Biology

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Biology Essays

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Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Pipeline Steels Biology Essay

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) has been considered as a vital threat to the safe in operation of gas or oil transmission pipelines. Because it may cause significant failures in pipeline, and these failures are usually low-probability, high-consequence events. To date, two forms of SCC penetration from the external surface of...

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Drug Discovery And Technology Of Sildenafil Biology Essay

Sildenafil, a drug which is used for treatment of erectile dysfunction (impotence) in men, was discovered back in 1986. It's discovery can be called as an example of serendipity. A cardiovascular research programme was carried by the Pfizer to obtain a novel drug for the pulmonary hypertension or angina. This...

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Invasion Of Bladder Cancer Cells Biology Essay

N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 is down-regulated in some carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate its expression in bladder cancer tissues and several bladder cancer cell lines, in order to elucidate further its clinical and pathological significance. 97 bladder carcinoma and 15 normal bladder tissue sections were analyzed...

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Disrupting ecosystem function by altering environmental conditions

Natural disturbance (e.g. fires, floods, volcanic eruptions) often prevents populations from reaching their carrying capacity (Wiens 1984; DeAngelis & Waterhouse 1987; Pickett et al. 1992 - Ecol theory). Anthropogenic disturbance ,however, has a larger detrimental impact on habitat. In the past, the influence of humans on ecosystems has been limited;...

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Gene Expression Analysis Of Prostate Cancer Biology Essay

The research conducted by LaTulippe et.al (2002) is ''Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Prostate Cancer Reveals Distinct Transcriptional Programs Associated with Metastatic Disease" which was achieved by performing an analysis and identification of the different gene expression in primary and metastatic prostate cancers. It is important to have more understanding...

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Roles Of Virus Host Receptor Interactions Biology Essay

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and, as such, must penetrate a suitable host cell in order to replicate their genomes and disseminate. Most viruses are limited to a specific set of cells or tissues in which they can successfully replicate, and this may be in one or more particular species. When...

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Chemical Warfare By A Pratap Biology Essay

The NATO definition of a chemical agent is : A chemical substance which is intended for use in military operations to kill , seriously injure or incapacitate targeted population because of it's physiological effects. From this definition, riot control agents, herbicides, smoke, flame and toxins are excluded. Chemical agents cause...

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Characteristics Of Hazards In Milk Biology Essay

It is clear from several food safety studies that there are three main types of hazards in food microbiological hazards, chemical hazards and physical hazards (De Boer et al. 2005; McCarthy et al. 2006; Spais and Vasileiou 2011; Yeung and Morris 2001). Milk hazards are also divided in the same...

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Effect Of Transit Point For BMC Waste Ground Biology Essay

Abstract: Mangroves are areas of rich avian diversity. It houses several bird species. Researchers have recorded about 135 species of birds in the Mahim creek mangroves, an area close to my field of study. Some of the species recorded consisted of distant migrants, resident bird species, local migrants and resident...

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Vitamin D And Prevention Of Prostate Cancers Biology Essay

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin involved in maintaining calcium haemostasis in the body and causing absorption of calcium from the gut. It also has some antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells. In this experiment we have made an effort to prove this antiproliferative effect of vitamin D on...

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Role Antigen Presenting Cell Appropriate Immune Response Biology Essay

Antigen presenting cells (APC's) are quintessential in the facilitation and regulation of the immune response. The functions performed by the APC's are just a few of the various mechanisms employed by the immune system to control and eliminate invading pathogens. In general all cells are termed antigen presenting cells as...

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Honey As Antibacterial Agent Against Gram Negative Rods Biology Essay

Honey has been used for thousands of years as food, medicine and in cosmetics. References to honey as a medicine are found in ancient scrolls, tablets and books - Sumarian clay tablets estimated to be from 6200 BC and Veda (Hindu scripture) of about 5000 years old. Early Egyptian were...

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Evaluating New Treatment Diagnosis For Renal Artery Stenosis Biology Essay

Renal artery stenosis is a chronic disease reported in 1-5% of hypertensive cases and 5-15% of end-stage renal disease cases. The prevalence of RAS (renal arterial stenosis) is <5% in genera population and in peripheral artery disease found to be 45%. Current treatment namely medical therapy, surgery, and precutaneous...

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History Of Tomato And Civilizations Biology Essay

Tomato, also known as Solanum lycopersicum, is one of the oldest domesticated species of the human civilization. Tomato belongs to that family of plants whose all members have the innate ability of being domesticated. Today, almost all the regions of the world use tomato as a food product and majority...

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Development Of Controlled Release Formulation Biology Essay

Introduction Over the years, an enormous number of approaches have been taken to facilitate the development of controlled release formulation. The rationales for such initiatives are to enhance therapeutic advantages while minimizing the adverse effects as well as to improve management of diseases by enhancing compliance and decreasing nursing time.(1) Extended...

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Brief Introduction Of Carbon Nanotubes And Epoxy Biology Essay

This report is written for my final year project as a literature review. Based on the subject - Preparation of CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite, a brief introduction of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and epoxy, a study of curing behavior of epoxy matrix composite and a detail review of preparation of CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite are...

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A New Diclofenac Diehtylamine Topical Formulation Biology Essay

This article presents the development and evaluation of a new topical formulation of diclofenac diethylamine (DDA) as a locally applied analgesic lotion. To this end, the lotion formulations were formulated with equal volume of varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%; v/v) of propylene glycol (PG) and turpentine oil (TO) as...

