The Impact of Modernization on Socialization
A Leader is a person who guide and lead the team to success. As a leader, he or she must have a clear vision and vivid picture of where to go and a firm grasp on what success look like and how to achieve it. A leader must also be able to communicate with his or her follower on her vision and must be able to persuade them to buy into his or her idea. Moreover, he or she must also communicate passionately and clearly so that it can motivate them and direct them more efficient. Besides that, as a leader, he or she must have a responsibility on his or her follower and to make sure that all his or her follower share the common goal.
Modernization is conceived in several ways. One of them is through an increased knowledge in science and technology, modernization as a process of change in the social structure and social system.
Besides, it is also defined as a movement of transition from traditional society of religion, magic, and superstition to a modern and postmodern society. It is free from religious matrix and traditional norms.
Furthermore, the West explains modernization as a process of mobilization, differentiation, industrialization, and secularization, which can reach high economic growth, stable democracy, and a capitalist economy.
Modernization has brought to advance of human lifestyle and it makes human life easier. Modernization is not a temporal concept since the social keep on changing. It is a result of enlightenment which values reason, freedom and science, in relation to different aspects of society, so that modernization progress all the time.
During modernization, there is universal education and increase of literacy. Democratization in political system and education has been achieved. There are also emergence of rationalization and bureaucratization in social organization of work.
Socialization is conceived as a general process of gaining culture; anthropologists use the term ‘enculturation’ for the process of being socialized to a particular culture. A human infant is born without any culture. Human’s parents, teachers, friends and circumferences transform them into cultural and socially adept animals. Socialization helps people to learn the language of culture they are born, or the role they are to play in life.
They will learn about the occupational roles that their society has store for them. For an example, boys learn how to be sons, brothers, friends, husbands, and fathers. During the socialization process, human learn to adopt their culture’s norms, which mean the conceptions of appropriate and expected behavior that are held by most members of the society.
There are two types of socialization, which are natural socialization and planned socialization. When infants and youngsters explore, play and discover the social world around them, it is called as natural socialization. Whereas when others take actions designed to teach or train people from infancy on, it is called as planned socialization. Both of these types of socialization can have good or bad features.
Most people try to gain experience in life. This helps to influence their own socialization. The more we learn about the socialization process, the more effective we can be in managing our future learning in the ways that it will help us most. To gain uniformity within a society, there must be a successful socialization. People will share the same beliefs and expectations if all of them receive the same socialization.
The Impact of Modernization on Socialization
In the past, there was a bias between male and female, especially in China country. Males were provided educational chance when they are young. They could study in school meanwhile female are not allowed to study at all. In China before modernization, female are only allowed to do house chores and help around their family. Due to the socialization in the past, they are restricted them from getting the chance to expose themselves in education, business and politics. Besides, female are always being treated as servant or a baby producer. They have to obey what the male said. Furthermore, a female must listen to the male order and they are not allowed to fight back. Once she is born, she has to obey to her father. After married, she has to obey to her husband, then to her son.
The changes of modernization has influence processes of socialization, such as learning how to think, how to feel, how to be acceptable, how to be moral and how to be masculine and feminine. This is because modernization had brought lots education opportunities and working opportunities thus women are allowed to work and pursue their own dream as during the industrialization, there is a sudden shortage of labor. Thus woman can join in the men and work independently. After the process of modernization, human think differently. They are more open minded and the bias in between male and female is dribble away. Females no longer listen to their father when choosing their husband who never meet up before. China nowadays is in progress. People pay full concern to their children; no matter they are male or female. Most of them embrace feminism. Female has already got an equal treat as male. Females are also having the chance to study in school. Most of the parents will sent their children, no matter boy or girl to learn extra acqierement, such as drawing, dancing and arts.
There is also gender discrimination in India few decades ago. Female infanticide reflects the statement of low status accorded to women. It is proved by the most brutal and destructive action of anti-female bias that pervade ‘patriarchal’ societies. The phenomena of sex-selective abortion, which targets female fetuses almost exclusively and neglect of girl children is appeared. According to John-Thor Dahlburg, "In rural India, the centuries-old practice of female infanticide can still be considered a wise course of action." (Dahlburg, "Where killing baby girls 'is no big sin'," The Los Angeles Times [in The Toronto Star, February 28, 1994.]) Based on census statistics, in 1901, there were 972 females for every 1000 males. In the year 1993, the gender imbalance has tilted to 929 females per 1000 males. In the nearly 300 poor hamlets of the Usilampatti area of Tamil Nadu, as many as 196 girls died under suspicious circumstances, such as fed dry, made swallow poisonous powdered fertilizer and smothered with a wet towel, strangled or allowed to starve to death.
