Biology Essays

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Biology Essays

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Zoonotic Pathogens Cause Disease In Animals

Zoonotic diseases are of major concern to both animal and human health and welfare. Zoonoses are diseases caused by pathogens capable of spreading from animals to humans and vice versa. Of the 1,415 known human pathogens, more than 60% are zoonotic and kill over 14 million people annually (Taylor et al. 2001). Zoonotic pathogens damage biodiversity in sensitive wildlife (Daszak et al. 2000), cause tremendous loss of income in agriculture (Phiri et al. 2003), and cost millions in health care (Torgerson 2003). Since zoonoses affect humans and animals in many ways, it is important to study...

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Zoonotic Diseases Are Common

Zoonoses describe diseases that can be transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans. Zoonotic diseases are common and are caused by various types of agents, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites [12]. According to the study by Taylor et al. 2001 that out of the 1415 infectious organisms that are pathogenic to humans 61% of them are zoonotic [8]. And over 200 zoonoses related diseases are known [12]. Zoonoses related diseases can be caught from foodborne zoonoses, non-foodborne zoonoses, helminthic parasitic zoonoses, protozoan parasitic zoonoses and zoonotic ectoparasites. However this work is only focusing on the common bacterial related foodborne...

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Zonations Of Nodilittorina Unifasciata And Nodilittorina Pyramidalis

Both species of nodilittorina are marine gastropods that feed on algae and lichen found on the rock surfaces. They are located within the intertidal zone along the rock platforms of Fairlight Beach, where they occur in clusters of individuals throughout the eulittoral zone. However clusters become less and less frequent as you cross the littoral fringe. Both species occur commonly in littoral zone. However a few species of Nodilittorina Pyramidalis were found in the lower area of the supralittoral zone, a zone which receives little to no inundation but relies on strong waves and ocean spray. Our aim of...

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Zones With Respect To Characteristics Of Velocities

The study of structural style generally has been accepted as interpretation criteria in the assessment of hydrocarbon zones with respect to characteristics of velocities....

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Zonation Of Nodilittorina Unifasciata And Nodilittorina Pyramidalis

Unifasciata and Pyramidalis are gastropods found on the intertidal zone along the rock platforms of Fairlight Beach, where they occur in clusters of individuals throughout the littoral to mid-littoral zone. The aim of the experiment was to test hypotheses:...

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Zno Nanocomposite Polymer Nanocomposite

The inorganic nanoparticles doping into the polymer matrix can provide high-performance novel materials that find applications in many industrial fields. As a result of the development in nanotechnology, inorganic nanostructured materials have been designed/discovered and fabricated with important cooperative physical phenomena such as super paramagnetism, size-dependent band-gap, ferromagnetism, electron and phonon transport. Yet, they typically suffer from high manufacture expense, and the shaping and further processing of these materials is often difficult and demanding or impossible [1]....

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Zit Er Longkanker In De Lucht

Naar aanleiding van het ANW P.O., hebben we dit verslag moeten schrijven, waarbij ook een PowerPoint hoort. ...

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Zeolite From Aquatic Solution

IUPAC have divided the definition of Porous Materials into three different categories. Microporous pore size 2nm, Mesoporous (2 – 50nm) and Macroporous (> 50nm). The most frequently used term is Nanoporous, which coveres a wide range of pore size (1 – 100nm) (K.S.W. Sing 1985. From Akira. T. Ferdi. S ref 1). Therefore all the terms described before would come under this definition of nanometer materials. There are many kinds of porous materials which come under the nanoporous range such as (pillared) clays, anodic alumina, carbon nanotubes and related carbon porous carbons (Akira. T. Ferdi. S). The best known...

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Zebrafish Oocyte Crypreservation Vitrification And Controlled Slow Cooling

The process of preserving the biological material using ultra low temperature is generic method with high success rate recently. The ability of preserving samples at nearly a frozen state is often referred to as cryobiology, and the evidences show history rolls back to B.C. The process of cryobiology involves lowering the temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature (-1960C) and subsequent thawing to room temperature when required (Gordan, 2003). This is because all the metabolic activity of the cells tends to stand still at ultra low temperature promising the integrity of the samples (Fuller 1991)....

