The relationship between humans animals and plants
Human, animals and plants are created to have a good relationship with each other to make a better and beautiful life. Without animals and plants, human cannot eat anything and probably we cannot live anymore. Without human, some animals and plants also cannot live for long time because no one takes care of them. Therefore, we as a human must protect animals and plants to grow up with us together. Currently, many animals are extinct because many reasons to make them live in short life such as many people kill animals for their collections, pollution, natural disaster, the changes of weather, or killed by stronger animals. Therefore, many people are doing animals science to help, take care, protect and prevent animals to be extinct.
In this era, people are smart compared last era because of the rapid improvement in technology. Last time people do not understand how to fly, cure themselves and do networking. They just understand how to survive in this life. However, since many people realise it and go hard for education, they become smart and know how to do everything. Therefore, to come out with the best idea for a whole world, they must do many researches and tests. In order to undergo a good research we need to familiar ourselves with 3 main facts that is associate ourselves with new knowledge, educate the animal, and analyze the efficiency of the chemicals and animal’s tissue (Giridharan, Kumar & Muthuswamy 2000, page 2).
Researches spend high costs where they need a lot of money to buy all important tools for them to research in their laboratory. However, to do the improvement in medication, people use animals or plants. The cost to do research is not high but many animals and plants are being sacrificed. Although many people said that we are being immoral but we also cannot stand without doing anything with people who are needed medicine from animals. The common name for experimental use for animals is vivisection. Actually, There are a lot of reasons why researchers do animal science such as to make a medicine, test whether the new trial chemicals are good for human body or not and protect as well as the improvement in the future (The national anti-vivisection society 2004). Although we have to sacrify many animals but we could cure many people for a long period and save many lives for a billion of people.
For example, the first time scientist produced insulin by using the dog’s pancreas, cows and pigs but the improvement began continued until now they are not using animals anymore, where it depends on the technology as well as the human protein (Advameg Inc. 2010). Insulin is “a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for the body to function normally” (Advameg Inc. 2010). Nowadays, highly purified pancreas extracts change into animal insulin that is sold as ‘natural’ insulin (Makame, 1992). According to AVERT organization (1986), there are three reasons that animals are used for experiments such as making sure the new medicine, drugs, and other pharmaceutical product are safe and usable, guaranteeing that the manufactured goods are efficient to human being, and studying the biology of the animal together with the function and response of certain disease to human body (AVERT organization 1986).
Although we could save people life but we also must think how about if all animals are gone away. If it happens we could not use them as our research anymore and have a good medicine to help people. People are now being selfish that could not look at the pity life of animals where they use them only for research without taking care about them. There are two categories that could be divided for animal in science, which are the use of vivisection can be split into two general categories such as living & undamaged animal and animals’ tissue. Moreover, those categories can be divided into several issues as well. Animal are used as lab tester to study human disease or in medical research, as test subjects, as living incubators for substances that are used in medicine; such as insulin, as modality of ideas, and as heuristic devices. In addition, the animals are also studied to educate people on dissection exercises in life science classrooms, guide medical doctor in some actions, and gain the knowledge of the part of the animals. The animals’ tissues are also used as additional parts for human or as the ingredients to make new vaccines and drugs. The scientist use the animal as their experiment to study all of them, but they do it to benefit many people, so that the scientist can save many people lives or make something that is useful to human being (The national anti-vivisection society 2004).
Actually, in the real life, people could accept the animal science if researchers use them as the good purpose such as to cure dead live people who are effected by cancer, AIDS, AIDS drugs or hepatitis. No one in this life could be able to see the increasing in dying people. Therefore, to develop and create the cures and treatment, scientist must use a lot of animals from rare until the common one to test, research and experiment about those deceases (….). People are deserved to live in this world although many deceases could happen inside their body. Even though, animal science is not allowed by religious where we kill animals for research but it is all depends on the purpose of using animals in scientific research. When people kill animals for unnecessary situations such as barbeque event, festival, and religious ceremony, it means people harm their lives and do not have any respect to them although they are animals. PETA, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, is one of the powerful groups that is very concerned about animal rights with their motto “Animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on or use for entertainment (PETA, 1980). PETA is a non-profit organization that helps human or non-human being to not be harm especially animals. Therefore, this organization always keeps on tract to reduce the animal abuse in the world and support the several types of treatments for animals (PETA, 1980). For example, The Medicines Act of 1968 states that the scientist have to tested all their pharmaceutical products to at least two different genus of live and intact mammals that one of them should be a large non-rodent. It means that most of countries allow scientists to do animals in scientific research to produce a better medicine and to ensure the safeness of the created medicines.