In India bias against females is still related to the fact that “Sons are called upon to provide the income; they are the ones who do most of the work in the fields. Therefore, sons are looked as a type of insurance. This shows that, the high value given to males decreases the value given to females.” (Marina Porras, "Female Infanticide and Foeticide".) Furthermore, India is a heartland of sex-selective abortion. In 1974, Amniocentesis was introduced to ascertain birth defects in a sample population by medical entrepreneurs. So, a spate of sex-selective abortions was followed.
Due to the modernization, the phenomena of bury baby have been banned by India. It becomes an illegal legislation. So, modernization has change people’s mindset from traditional to modern. Nowadays, the status of female is equally to male and people are starting to accept that female can also perform any job that a male can perform. Moreover as India become more and more modern, it affect the socialization so much that in the year 1971, India Prime Minister was a female name Indhira Gandhi. From here we can see that through modernization the social structure of the India was also starting to change.
Modernization has changes in reshaping economic, political and social life. It is because it not only helps explain economic, social and political change, but it also provide most efforts at prediction. For example, tends to bring increasing urbanization, growing occupational specialization, and higher levels of formal education in any society that undertakes it (Lerner, 1958; Deutsch, 1964). Modernization linked to a wide range of other cultural changes. Although modernization syndrome of changes becomes probable but social change is not linear when societies move from an agrarian mode to an industrial mode.
‘Women in Management’ is a current social issue. According to Jewell in 1977, the feminist movement, anti-sexual discrimination legislation, and predictions of shortages in managerial talent during the last decade have caused to increased pressure for more women participate in leadership roles during the 1970s. However, in 1978, Malabre said, the progress of integrating women into management positions has achieved limited success.
A lot of people posit that women lack the leadership attributes and abilities required for managerial positions. Those holding this type of stereotypic view perceive women as ineffective leaders in jobs incongruent with females' more traditionally passive sex role. (Bryce, 1970; Cecil, Paul, & Olins, 1973; Hobart & Harrick, 1977i Peters, Terborg, & Jacobs 1974; Terborg et al., 1974).
Bartol’s findings showed that leader behavior can be influenced by other factors than gender. Based on Lockheed and Hall (1976) studies, men emerged as leaders much more often than female, but there was no different in male and female leadership style. The Bale’s scoring technique, indicated that women releasing more tension and being more communicative, there was no significant difference between democratic and autocratic leader behavior patterns.
Nowadays, women and men are equal, no matter where they are. The modernization process brings more job opportunities to human. Through this, women have more chances to exhibit their ability in working area. The limitation of women to be success is being narrow. It is because people’s mindsets have changed due to modernization towards socialization.
Sex Differences and Inequality
According to a study by Alice Eagly, from the Northwestern University in 2007, she say that there is a Psychology Prejudice against women as leader. She stated that woman is being perceived as nice, friendly, socially skilled meanwhile men are dominant, assertive (behavioral skill which is linked to self esteem and considered a important communication skill), tough-minded and take charge. Thus this had lead us to the term “Glass Ceiling” where woman is harasses and limit by the society on the job that they can do. Moreover, the term “Glass Ceiling” is also use to describe invisible barriers where minorities and women are prevented from advancing to the management position in organization and corporation.
Moreover, if we see from the nature perspective, we can see that female is the weaker sex and male dominance is just a biological manifestation. For example, the body structure of a male is stronger than women thus man often takes up the job as a leader and protects women. Since ancient time, hunting and processing hard raw material as strictly male activities whereas female will just cook, wash clothes and do the entire house chore (Peggy Reeves Sanday). Besides that Murdock and Provost suggest that female is attached to the burden of household and burden for pregnancy and infant care. Thus female was left out and do not have the chance to become a leader. This make them to become and not born as a weaker sex due to the socialization in the past. In fact during the past few years, there is more and more female leader out there in the world.