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Zidolam In The Treatment Of Hiv

Zidolam is an antiretroviral combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection. 30 albino rats with body weight (bwt) of 150 – 230 gm were used for the 2-phase study. Solution of the drug in sterile water was administered via oral cannula to the 2 groups of 10 rats (5 males and 5 females) each at daily dose of 1.29mg/100gm bwt respectively for 21 days during phase I. Phase II was a recovery study involving 10 rats (5 males and 5 females) exposed to dose regimen as in phase I, and sacrificed after 21-day withdrawal of treatment. The control...

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Zinc And Cadmium Ion Adsorption

On the site of the Tui mine at Te Aroha, there are several tailings containing high concentrations of heavy metals. From these tailings the bacterium Acidocella was isolated . This project focuses on the cadmium uptake by Acidocella, its resistance to this metal and operation of its defense mechanisms....

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Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology

New techniques that can be used to create site specific modifications in complex genomes hold huge potential for many aspects of genetic research, as well as for biotechnological and therapeutic applications. A new approach which has recently emerged is based on zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). ZFNs are restriction endonucleases that have been synthetically engineered to cleave double stranded DNA at a pre determined genomic site. To achieve this, they are designed to contain a DNA binding domain, which is made up of zinc finger proteins and a non-specific restriction endonuclease domain, typically the type IIS restriction enzyme FokI ....

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Zinc Finger Nucleases Were First Discovered

Schematic of the zinc finger nucleases as suggested by Miller et al. The ringed struture is formed by the conserved amino acid residues which include the Cys and His ligands, the negatively charged As11 and the hydrophobic Tyr6, Phe17 and Leu23. The black circles in this image were proposed to be the most probable DNA binding sites....

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Zimmermann Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Model

Use of Zimmermann Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming MOFLP model to develop recommendations to increase rice production in Sri Lanka has been studied. Low country Dry zone and Intermediate zones of Sri Lanka are the most favorable Agro-ecological zones of Sri Lanka for rice production. Study locations were centred in these areas. Average yield, Gross income, Total cost, Average quantity of fertilizer, Land area cultivated by the farmer, Requirement of labour, Labour availability, Requirement of machinery and Machinery availability were used as the input data for the model. The model had identified that further increase in yield can be achieved...

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Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology And Its Potential

Methods to introduce site specific, stable modifications in complex genomes hold great potential, not only for the study of gene function but also for biotechnological and therapeutic applications (Sollu et al., 2010). A promising new approach is based on zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), artificially constructed endonucleases that are designed to make a double strand break in a pre-determined genomic target sequence. This can then be followed by the generation of desired modifications during subsequent DNA repair....

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Zinc Containing Transcription Factors

Recently, we have reported different zinc moieties containing tri-and penta-dentate sulfur amine ligands in which the steric factors control the structures [7]. As a continuation, we therefore consider it necessary to learn more about the principles by which N2S2 ligand systems control the coordination number and geometry as well as the availability and functionality of labile coordination sites in zinc chemistry. For this reason, two closely related ligands N2H2S2-H2...

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Zinc And Cadmium Ion Adsorption By Acidophile Acidocella

On the site of the Tui mine at Te Aroha, there are several tailings containing high concentrations of heavy metals. From these tailings the bacterium Acidocella was isolated . This project focuses on the cadmium uptake by Acidocella, its resistance to this metal and operation of its defense mechanisms....

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Young Onset Parkinson Disease

A 47 year old male, a shopkeeper, educated till class VIII presented with insidious onset gradually progressive rest tremors of both hands for the last 11 years which started with the right hand and then progressed to the left hand. These tremors, initially at rest progressed to be present on activity also. For the last 5 years there was slowness of all movements and he took longer time to perform all activities of daily living. For the last 5 years he had progressive difficulty in walking. He had difficulty in initiation the act of walking, difficulty stopping once he started...

