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Interaction Between The Respiratory And Cardiovascular Systems Physical Education Essay

Human homeostasis refers to the body's ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather. The liver, the kidneys, and the brain (hypothalamus, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system[1]) help maintain homeostasis. The liver is responsible for metabolizing toxic substances and maintaining carbohydrate metabolism. The kidneys are responsible for regulating blood water levels, re-absorption of substances into the blood, maintenance of salt and ion levels in the blood, regulation of blood pH, and excretion of urea and other wastes.

An inability to maintain homeostasis may lead to death or a disease, a condition known as homeostatic imbalance. For instance, heart failure may occur when negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over.[2] Other diseases which result from a homeostatic imbalance include diabetes, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, gout and any disease caused by the presence of a toxin in the bloodstream. Medical intervention can help restore homeostasis and possibly prevent permanent damage to the organs.

^ [1] Reference for autonomic and endocrine system.

^ a b Marieb, Elaine N. & Hoehn, Katja (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (Seventh ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

homeostasis

any self-regulating process by which biological systems tend to maintain stability while adjusting to conditions that are optimal for survival. If ... [24 related articles]

Found on http://www.britannica.com/eb/a-z/h/65

Tortora, G.J and Derrickson, B

2009

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

Organization, support and movement, and control systems of the Human Body, Volume 1

12th Edition

Asia, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd

P1 - The Human Body and Homeostasis

Humans have many ways to maintain homeostasis, the state of relative stability of the body’s internal environment. Disruptions to homeostasis often set in motion corrective cycles, called feedback systems , that help restore the conditions needed for health and life.

Our fascinating journey through the human body begins with an overview of the meanings of anatomy and physiology, followed by a discussion of the organization of the human body and the properties that it shares with all living things. Next, you will discover how the body regulates its own internal environment# this unceasing process, called homeostasis, is a major theme in every chapter of this book.

P9

Fortunately, the body has many regulating systems that usually bring the internal environment bak into balance. <Most often, the nervous system and the endocrine system, working together or independently, provide the needed corrective measures. The nervous system regulates homeostasis by sending electrical signals known as nerve impulses (actional otentials) to organs that can counteract changes from the balanced state. The endocrine system includes many glands that secrete messenter molecules called hormones into the blood. Nerve impulses typically cause rapid changes, but hormones usually work more slowly. Both means of regulation, however, work toward the same end, usually through negative feedback systems.

Tortora, G.J and Derrickson, B

2009

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

Maintenance and Continiuity of the Human Body, Volume 2

12th Edition

Asia, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd

P689 – Blood contributes to homeostasis by transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and hormones to and from your body’s cells. It helps regulate body pH and temperature, and provides protection against disease through phagocytosis and the production of antibodies.

The cardiovascular system consists of three interrelated components: blood, the heart, and blood vessels.

P717 – blood must be constantly pumped through the body’s blood vessels so that it reach body cells and exchange materials with them.

P760 – blood vessels contribute to homeostasis by providing the structures for the flow of blood to and from the heart and the exchange of nutrients and wastes in the tissues. They also play an important role in adjusting the velocity and volume of blood flow.

The cardiovascular system contributes to homeostasis of other body systems by transporting and distributing blood throughout the body to deliver materials (such as oxygen, nutrients, and hormones) and carry away wastes. The structures involved in these important tasks are the blood vessels, which form a closed system of tubes that carries blood away from the heart, transports it to the tissues of the body, and then returns it to the heart.

P874 The respiratory system contributes to homeostasis by providing for the exchange of gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide – between the atmospheric air, blood, and tissue cells. It also helps adjust the pH of body fluids.

The cardiovascular and respiratory systems cooperate to supply oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide. The respiratory system provides for gas exchange – intake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide –and the cardiovascular system transport blood containing the gases between the lungs and body cells. Failure of either system disrupts homeostasis by causing rapid death of cells from oxygen starvation and build-up of waste products. In addition to functioning in gas exchange, the respiratory system also participates in regulating blood pH, contains receptors for the sense of smell, filters inspired air, produces sounds, and rids the body of some water and heat in exhaled air. ......in the respiratory system there is an extensive area of contact between the external environment and capillary blood vessels. This area of contact allows the body to constantly renew and replenish the internal fluid environment that surrounds and nourishes every body cell.

Fagan, T

2002

Crash Course Cardiovascular System

2nd Edition

London: Mosby British Library

P3. The cardiovascular system serves to provide rapid transport of nutrients around the body and rapid removal of waste products.

The cardiovascular system allows nutrients:

To diffuse into thye system at their source (eg oxygen from the lungs)

To travel long distances quickly

To diffuse into tissues where they are needed (eg oxygen to working muscle)

This type of process is called convective transport, and it requires energy. This energy is provided by the heart, with the vessels being the mode of convection.

The functions of the cardiovascular system reloy on a medium for transport. This medium is blood, which is made up of cells (mainly red blood cells) and plasma (water, proteins, etc),

McGowan ,P

(first ed authors - Jeffries, A., Turley, A.)

2003

Crash Course Respiratory System

2nd Edition

London: Mosby

P3

Respiration refers to the processes involved in oxygen transport from the atmosphere to the body tissues and the release and transportation of carbon dioxide produes in the tisues to the atmosphere.

The respiratory system has two components:

A gas-exchange system that provides a large surface area for the uptake of oxygen from, and the release of carbon dioxide to, the environment. This function is performed by the lungs.

