Social learning theory and domestic violence
Studies on domestic violence have backed up the emergence of diverse concepts in relation to the Social Learning Theory. One of these concepts is the intergenerational transmission of violence. It presupposes that a large magnitude of cases of domestic violence are inheritable hence passed on from one generation to the other. Moreover it suggests that the effects of domestic violence crops up as a learnt behavior on an individual. These considerations on the concept of intergenerational transmission of domestic violence, has brought out questions on precise nature and extent in magnitude of this concept on intimate partners.
Apprehension and understandability of intergenerational transmission have identified numerous topics related to domestic violence. Combination of two topics; that of witnessing marital violence and having experienced harsh and poor parental treatment in a family, affects individual’s future relationship. Further concentration in the contribution of special factors show conspicuously causes of domestic violence. These factors involve influence of child maltreatment and gender to behavior in relation to domestic violence. It’s also agreeable that the root cause of intergenerational transmission of domestic violence in Social Learning Theory has not yet been established (Akers, 2009). Parental behavior should be studied to realize and predict individual’s attitude to become involved in perpetrating domestic violence.
Intergenerational transmission categorically focuses on the perpetrators and victims of domestic violence. It’s difficult to differentiate perpetrators and victims. This is due to the fact that establishing the cause of controversy and conflict leading to domestic violence is despicable. To avoid biasness in the quest to determine these causes, representation should involve people who have directly participated in domestic violence. To be precise they should be subjects who are abusers or abused. General population and the population of designated perpetrators and victims can be the appropriate source for clear information. Caution should also be taken as the subjects may decline to give information on their victimization or perpetration to preserve the dignity of their present life.
Witnessing inter-parental violence during childhood and getting involved in harsh parental treatment, relates directly to perpetration and victimization of domestic violence. Physical confrontation of the abused and the abuser in heterosexual cohabiting or marriages has excluded the emotional and psychological torture on the subjects. It should be considerably noted that exclusion of these important aspects on the cause of domestic violence creates a wrong perception; hence no appropriate steps can be taken to counter this.
Preferences of ecological approach to individual factors, prejudices the possibility of acknowledging the cause of intergenerational transmission in domestic violence. It involves both environmental and individual concepts (Rogers, 2010). Consequently the variable spectrum in abuse and continued domestic violence over long periods is largely prejudiced by theoretical biasness.
Fathers have the greatest likelihood of perpetrating domestic violence. This occurs through inflicting physical, sexual and psychological abuse to their children. Consequently children create the mentality that confrontation and violence are the modes of resolving conflict in their future relationships. Abusiveness and witnessing parental violence augurs the possibility of not only the son’s violence but also the daughters in their future relationships. Furthermore it corroborates the fact that growing up in a family of abusiveness influences future participation in this violence. These compliment that gender and setting both in the community or clinics prove the likelihood of someone being a perpetrator or victim, whether one has been witnessing parental violence or not.
Parental harassing and witnessing parental violence increases the plausibility of boys and girls being perpetrators while those who do not, end up being victimized and impose fear, fright and hyper vigilance to threats by their spouses. Studies show that witnessing inter-parental violence influences individual’s attitude and perception towards women. This represents one’s foresight relating to their roles, responsibilities and rights of their spouses in the contemporary society. In addition to this, it compels men to have conservative attitude while women form liberal mentality towards similar gender congeners. Consequently the liberal attitude in women prompts their possibility to express violent behavior in their relationships.
Symptoms of trauma in families affected by domestic violence are backed up by physical and psychological abuse on spouses. This is promoted by three main forms of child maltreatment that include neglecting, harassing and witnessing inter-parental violence and harsh treatment. Child maltreatment and family characteristics like poor family cohesion and adaptation influences one’s level of spouse abuse, at times leading to alcoholism a main cause of domestic violence. Neglect is uniquely thought to influence the level of physical, psychological spouse abuse and increase in the trauma score of people. Prediction of mutual wisdom has been foiled due to the fact that perpetrators of domestic violence are also harsh and violent out of their homes (Buzawa & Buzawa, 2003). These risk forces have managed to inter correlate to a great degree despite putting aside major discrepancies surrounding the violence.
Intergenerational transmission of domestic violence as a concept in Social Learning theory has been echoed by the fact that children learn abusive language and ferociousness from their families. From an origin of vulgarity a child apes the abusive behavior that has far reaching effects in their future relationships. This conjectural overview is often disagreeable with the type and magnitude of the violence. It although agrees that being brought up in a violent home contributes immensely to involvement in violence in marriages. Its believed that in the masculine gender sons witnessing their fathers violence and abusive nature adhere to them in their marital relationships. They create a misconception of relationships in this aspect hence carry the behavior and practice to their spouses.
The extent of male violence in an affair is influenced by their consideration of roles and rights of women in day to day life. It’s assumed that individuals are driven and act with one’s perception in relation to other people’s attitude. Divergence connected to behavior and attitudes of men augments possibility of men emerging as perpetrators while women are demeaned to victimization. Furthermore prior exposition to domestically violated families in childhood creates a feeling of fear, self weakness and intimidation resulting to being under dogged in incidents of domestic violence.
Lack of a mode to generalize causal effects has hindered implementation of strategies meant to help those entangled in this skirmish. Validity of the fact that aetiological causes of intergenerational transmission in domestic violence have not had any alteration since time immemorial remains controversial (Siegel, 2008). The same reasons still contribute immense to violence at present times. Compromising and underrating economical provisions in outlining reasons for domestic violence will be ignorant and substantial.
Geographical location of the abused and the abuser in relation to population and ethnic groups surrounding it, causes transitions and change in handing of domestic issues and conflicts without ending up into violence. Domestic violence does not only entail intergenerational transmission in the Social Learning Theory but also involves biological factors and traditional malpractices that people tend to adhere to. These other two predispositions should be researched keenly to unravel the underpinning causal factor resulting to domestic violence
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