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You Are What You Eat

To begin with I would like to say that, drugs are not the natural products but are produced in nature and are identified as leads by biological assays and thus are the source of drug development. Although use of natural products in drug discovery has been decrease in last few years, 60 percent of anticancer and anti-infective drugs are obtained from nature. In past, natural compounds innovated new therapies which essentially contributed to understanding and identification of in vivo and in vitro biochemical pathways. Example: Phosphinothricin- the gene for N-acetyltransferase was transferred to plants to generate genetically modified crops. In...

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Young Onset Parkinsons Disease

A 47 year old male, a shopkeeper, educated till class VIII presented with insidious onset gradually progressive rest tremors of both hands for the last 11 years which started with the right hand and then progressed to the left hand. These tremors, initially at rest progressed to be present on activity also. For the last 5 years there was slowness of all movements and he took longer time to perform all activities of daily living. For the last 5 years he had progressive difficulty in walking. He had difficulty in initiation the act of walking, difficulty stopping once he started...

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Zebrafish Model System For The Study Human Disease

Zebra fish have turn up to be the outstanding model organism in the study of vertebrate biology. It is the favoured animal model systems in the study of genetics, toxicology, pharmacology, embryogenesis and gene function. It is considered to be a pioneer model as of its transparency during the embryonic development, which countenance the ocular analysis of the early development process. Due to swindle generation times and high fecundity it facilitate genetic analysis. The other favouring factors for the study of developmental biology reckon the conservation of development genes across vertebrates, size and external fertilization. Even the administration of drugs...

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Zebrafish Model Organism In Developmental Tool

In extrapolating from these systems to others, it is important to keep in mind the limitations of each system. (1) Metabolic conversions of compounds into mutagens are known to differ among species and even among strains of a single species. Thus a particular activating system in one organism may not adequately mimic that in humans and considerable differences are found even within a single species (Felton and Nebert, 1975). (2) Any single test system may not expose all possible types of mutations. For instance, the Ames test may not detect compounds which act primarily to produce chromosomal abnormalities; reversions at...

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Your Teeth Had Turned Yellow

To determine how the non-repeat region of Fap1-NR affect the adhesive properties of the S. prarsanguis fimbria. The structural and functional analyses of the adhesive properties are carried out by first identifying the protein fragments of Fap1-NR....

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Zebrafish In The Study Of Human Disease

Zebra fish (Danio rerio) have turn up to be the outstanding model organism in the study of vertebrate biology. It is the favoured animal model systems in the study of genetics, toxicology, pharmacology, embryogenesis and gene function. It is considered to be a pioneer model as of its transparency during the embryonic development, which countenance the ocular analysis of the early development process. Due to swindle generation times and high fecundity it facilitate genetic analysis. The other favouring factors for the study of developmental biology reckon the conservation of development genes across vertebrates, size and external fertilization. Even the administration...

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Zebrafish A Model System

Zebra fish Danio rerio have turn up to be the outstanding model organism in the study of vertebrate biology. It is the favoured animal model systems in the study of genetics, toxicology, pharmacology, embryogenesis and gene function. It is considered to be a pioneer model as of its transparency during the embryonic development, which countenance the ocular analysis of the early development process. Due to swindle generation times and high fecundity it facilitate genetic analysis. The other favouring factors for the study of developmental biology reckon the conservation of development genes across vertebrates, size and external fertilization. Even the administration...

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Zang And Zang Interrelationships Chinese Medicine Body Links

According to Maciocia, “Interrelationship is the essence of Chinese medicine since the body is regarded as an integrated whole.” (Maciocia, 2005, p. 171) Therefore, even though the five Zang organs, which are known in TCM theory as the Heart, Lungs, Spleen, Liver and Kidneys, have their own vital functions, they are also interrelated and coordinated in order to maintain a balance among the Internal Organs....

