of methods are highlighted to collect data such as questionnaire, interview (structured or semi-structured interview) or observation method. In research methods there are two types, quantitative research and qualitative research method. Qualitative method is as "an array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social worlds".
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The quantitative research describes about collecting numerical data and entails the relationship between the theory and the research. According to Van Maanen (1983, cited in Easterby-Smith et al., 1991), in qualitative research study, participant observation and in-depth interview are the two types exists (Bodgon & Bilken). In former, data gathering would occur in a natural environment while in a later interview would be conducted asking question using open ended questions, to get as much as information as possible. In this approach, interviewee can express their views and perspectives about the topic. The qualitative research features includes, it involves collecting information in a naturalistic manner and just observing the setting the action can be understood. Secondly, unlike the numbers used in the quantitative research, here the data is descriptive in the form of pictures and words. Rather than looking at the simple outcomes, it is more concerned with the process. Finally, using qualitative research, the data generated is analyzed inductively by the researchers. As the research proceeds, the theory emerges, rather than the researcher doesn't start the research with an intention to find out data in order to prove or disprove.
1.3. Proposed research approach
The present research is about the generating more knowledge about the Herzberg's theory - indentifying factors that motivates employee. Hence the researcher is going to conduct only few people but deeper interviews, as closer relationship will be developed between the researchers and the interviewee. In conducting a qualitative method of data collection (Jacobsen 2002) with deeper, specific, openness information would be obtained that would not be possible when using an approach of quantitative method of data collection (Jacobsen 2002). To understand Herzberg's two-factor theory we have to do qualitative research to collect the literature based on it Herzberg's theory and its critics. The research background is also derived from literature by using qualitative research. In the current research qualitative research has been adopted (Bryman & Bell 2003).
1.4. Research tools
The material and information which is use to answer the research objectives are gathered from different sources available and to gather this material and information the tools I used are data collection, questionnaire, interviews, case study and data analysis.
1.4.1 Sampling Procedure
In the present study, researcher studied employees of three different sectors Viz., Health care, IT and Real estate sector. Interview of in-depth were conducted among 36 employees (total) and the sample size in each sector was 12. The sample size was determined when theoretical insights and information reach saturation, which comprises hearing the similar matter, reported without anything new being added. As suggested by Walker (1985), for qualitative research that 20-40 in-depth interviews are necessary for qualitative research.
1.4.2 Data collection procedures
To fulfill the study objectives, for the present study, primary and secondary data will be used for the research analysis.
1.4.3 Primary Data
The data will be collected through
The qualitative research method is used to find out the importance of the money in motivating employees. This qualitative research includes case study and in-depth interview with the employees. In addition, open, structured and semi-structured interview will be more suitable as this has an interview guide with set of questions already been prepared to get answered. It does allow adding new questions and interviewee can answer in whatever way he feels to answer the questions. Interview will be recorded by taking notes and tape recorded and further interview will take place at comfortable place that both parts could feel comfortable. For the present research, sensitive topics and no personal information will be discussed.
Interviewing is all about asking questions to a individual or a group of people through mouth. This is very common in a social life and there are many forms of interviews. They are media interview, job interview police interview, and etc. There is a research interview, which is used for the research. There are basically three types of interview in research interview. They are three types of interviews exists structured, unstructured and semi-structured interview. In standardized or structured interview, the basic aim is given the same context of questions to all interviewees. The main reason behind this aim is to make sure that the replies for the interviewees can be aggregated. The questions used in structured interview are normally closed ended or fixed choice (Bryman & Bell 2003).
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In unstructured interview, the interviewer will ask a question and allows the interviewee to answer in his or her own way, that means there won't be any kind of options or choose the correct answers. Then after that again the interviewer may ask a question after listening to the answer from the interviewee for the first question. This means the questions may vary in between different interviewees (Bryman & Bell 2003). In semi-structured format, the interviewer will have a set of questions on a topic which is to be covered. The questions will be in an order but it may vary on bases of the answer given by the interviewee. The questions may not fall on the same outline which was scheduled. This type of interview is also used in qualitative research (Bryman & Bell 2003).
For the present study, both structured and semi-structured questions was used for the present study, Questions used for the present study were adapted from Herzberg's original study but with little modifications has been made such as rewording and adding new questions related to the present scenario / place of study. A semi-structured question helps the interviewee to give their perceptions freely and in addition, to elicit additional information, and to reduce ambiguity, follow up questions were also asked.
1.4.5 Secondary data
Researcher will use desk based research for the secondary data collection. This method is an unobtrusive, as it depends on the previously published academic literatures, theories and also the location of pertinent literature. In order to make sure, the collected literature are verifiable and reliable, the researchers should able to critically evaluate those literatures by comparing with other different authenticated sources (Creswell 2003). Hence, for the present study, considering this background, the data was collected through academic journals, previous reports, case-studies and news papers. The written data sources which are used for the study and understanding the Literature review based on Herzberg's two-factor theory and its critics is collected and analysed by using qualitative analysis. The written data includes online documents, journals, articles, E-books, case study and textbooks, etc.
1.4.6 Type of questions used for the interview in the research
Both structured and semi-structured types of questions are used in the research interview. Questions such as company policies, job security, rewards and gifts and work timings etc.
Structured questions used in interview
Level of satisfaction with your job?
Please indicate your level of satisfaction with your salary?
Do you have a liberty to work?
Indicate the level of security with your job? /
What is your level of comfort with your work timings?
Please indicate the level of hygiene canteen facilities?
Do you get any rewards and gifts for the timely completion of work?
Does your company provide compensations and incentives based on your performance?
Does your job allow for innovation and variety?
Indicate your relationship with peers and bosses?
Could you achieve the desired goal?
Do you get proper recognition for performing well?
Do you have individual respect for your work?
Do you have / had any opportunities for foreign visits?
What about you status given to you in the company?
Do you have professional growth?
Semi-structured questions used in interview
Why are you satisfied/dissatisfied in your job?
What motivates you in your job?
How is your relationship with peers and also with supervisors?
How do you feel about your working conditions?
What do you think about the maturity level of your team leaders?
Are the company policies / administration supportive?
Do you think that you have secured job?
Types of questions used
Structures or closed ended questions are used in the research.
What is your annual income?
10,000 - 15,000
15,000 - 20,000
41- 50 years
Gender: Male / Female
Length of service
< 2 years
> 15 years
How frequently do you get bonus in your job?
Once in a month
Once in a year
Few times in a year
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1.5. Data analysis
In order to secure the authenticity and richness of the data, a total of 36 taped in depth interview were transcribed verbatim. Using a qualitative-phenomenological approach data was analysed. Data coding was done based on the relevant to present research questions and coding unit was based on single or several significant statements that can generate themes and meaningful. Key themes and variables were read and re-read and analyzed.
1.6. POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
Limitations are required for any kind of research to make it more specify and clear.
The sampling size is relatively small.
Qualitative data was used for the present study, and this may not give true results.
Cross sectional in nature, which means that data collected at a particular point of time, thus this may not guarantee that the answers reported by the respondent would valid for longer period
Recent conflicts, Time of day, fatigue of the participants are outside the control of researchers which all could influence the response (Shell, 2001).
The researcher has less experience of research in conducting and evaluating the present study
No quantitative data has been used, which is considered as more powerful tool than qualitative data collection.
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