Biology Essays

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Worldwide Surveillance Of Antimicrobial Resistance

Worldwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract pathogens is useful to determine important trends and geographical variations for gram-negative species. The need for continued surveillance studies on common nosocomial infections, which establish baseline resistance patterns in different geographical areas....

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Worldwide Surveillance Antimicrobial Resistance Among Urinary Tract Pathogens

Worldwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract pathogens is useful to determine important trends and geographical variations for gram-negative species. The need for continued surveillance studies on common nosocomial infections, which establish baseline resistance patterns in different geographical areas....

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Worldwide Cardiovascular Diseases Cvds

polypill is now need of patient….. all drug in one combination is going on here we showing approach for separation of 7 drug by isocratic reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC) method up to 16 minute, the developed method we can used for separation and analysis of enalapril, aspirin, atorvastatin ,hydrochlorthiazde in pharmaceutical dosage form. Here we used synthetic mixture as approach simulating pharmaceutical dosage form as combination under clinical trial. on isocratic method column was merck used C18 (5um,250mnx4.6mn)with mobile phase (Acetonitril+Methanol):0.1% OPA in water (50+15)75:25 pH was adjusted by triethylamine to 2.5, a...

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Worlds Population Has Serological Evidence

Approximately 33 of the world’s population has serological evidence of current or previous hepatitis B virus HBV infection. Of the 2 billion people who are infected, 350 million people are chronically infected and an estimated 500 000 – 700 000 deaths are recorded each year worldwide. 1, 2, 3...

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Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome Effect On The Heart

In a normal heart, the electrical impulses that signal the heart to beat flow along one pathway, which begins in the sinoatrial node, or SA node, located in the right atrium. When the SA node fires, the single impulse spreads through the right and left atria causing the chambers to contract. The impulses then travel through the atrioventricular node, AV node, which is the bridge that allows the impulses to flow from atria to the ventricles. The AV node slows down the electrical signal before allowing the signal to travel to the ventricles. This slight delay...

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Wnv Attaches To The Host Cell

West Nile Virus is a common mosquito borne infection throughout the world. Previously unknown to North America, it is now quite common throughout the U.S., especially in the State of Georgia. Because of its new emergence in the region, plenty of research has been performed recently to try to better understand the virus. This has resulted in a great amount of information on the virus and how this sometimes deadly infection causes disease. This paper will present much of that newly gained information, including the structure and classification of the virus, its life cycle, the...

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Wnt Signalling Plays Critical Role Programming Embryonic Development

1. “Over expression LRP6 co-receptors in Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 107, (11) pp 5136-5141. 2. Wnt signalling plays a critical role in programming embryonic development (ref). In the Canonical Wnt pathway, secreted Wnt ligands bind to frizzled family receptors (FZ) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-6, (LRP6) activating Dishevelled (Dvl). Dvl inactivates “destruction complex.” Phosphorylation of LRP6 is induced by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3) and Casein Kinase Iα (CK1α). Axin interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of LRP-6 which provides a docking site for Axin, causing disruption of the “destruction complex”, comprised of Adenomatous...

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Woman Presented With Low Back Pain After Watertubing

A 24-year-old woman presented with low back pain after water-tubing. Her medical history included a Colles fracture at age 9 and several digital fractures in childhood. She denied smoking or consuming alcohol, she had adequate calcium intake, and her menstrual history was non-contributory. Her father, who had been diagnosed with osteoporosis, had had more than a dozen fractures, including a hip fracture at age 54. Her sister, age 35, also had osteoporosis....

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Women With Difference Lifestyle Pattern

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 belongs to a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent metalloproteinases which are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix during tissue remodeling (Yao et al. 2001). MMP-9 is one of the 2 gelatinases that has been implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis because of its unique ability to degrade Type IV collagen (a major component of the basement membrane) and other essential extracellular matrix components. MMP-9 involved in early cancer development and progression due to it elevation levels that have been found in cancer patients (Wu Z. S, 2008)....