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Yeast Throat Infection Analysis

Yeasts are the eukaryotic unicellular microorganisms classified in kingdom fungi. These are commonly remains in the human gastrointestinal tract and at the moist and warm areas of the body like oral cavity, mucus membrane. Yeast infections are commonly called as thrush or Candidiasis. Mainly the yeast named Candida Albicans causes the infection in throat as well as other parts of the body. These microscopic germs do not harm the body when their populations are kept controlled by healthy immune system and the beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) found in the body. Candida is the part of ecological...

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Yeast Throat Infection By Eukaryotic Unicellular Microorganisms

Yeasts are the eukaryotic unicellular microorganisms classified in kingdom fungi. These are commonly remains in the human gastrointestinal tract and at the moist and warm areas of the body like oral cavity, mucus membrane. Yeast infections are commonly called as thrush or Candidiasis. Mainly the yeast named Candida Albicans causes the infection in throat as well as other parts of the body. These microscopic germs do not harm the body when their populations are kept controlled by healthy immune system and the beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) found in the body. Candida is the part of ecological...

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Yeast Selection Program For Fermentation Of Sugarcane

A yeast selection program has been performed in the last 15 years aiming to select S. cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugarcane substrates as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants (Basso et al. 2008). As a result, several strains were selected, among them PE-2 and CAT-1, that displayed increased ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance [high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters; (Basso et al. 2008)]. These strains are very robust to cope with these harsh industrial...

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Yeast Models Of Parkinson Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by a classical triad of motor symptoms [1]. The main focus of this disease is on the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although this pathology may explain the motor symptoms it is not thought to underlie other, non-motor, symptoms associated with PD. The pathology is not restricted to the substantia nigra, also other regions of the brain are affected [2]....

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Yellow Fever The American Plague

Known by hundreds of different names over spans of thousands of years, yellow fever was once one of the most feared and devastating diseases in the world. Endogenous to equatorial regions of Africa and South America, it has been recorded throughout the centuries to appear occasionally out of its endemic areas to threaten entire cities with near-annihilation (Tomori 393). One such occasion in the late 1800s earned it the title “The American Plague,” and during the great Mississippi Valley epidemic of yellow fever in 1878, the population of the city of Memphis, Tennessee was so devastated that it...

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Yellow Fever Vaccination In Travellers Of Advanced Age

“I was recently faced with the dilemma of whether or not to give a yellow fever vaccine to an older patient (an 83 year old fit man) going to West Africa, an area with significant risk of yellow fever. From what I could gather there was a "difficult to quantify" risk of death from either giving or not giving the vaccine. In the end I advised the man not to have the vaccine and to take rigorous bite avoidance precautions (which I think is probably the standard advice in a man of this age). Was this the best decision based on...

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Yersinia Pestis And Pseudomonas Sryngea

The type III secretion system was first discovered in 1993. TIII secretion systems evolved from seven families that were distributed among Gram-negative bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. There are aproximately a few hundred effectors interfering with control and signaling in eukaryotic cells and offering many tools to cell biologistse of a host cell to inject toxin. There are some facts that shows, that the injectisome has a common evolutionary origin with the bacterial flagellum, because the basal bodies are same and include many proteins with a significant similarity. Exept this there are also some functional similarities, such...

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Yeast Two Hybrid Analysis Of Protein Interactions

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular eukaryotic fungus (Clark 2010). Investigating protein-protein interactions involved in the activation of GAL4 genes in yeast that regulate the metabolic breakdown of carbon energy sources is the purpose of this project....

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Yeasts Eukaryotic Unicellular Microorganisms Classified In Kingdom Fungi

Yeasts are the eukaryotic unicellular microorganisms classified in kingdom fungi. These are commonly remains in the human gastrointestinal tract and at the moist and warm areas of the body like oral cavity, mucus membrane. Yeast infections are commonly called as thrush or Candidiasis. Mainly the yeast named Candida Albicans causes the infection in throat as well as other parts of the body. These microscopic germs do not harm the body when their populations are kept controlled by healthy immune system and the beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) found in the body. Candida is the part of ecological...

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