Feminism is a doctrine that women should have the same economic, social, and political equality with those of men.
Feminism is distinguished between sex and gender. Sex, whether male and female, is about physical differences between sexes, while gender, whether masculine or feminine, is about characteristics of behavior, psychology or demeanor, which wished to claim are culturally constructed and conditioned and so ultimately arbitrary. The moral and political program of ‘gender feminism’ was essentially to rescind gender differences. It makes men and women would end up living the same kinds of lives, doing the same kinds of things, and perhaps even looking pretty much the same in "unisex" grooming and clothing.
According to F.Carolyn Graglia in 1998, housewives, not men, were the prey in feminism's sights when Kate Millett decreed in 1969 that the family must go. Feminists do not speak for traditional women. Men cannot know this, however, unless we tell them how we feel about them, our children, and our role in the home. Men must understand that our feelings towards them and our children are derided by feminists and have earned us their enmity. Whether or not this understanding garners men's support, traditional women must defend ourselves because the feminist offensive is, most essentially, a breach of solidarity with us, a disavowel of the obligation to honor the Women's Pact [that religious celibates, professional women, and homemakers respect each other] that women in the movement owed to us.
Deborah Tannen have already explored an aspect of differences between males and females in her bestselling book ‘You Just Don’t Understand’. This book is about how men and women use conversation in different ways. She said that men normally use conversation to build status, whereas women use it to establish closeness. Deborah Tannen does not commit herself to whether it caused of nature or socialization. She does not try to deal with it through moralistic exhortations to abolish it, but simply tries to promote understanding. She thinks that men actually do care about closeness, and women also do actually care about status.
Female Leaders in World
Throughout the years, there have been lots of woman holding a leader position around the globe. This shows that modernization had brought lots of change in the socialization around the world. Woman is not weak but some of them are bound to the socialization around the place they are born.
The first example will be Angela Merkel. She was born on July 17,1954. She is the first female and current Chancellor of Germany. She is the also the president of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since April 10, 2000. Moreover, she is also the President of the European Council and chairperson of the G8 during 2007.G8 refer to group of eight where it is comprise of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom and United State.G8 duty was to discuss issue of mutual or global concern. Their range of topic include, law enforcement, labor, health, social development, energy, economic, foreign affairs, justice and interior, terrorism and trade. Moreover, in the year 2008, she was awarded the Charlemagne Prize in 2008 for her contribution towards the European Union for the betterment she made. So from her we can see that modernization truly brought change in socialization. It made everyone has the equal chance to be a leader no matter their gender, race, or skin color. Moreover, for Angela Merkel, she is a truly remarkable icon for the female as she dares to stand up for herself and believe in the change she can bring for the society.
The second female leader example will be Indira Gandhi who is the prime minister of India for 14 years (3 terms). She was the first female Prime Minister for India. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru who was the first prime minister of India. She served as her father personal assistant unofficially before becoming the Prime Minister of India. After her father death, she was appointed as member of Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and appointed as the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Finally with the help of the Congress Party President K. Kamaraj, she is able to win the election and finally won the seat as the Prime Minister of India. Moreover, during the year she led the country as Prime Minister, she had helped India to win a war against Pakistan in 1971 and managed to create the independent Bangladesh. Furthermore, her policy of Garibi Hatao (abolish poverty) was instrumental in her victory as well during the election. So from Indira Gandhi, we can see that even thought she is a woman, she managed to be a good leader and even managed to lead India to win a war against Pakistan. This clearly show that female is no weak and they can be as good and strong as male. This had proven that male is not the smartest and strongest. So as long as female are given a chance, they might shine and be a good leader as well as a male can. Thus the quote by Vince Lombardi is significant which means Leaders are made and they are not born. They are made by hard effort which is the price that all of us must pay in order to achieve any goal that is worthwhile.