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Work Of Bacillus Thuringiensis

Have you eaten a fruit such as corn with worms. Do you even like sharing your own fruit with these pests. Is it the most appalling thing ever. I grew up in a tropical country, Philippines, and I am really fond eating fruits and vegetables. However, when I was young I started to have phobia with worms because these pests all came out on my favorite fruit, guava. I do not want any worms eating on my fruit and Biotechnology is the solution for these kinds of problems in agricultural crops, medicines and genetics. Biotechnology is the way of using...

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Work Order Nursing And Medication

Antagonizes the vasoconstrictive effects of angiotensin II, relaxes vascular smooth muscle promoting vasodilation, increasing renal salt water excretion, reduce plasma volume and decrease cellular hypertrophy, prevent ACE mediated degradation of bradykinin and substance p....

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Women Diagnosed With Breast Cancer Should Receive Herceptin

During the twenty first century breast cancer has become one of the leading causes of death amongst women in the United Kingdom. More than forty-five thousand women were diagnosed in two-thousand and seven (Office for National Statistics, 2010) with breast cancer and fifty percent of those with early stage cancer will progress to advanced disease (Lewis et al. 2002). Many factors affect the prognosis of advanced breast cancer including age, extent of disease, oestrogen receptor status, and previous chemotherapy treatment (Lewis et al. 2002). However, studies have found that the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER 2) acts...

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Work In 1977 On Polyacetylene

The 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Heeger, Mac Diarmid and Shirakawa for their work in 1977 on polyacetylene. [1] Whilst this was not the birth of organic electronics, their work : “Synthesis of electrically conducting organic poylmers : Halogen derivatives of polyacetylene” revolutionised this field and paved the way for waves of research into conductive polymers. They showed that by doping polyacetylene (normally a black powder) with a halogen they could create a film with a conductivity 109 times higher than in its normal form....

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Word Probiotics Originally Taken From Greek Word Pro

The word probiotics is originally taken from Greek word “pro” meaning “for” and “bios” “meaning life”. It is defined as a group of microorganisms which when taken live in sufficient quantity are beneficial to host organisms and providing some health benefits to that host organisms on consuming. Most commonly used microbes in probiotics are lactobacillus and bifida bacteria species. Sometimes yeast and bacilli are also added, which provide additional health benefits. Yoghurt and soy yoghurt are most commonly available probiotics products in the market for human consumption. Probiotics can also be taken in the form of dietary supplements. (Cunningham-Rundles, et...

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Word Cloning

The term contain the word cloning. This causes a great deal of confusion among the public. ...

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Windows Xp Networking Features And Enhancements

When a computer is linked to the Internet or other pathway to the external world, there is the risk of unlawful attempts to entrance the computer and data. ...

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Winter And Facultative Bread Wheat Genotypes

Drought is the most restricting factor in agricultural productions in arid and semi-arid regions. This research was conducted to study 19 facultative and winter wheat genotypes under normal irrigation (N), anthesis (S1) and post-anthesis (S2) drought conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications at Karadj, Arak and Jolgehrokh Agricultural Research Stations in Iran in 2008-11 cropping seasons. Based on results, drought stress reduced kernel number per spike, spike weight, thousand kernel weight, grain weight per spike, harvest index, total biomass weight and grain yield. However, remobilization, efficiency of remobilization and pre-anthesis photoassimilate contribution to grain (PAPCG) were...

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Window Into Brain What It Tells Us

Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent cause of inherited mental retardation, caused by transcriptional silencing of the fragile X mental retardation gene, FMR1. In most cases, fragile X syndrome is caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the gene. It is an X linked disorder, which is more common in boys, as they have only one X chromosome, a single fragile X is likely to affect them more severely. It was first discovered in 1943 by the scientists Martin and Bell that a kind of mental retardation was linked by...