A transport system that delivers oxygen to the tissues from the lungs and carbon dioxide to the lungs from the tissues. This function is carried out by the cardiovascular system.

P4

The supply of oxygen to the body tissues is essential for life; after only a brief period without oxygen, cells undergo irreversible change and eventually death. The respiratory system plays an essential role in preventing tissue hypixia by optimizing the oxygen content of arterial blood through efficient gas exchange. The three key steps involved in gas exchange are:

Ventilation

Perfusion

Diffusion

Together these processes ensure that oxygen is available for transport to the body tissues and that carbon dioxide is eliminated. If any of the three steps are compromised, for example through lung disease, then the oxygen content of the blood will fall below normal (hypoxaemia) and levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia).

Severe hypoxaemia, with or without hypercapnia, is known as respiratory failure.

Read more: How Do the Respiratory & Cardiovascular System Work Together? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5465406_do-cardiovascular-system-work-together.html#ixzz16yTIEVES

How Do the Respiratory & Cardiovascular System Work Together?

By Lysis, eHow Contributor

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How Do the Respiratory & Cardiovascular System Work Together?

LadyofHats:Wikimedia.org

The circulatory system and the respiratory system work closely together to ensure that organ tissues receive enough oxygen. Oxygen is required for cellular functions. The air breathed in and held in the lungs is transferred to the blood. The blood is circulated by the heart, which pumps the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body. Additionally, the two body systems work together to remove carbon dioxide, which is a metabolic waste product.

The Heart

The heart is where circulation and cooperation between the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems begin. The heart has two ventricles and two atria. The right ventricle and atrium are where blood is received from the veins. Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium of the heart. When the heart muscle relaxes, the blood is released from the atrium and into the right ventricle. The right ventricle then pushes the blood through the pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary artery, where the blood is delivered to the lungs for retrieval of oxygen. The blood is then returned to the left side of the heart. As on the right side, the left atrium receives the blood and sends it to the ventricle when the heart muscle relaxes. Finally, the blood is pushed to the aorta and delivered to the rest of the body.

The Lungs

The lungs are where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged. The process is called gas exchange. When you inhale, the alveoli in the lungs fill with oxygen. The oxygen is sent to blood cells in the capillaries that surround the alveoli. When you exhale, the carbon dioxide in the blood is sent to the alveoli, where it is expelled from the body. At this point, the blood is now filled with oxygen and returns to the heart.

Left Ventricle

The left ventricle is where the oxygenated blood is delivered from the lungs. The left ventricle of the heart opens, and blood is pumped into the chamber to prepare for delivery to the body's tissues. The valve to the aorta opens, and the blood is pumped into the artery. The aorta is the major artery of the body that delivers large amounts of blood to the different parts of the body, including the legs, the arms and the brain.

Arteries

Arteries are the main sources that deliver oxygenated blood to the body, and they are dependent on the lungs for the oxygen. The blood starts at the aorta and travels to the body's extremities. The aorta branches into arterioles, which branch into even smaller vessels called capillaries. These capillaries have very small membranes that allow the oxygen to move across them and into the cells.

Bronchioles and Alveoli

The bronchioles and alveoli are the main parts of the lungs that deliver oxygen to the blood. The bronchioles are branches off the trachea that span the lobes of the lungs. They terminate in alveoli, the site for gas exchange, which are tiny sacs surrounded by capillaries. These parts of the lungs are the main site for cardiovascular and respiratory interaction

http://www.livestrong.com/article/18606-cardiovascular-system-work-respiratory-system/

Cardiovascular System

An understanding of how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems interact requires knowledge of how each of the systems function independently. The cardiovascular system in the human body is made up of the heart and blood vessels, which are divided into arteries, veins and capillaries. The heart is responsible for pumping the blood throughout the blood vessels and is divided into four chambers, two of which are responsible for moving poorly oxygenated blood and two of which move highly oxygenated blood. Oxygenated blood, which is pumped through the body via the arteries, supplies the body's tissues with oxygen that they need to live. Blood in the arteries is under high pressure; however, which could damage the tissue, so this oxygenated blood first needs to go to the capillaries, which are very small and low-pressure blood vessels that are responsible for supplying the oxygenated blood to the tissues. Once the capillaries have delivered their oxygen, they also absorb excess carbon dioxide into the blood and then deliver it to the veins, which then supply the blood back to the heart.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system system is primarily comprised of the airways, the lungs and the structures (such as muscles) that help move air in and out of the lungs. The airway, which begins with the nose and mouth, continues down through the throat into the bronchi, which are small airways that eventually feed into the lungs, which are lined with cells called alveoli. The other part of the respiratory system is the muscles, such as the intercostals (muscles between the ribs) and the diaphragm, which cause the lungs to expand and contract. When the size of the lungs changes, so does the pressure inside, leading to air either coming in (inhalation) or being forced out (exhalation).

Interaction

The cardiovascular and the respiratory system both work toward the same goal: getting oxygen to tissues and getting carbon dioxide out. The respiratory system is involved in supplying oxygen to the blood and removing carbon dioxide. When the heart receives blood that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide, it pumps it to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries. When the lungs expand and get fresh air from the environment, oxygen is transferred (via the alveoli) into the low-oxygen blood, which also then sends some of its carbon dioxide back into the lungs. Now that this blood has fresh oxygen in it, it returns to the heart and the heart then pumps it throughout the body

Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/18606-cardiovascular-system-work-respiratory-system/#ixzz16yTnzGVc

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