Meanwhile in other field besides politic, we do have women who are also a leader. For example is Dr.Faust whose real name is Drew Gilpin Faust is being elected as the first woman president in Harvard University in the year 2007. Moreover, she was also the first dean for the Radcliffe Institute who guides it to change from a college to a wide-ranging institute for advanced study. In sports wise one of the most famous sportswomen is Billie Jean King who is a professional Tennis player who is known for the Battle of the Sexes in 1973. The battle of sexes was between Billie Jean King and Bobby Rigs who is the former Wimbledon men’s single champion. As women, Billie Jean King managed to beat down Bobby Rigs and emerged as the victorious. Moreover, King became the first woman who managed to make more than $100,000 a year in tennis and was the Associated Press’s Woman Athlete of the Year in 1967 and 1973. She was also the Sports Illustrated’s Sportswoman of the year in 1972. Moreover, King is also the founder of the Women Sports Foundation, and the Women Tennis Association. Furthermore, King was also the first openly lesbian major sports figures when she came out in 1981. Besides that, the beating of the Bobby Rigs also helped to change the gender equality issue in sports and all the areas of public life. Thus in the year 2009, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the President of United State Barrack Obama as her contribution had really helped the world to be a better place.
Besides these female leader, there are still lots of female leader who are well known such as Benazir Bhutto who was the first female head of the Muslim country, Rosa Parks the civil right female leader who make racial segregation in United State illegal and Margaret Thatcher who is the Prime Minister in the Britain and manage to end the Cold War. From here we can see that female can also function and work well in the Political Aspect. Furthermore in the aspect of fashion design, we had Melinda Looi who is a purveyor of fine art and vintage chic. She won a scholarship to La Salle School of fashion in Montreal, Canada. In 1995, she was awarded Malaysia Young Designer Award in Kuala Lumpur which was also her graduation collection year. Today, Melinda Looi is one of the influential fashion designers who have also sets her design on her world. In the year 2000, Mellooi Creation was formed. It takes the designer’s creation to greater horizons while also strengthening the brand. Mellooi Creation Sdn Bhd has been formulated to further develop business opportunities in local and international markets.
In sum, we can see that these women are important leader who have reached a great height and have change the world to a better place. They are competent, broad-minded, straightforward and efficient. They show out good judgments while being passionate about their vision too. So in future we hope that they will be more female leader out there to guide and bring the world to be a better place.
Female Contribution in the Society
There is numerous contribution of female in our society today. Without them, we may not be able to achieve what we had today. In medical field, we have the famous Dr. Janet Davidson Rowley, who discovered the first consistent chromosome translocation in a human cancer. Rowley is internationally renowned for her study in chromosome abnormalities in lymphoma and leukemia. Her discovery had led to the dramatically improved rates of survival for the previously incurable cancers and the development of targeted therapies.
Besides Dr. Janet, we had Nancy Goodman Brinker who is the founder of Susan G.Komen for the cure. It is the world leading breast cancer grass root organization. The organization helps and invested over 1.3 million for research, health services and education since 1982. They had worked with breast cancer survivor and activist to save lives, ensure quality care, empower people and work hard in science and research to find cures. With her help, they had developed new treatment option and a higher chance of living for the breast cancer patient and long-term survivors.
Meanwhile in the engineering or invention section, women had also provided lots of help and contribution. For example we had Mary Jane Montgomery who had made improvements in locomotive wheels in the year 1864 and apparatus for punching corrugated metals in the year 1866. Besides that, Evelyn F. French also helped to invent a sound-deadening attachment for railway cars in the year 1880. Meanwhile, Letitia Geer managed to develop the medical syringes in the year 1899. From here we can see that women also helped out in the engineering and invention section.
In conclusion, we do not agree with the statement that “Male are smarter than female” as through our research we found out that there are also female who is smarter and better leader than the male. The reason they can’t be a leader is due to the gender discrimination at workplace as there is a “Glass Ceiling” that is preventing them from advancing. However, over the recent year due to modernization, women are starting to be conscious and know their role. They do not only stay in the house but started to work and fight for the management role with the male. This had clearly showed that modernization had clearly made an impact on socialization by changing the norm of society on how they perceive the female. Moreover, because the change in socialization, the female is starting to be more confident and believe that they too can be a great leader. Female can be a good leader no matter in what field as we can see from Indira Gandhi who led the nation to win against the war with Pakistan. From here we can see that female can take up any challenge or work that male may take and some of them may out beat the male. Moreover, over the recent year, more and more female are coming out to contest on political position or the corporation management position. Besides that, modernization is also bringing a stronger democracy where social systems will be more numerous and specialized and competition will be more and more prevalent. This will also make the socialization to change from time to time to follow up with the modern society need and requirement as the society will start to be more and more competitive regardless whether they are female or male.
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