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Wisconsin Fast Plants Brassica Rapa

In Module 1, we used plant genetics of the Wisconsin Fast Plants, Brassica rapa to study transmission genetics. Brassica rapa was used since it is a model organism. A model organism possesses life cycles and characteristics that make them exceptionally suitable for transmission genetic study, “including a short generation time, manageable numbers of progeny, adaptability to a laboratory environment, and the ability to be housed and propagated inexpensively (Pierce, 6).” Brassica rapa possesses all of the necessary qualities to be a particularly good candidate for our experiment. Brassica rapa yields seeds from the moment it is a seed in about...

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With The Great Explosion Of Use Of Internet

With the great explosion of use of Internet we can find there large amounts of biological data and genomic information for development of computational methods. There are available all kind of information to elucidate peptide/protein structures obtained by experimental approaches like CD, EPR, FTIR, NMR, and X ray crystallography. This data show the enormous structural diversity of proteins that begins with different amino acid sequences (primary structure) of polypeptide chains that fold into final conformation of secondary and tertiary structures. It was proposed that the information for folding to the native conformation is present in the amino acid sequences1. Although...

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Wnt Signalling Critical Role Programming Embryonic Development

2. Wnt signalling plays a critical role in programming embryonic development (ref). In Canonical Wnt pathway, secreted Wnt ligands bind to frizzled family receptors (FZ) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6) activating Dishevelled (Dvl). Dvl inactivates “destruction complex.” Phosphorylation of LRP6 is induced by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3) and Casein Kinase Iα (CK1α). Axin interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of LRP-6 which provides a docking site for Axin, causing disruption of the “destruction complex”, comprised of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) Axin, GSK3ß and CK1α. Subsequently “destruction complex” is unable to phosphorylate β-catenin, leading to its stabilisation and translocation into...

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Wmap Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

The objective of the WMAP mission is to measure the anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. The anisotropies then are used to measure the universe’s geometry, content, and evolution; and to test the Big Bang model, and the cosmic inflation theory1. The WMAP mission is currently creating a full map of the CMB with a 13 arcminute resolution observations through various frequencies. The full-sky CMB map being created features the fewest systematic errors, pixel noise, and the most accurate calibration techniques to ensure an angular scale accuracy greater than its maximum resolution....

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With Major Advancements In Molecular Biology

Potassium channels are formed by the insertion of proteins in a cell membrane that have specific structures to selectively allow the passage of potassium ions (K+) across the membrane through a selective pore (Lesage 2000). These channels serve many functions including regulating cell volume, K+ homeostasis and also are responsible for the maintenance of the negative resting membrane potential (O’Connell, 2002), which in turn, is imperative to many physiological functions associated with alteration of the membrane potential, for example, secretion of hormones and neuroexcitability (Lesage 2000)....

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Wide Description About Vegetarian Cuisine

In this report a wide description about vegetarian cuisine is been discussed in today’s multicultural society, there is more variety and choice in the cuisines and dishes that are on offer to the public than there has ever been. (Whole food and Vegetable Cookery 2002) Vegetables are vital to our well- being. A brief knowledge about the types of vegetarian, the nutritional requirement, as well as the various trends and development has been discussed in this assignment....

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Why Use Production Of Propylene Glycol

Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. As the biodiesel production is increasing rapidly, the crude glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetables oils has been generated in a great quantity. About 10% of crude glycerol will be formed during the synthesis of biodiesel from triglycerides. Products obtained from glycerol can be used in food, pharmaceuticals, polymer, agricultural, cosmetics, resins functional fluid plastics etc. Increasing the production of biodiesel, excess of glycerol has been formed, causing market prices to fall; this would become a cheaper feedstock in the chemical synthesis. For this reason, it is essential a...

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Wide Range Of Therapeutic Properties

Herbal medicine have received considerable attention during last two decades as they are capable with variety of biological activities and have wide range of therapeutic properties. A literature survey indicates that Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) possess different activities of which the most potent is antimicrobial activity....