In America, scientists are used many animals more than 100 millions to do their experiments project over a year but those animals, such as bird, fish, mice, and other cold blooded, are not under the Animal Welfare Act. Animal Welfare Act is the only Federal law in the United States that regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers (United States Department of Agriculture 2010). Therefore, there is no record for those killed animals under the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA). It means people do not know the flow of animals’ populations such as how many dogs are being killed and still alive in America. Animal Welfare Act is not included those animals because they continue to multiply until cannot countless by human except we are using a modern technology. Based on Lin, the reason that those animals could not be included in Animal Welfare is 95% of the vivisection is mice and rats with nine billion land animals killed in order to get food in US, and a huge majority of animal experimentation that are used by humans are rejected from AWA’s protection. However, although there are a lot of animals that are not recorded but other animals (e.g., dogs, cats, non-human primates, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, and farmed animals used for biomedical research) are recorded to know the populations for those animals (Lin), that could refer to the data in the table 2.
Table 1: Animals Used in Research by Category of Pain and Distress- 2006
Animals used in research by catagory of pain and distress
(The American Anti-Vivisection Society 2010)
Based on the table 1, The USDA states the number of animals that are put in the pain and distress category during the experiments on 2006. In the category of No Pain, No Drugs, the USDA means that the animals that got experiment without any pain and distress on them. With Pain, With Drugs category means that the animals were used in research that affects pain and distress, but the animal will receive the medication after the test to release the pain n distress. Furthermore, in the With Pain, No Drugs category, the scientist gave the animal constant pain and distress as part of the experiment. Lastly, over 73,000 animals, seven percent of the total, feel unalleviated pain and distress in 2006.
Table 2: Number of animals used by research from the first reorting year (FY 1963) to 2006.
In Australia, animals are oppressed and harmed in many ways such as raising them for food and clothing, using them in the entertainments such as rodeos and circuses, slaughtering of local animals, and testing them on behave of medicines, cosmetics, and households. Animals are often considered as commodities, and many people believe that their existence is very crucial since the animal effects productivity and profit, but they are living things, so they need a lot of consideration (Animals Australia, 2010). After killing 10 of 29 pigs, the team from the Institute of Mountain Emergency Medicine in Italy and the Medical University of Innsbruck in Austria stopped the experiment since many people became angry of this experiment (mail online 2010). According to Peter Singer, an Australian philosopher (2010), the use of animal research might be validated if only the scientist follow and meet the stringent conditions such as the harm that the animals receive should be very little, the human and animal need that using animals should be extremely interesting, and the chance of success on using the animal should be very huge (Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research & Teaching 2010).
The Australian citizen desire more benefit that can be brought from animal experiment in the future. However, they also believe that any pain and distress on animal on vivisection should be kept to the minimum level it can be. The main way to do it is by applying 3Rs Principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement. Replacement means the animals are only used when not-animal substitutes are not suitable. Reduction denotes that the scientist must use the animal in very low number to get their goal on experiment. Moreover, Refinement indicates that the scientists have to make the pain, suffering, and distress as low as possible (Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research & Teaching 2010).
Animal science has many goals such as improving the health and well-being people for entertainment, sport, recreational, and service animals, discovery a better ways to guard and manage the range of animal species, especially endanger animals, to keep the balance in the ecologically stable, developing endangered animals to prevent extinction, and broadening the knowledge and understanding of biology science and life processes for all animal species (Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research & Teaching 2010).
In the conclusion, animals in scientific research have been discussing since long time ago until now. It could be accepted by people when the research is useful for helping to cure the illness such as AIDS, drugs or diabetes. It is also being accepted by many countries to take animals for doing experiments that may be able to have a good result for the countries and citizens. Animals could be extinct if many animals are being killed for unimportant things. However, if animals are used for save people lives, there is a good purpose of it. Therefore, animals in scientific research are used to improve the quality, safety and human practice.
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