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A Periodic Electrical Source Is Fed Biology Essay

As the technology node reaches in the Nanometer Scale, the device feature size get shrinks, which makes the localization of faults a complicated process. In this paper Faults Localization by non-destructive and non-contacting using Lock-in Thermography is addressed. A periodic electrical source is fed to get the thermal image using...

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Avian Influenza Infection In Poultry Handlers Biology Essay

Is there a problem. During the past decade, outbreaks of infectious disease have been a major cause for concern, particularly in the developing countries where control is restricted by inadequate infrastructural and financial resources. It was noted that many of these emerging diseases are zoonoses (Frederick, 2008). That is, infectious...

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Alzheimers Disease Clinical Features Diagnoses And Treatments Biology Essay

Alzheimers disease (AD), also known simply as Alzheimer's, is a neurodegenerative disease. Characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration, together with declining activities of daily living and by neuropsychiatry symptoms or behavioral changes, it is the most common type of dementia. The most striking early symptom is the loss of memory (amnesia), which...

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Citizens In Terms Of Trade And Employment Biology Essay

There are around 100,000 different substances registered in the EU market; the chemical industry is Europes third largest manufacturing industry, generating large economic profits and employing millions of people directly or in jobs dependent on it (European Commission, 2001). On the other hand, in the recent past some chemicals have caused...

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Evaluate The Laparoscopic Technique Biology Essay

The word cryptorchidism comes from the Greek roots Kryptos hidden and Orchis testis and means absence of testis from the scrotum, which would be undescended, retractile, ectopic or absent (1). Incidence varies with patient's age from 30% in premature neonates to 0.8% in one-year-old infants. Unilateral in 68% of cases, 70%...

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Training Materials Used In Imaging Biology Essay

Training materials are widely used in imaging, usually CT, MRI, X, and then an ultrasound. iodine contrast material is the most common form of displacement is used and helps to distinguish between normal and pathological development. common indication for MRI, including inflammatory, infectious and malignant. However, intravenous contrast can be seen when the...

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Mechanisms Actions Of Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Biology Essay

Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) is a name given to classify drugs which exhibit analgesic (pain relieving) and antipyretic (fever reducing) properties. NSAIDs are among the most frequently used medications worldwide, despite their capacity to cause gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, such as: ulcers, stomach pain and bleeding [1]. Aspirin, paracetamol...

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Atmospheric Aerosols Over Prominent Hotspot Regions Biology Essay

Mounting the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere is a subject of deep concern all over the globe. This elevated level of aerosol concentrations has proven direct impact on the radiative forcing (Gadhavi and Jayaraman A, 2004) and subsequent climate change. Thus it becomes imperative to study the inter-annual and...

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Analyse Purchase General Concepts

Recent biotechnological approaches used to enhance the yield and diversity of amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics and biofuels Advancements in science have been related to a great extent to biotechnology. As the days pass and new discoveries are made, biotechnology has played a big role in it. The following are the four...

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The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Biology Essay

Nuclear magnetic resonance, as abbreviated by scientists is a phenomenon occurring when nuclei of some given atoms are immersed in a static magnetic field while at the same time being exposed to second oscillating magnetic field. While some nuclei may experience this phenomenon others do not depending on if they...

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Hybrid Pi Ce Transistor Model Biology Essay

The hybrid-pi model is a popular circuit model used for analyzing the small signal behavior of bipolar junction and field effect transistors. The model can be quite accurate for low-frequency circuits and can easily be adapted for higher frequency circuits with the addition of appropriate inter-electrode capacitances and other parasitic elements. Bipolar junction (BJT) parameters The hybrid-pi model is a linearized two-port...

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Dark Adaptation Background And Aim Biology Essay

The human eye operates over an enormous variety of light levels ranging from bright sunlight to starlight, with light intensity in bright sunlight being up to 10,000,000,000 times greater than in starlight thus equating to a 10log unit difference. Visual system's ability to cope and adjust to such levels of...

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Cancer Diseases Characterised By Unregulated Cell Growth Biology Essay

In terms of cancer treatment, chemotherapy means treatment with cell killing (cytotoxic) drugs. Chemotherapy is a standard option for most types of cancer: it is often used in combination with other treatment modalities such as surgery and radiation. Chemotherapeutic agents work by entering the bloodstream and reaching all parts of...

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Need For Breast Dce Mri Biology Essay

The high occurrence of breast cancer in women has increased considerably in the recent years and it is one of the main causes of death among women. The prevention of breast cancer seems impossible since the causes of this disease are still remaining unidentified. Early detection of breast cancer is...

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Clinical Courses Of Multiple Sclerosis Biology Essay

Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) was first described by a French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot in 1868. It is a chronic immune-mediated demyelination disease characterized by the damage of the fatty protein called myelin which is an insulting sheath that wraps around the axon in the central nervous system. The destruction of myelin...

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Altering The Oxygen Diffusion Affected Region Biology Essay

Polymerization that uses light (photo-polymerization) rather than heat to convert monomer to polymer have become very important, due to its use of less energy, good adhesion, compatibility, operational temperature, and lower cost of raw materials.12, 3 Free radicals have been commonly photo-polymerized because it exhibits high reaction rates, and...

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The Complex Nervous System Biology Essay

Nerves are perhaps the most fascinating and complex part of our bodies. They give us the ability to understand and interact with the world around us and create the thoughts and store the memories that make us human. Without them we would be inanimate chunks of meat. Nerves are made out...

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Impact Of Igfii Loss In Regulating Beta Cell Mass Biology Essay

The overall objective of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of beta cell mass in adult mice in vivo. We employ a 'switchable' transgenic mouse model pIns-c-MycERTAM , in which controlled beta cell ablation and regeneration can be initiated and followed accurately across time. This strain has been crossed...

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