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Wide Variety Of Secondary Metabolites In Plants

Plant may contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds (e.g. phenolic acids, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, lignans, stilbenes, and tannins), nitrogen compounds (alkaloids, amines, and betalains), vitamins, terpenoids and some other endogenous metabolites, which are rich in medicinal activity. The intake of natural products has been associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other diseases associated with ageing. Herbal drugs are hastily becoming accepted in recent years as an optional therapy (Agarval et al., 2008)....

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Wind And Gravity To Anchoring Themselves

On a mechanical level, plants are hierarchical structures made of materials with subtle properties that can be changed by the plant. In understanding the mechanics of...

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Wind Of Change On Marine Microbiologist

The central dogma is keystone of molecular biology enunciated by Francis Crick. This is a powerful and important description in biological principles. Central dogma is a series process where genomic information is used to make the necessary protein for biological activities, started with DNA and then ends in protein production. It means genetic information is transferred from DNA to protein through several steps such as DNA replication, transcription, translation and protein production. This states that the transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, or from nucleic acid to protein may be possible, but...

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Wildlife Poachers And Illegal Fishers

Until recently, it seemed wildlife poachers and illegal fishers could ply their trade with little or no risk of arrest, let alone being successfully prosecuted ...

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Will Xmrv Be The Next Super Retrovirus

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was discovered in the tissues of prostate cancer cells and in patients who suffer Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The search for its potential role in these diseases has given it much attention in the scientific community and investigating its nature can only lead to significant gains for both the scientific community and the public. Here, I investigate XMVR’s structure, composition, lifecycle, and impact and role in prostate cancer and CFS....

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Wild Type Yeast Cells Versus Mutant Yeast Cells

The yeast used in this experiment is S. cerevisiae. Verprolin protein which encoded by VRP1 is required in cell growth and cytoskeletal organization. However, when VRP1 is mutated, it is sensitive to high temperature and normal function verprolin protein cannot be produced properly and actin polymerization of the cells is inhibited. Besides, it also proliferates in a slower rate in room temperature. This experiment proved that mutated yeast cells can be rescued by transforming normal VRP1 gene into the yeast cells. The rescued yeast cells can then function like wild type yeast cells and can grow under higher temperature....

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Wildlife And Biodiversity Corridors

Wildlife/Biodiversty corridors are a strip of land that has been reserved as a natural habitat in a developed area. They are usually used to connect between otherwise isolated habitats. The corridors are thought to allow plants and animals to disperse, or migrate, from one habitat to another (Queensland Department of Main Roads 2000). These corridors have been used as an option in conservation planning to help reduce the effects of habitat fragmentation (Laurance and Laurance 1999). If the corridors actually work is a point that is to be discussed in this paper. Animals are often...

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Why Is Hematine Important

The Malaria disease can be carried by five types of the plasmodium parasite, but the most important of which attack humans, Plasmodium Falciparum. The malaria cycle begins when a female Anopheles mosquito bites a person. When a female mosquito bites a person infected with malaria, it receives a certain amount of the parasite including the blood drawn. Some time later, when the mosquito bites another person, part of the parasites is injected into the blood of the person bitten. After a time, from weeks and months, malaria begins to reproduce itself and multiply causing symptoms such as headache, fever and even death....

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Why Hsv Are Less Virulent In Owm

Synopsis: “Simian TRIM5α proteins reduce replication of herpes simplex virus” Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double strand DNA virus that infects wide range of cells. HSV mainly causes disease in human but not in certain animals such as rhesus monkeys, also known as old world monkey (OWM). Studies shows that the tripartite motif 5α(TRIM5α) is a restriction factor for human immunodeficiency virus(HIV-1) and HSV that do not caused disease in OWM. For this reason, rhesus monkeys and the protein can be a good source to study of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine. By a further study...

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