Differences between men and women in employement
The word gender refers to the socio-cultural definition of man and woman, it is a way through which society distinguish men and woman. The distinction between sex and gender was introduced to deal with the general tendency to attribute women's subordination to their anatomy. There are multiple reasons to understand the current increase in the proportion of male versus female in population across Asia. Firstly sex ratios in India have been recorded since the early 1980.the Indian scenario of female discrimination is extremely complex in view of India's social and economic diversity: the interplay of cultural and economic factors, along with the impact of policy initiative has produced a heterogeneous situation .This complexity offers ways to better understand the mechanisms at work and to inform the policy debate on the struggle against gender discrimination.
In our society it is seen that characteristics, roles and status accorded to women and men in society are determined by sex, that they are natural and therefore not changeable. Gender is seen closely related to the roles and behaviour assigned to women and men based on their sexual differences. When a child is born our families and society starts the process of gendering. If son is taken birth than it is celebrated and the birth of a daughter filled with pain; sons are showered with love, respect, better food and proper health care. Boys are encouraged to be tough and outgoing; girls are encouraged to be homebound and shy. All these differences are gender differences and they are created by society.
Gender inequality is therefore a form of inequality which is distinct from other forms of economic and social inequalities. It dwells not only outside the household but also centrally within it. It stems not only from pre-existing differences in economic endowments between women and men but also from pre-existing gendered social norms and social perceptions. Gender inequality affects the development goals which reduce the economic growth. It hampers the overall well being because blocking women from participation in social, political and economic activities can adversely affect the whole society.
THE Indian experience
IN India it represents a clear picture about education and employment opportunities for girls. Our culture, social factor still prevents girls from getting education and employment.
In rural area the girls' child is made to perform household and
Agriculture, cleaning the house, preparing food, and they have to perform many tasks like that. In village physical safety of girls especially when they travel a long distance to school and fear of sexual harassment are the reason s that impedes girls` education.
In the urban area, girls have some opportunities in comparison to rural area but there is also some difference in the opportunities that girls get for education and employment .Through the figure for girls would still be low as compared to boys.
In employment opportunities too, women in India today have stormed all male bastions. Be it piloting aircraft, heading multi-national corporations, holding top bureaucratic positions, leading industrial houses, making a mark as photographers, filmmakers, chefs, engineers and even as train and lorry drivers, women have made it to all hitherto considered male bastions in India.
However, this is not reason enough for cheer. For the number of girls and women who have been left out of education and employment opportunities, still far outweighs those who have got them.
Gender segration in employment
This term refer to the occupational unequal distribution of men and woman in the occupational structure sometime also called occupational segration by sex. These are two type vertical segration; describe the clustering of man at the top of occupation hierarchies and of woman at the bottom, horizontal segregation.
Many developing countries including India have displayed gender inequality in education, employment and health. It is common to find girls and women suffering from high mortality rates. There are vast differences in education level of two sexes. India has witnessed gender inequality from its early history due to its socio-economic and religious practices that resulted in a wide gap between the position of men and women in the society.
Woman's salary in India, less than a third of men
According to the survey done by world Economic Forum (WEF) it show that a big gender gap in corporate India in the employment of women from the entry level to the top management of companies. As reported by Financial Chronicle the survey which is based on the response of 60 of the 100 best employers in India, showed that women employees held only 10 percent of the senior management positions in two-thirds of the surveyed companies. None of the companies had women chief executive officers (CEOs) and almost 40 percent of the respondents had only 10 percent women work force.
The survey show that only 4% of the companies surveyed monitor salary gab. Nevertheless 84% of the companies don't believe that there is a wage gap while the remaining 12% do not track wage gap at all.
India stand 114th among 134 countries in the WEF's India gender gap review 2009. It has closed 93 percent of its health gender gap, ranking 134th out of as many economies. It stands at 121st position in education gap with 84 percent and is at 127th place with 41 percent of economic participation gap. Besides, it is ranked 24th with 27 percent of the political empowerment gender gap, according to the study.
Causes of gender discrimination
One of the main causes of gender discrimination is gender. In many organisation woman below man only due to the different religion.
1. Pandey Prahlad Kumar (2007) in his study on gender discrimination studied the Gender equity is giving boys and girls ,woman and men equal opportunities in the utilisation personal capabilities to realize full human right .according to him a country cannot realize its dream of becoming super power by doing gender discrimination. Researcher has proved that a country where there are more employment opportunities for woman tends to provide better and honest governance.
2. Pollard, Taylor and Daher (2007) said that discrimination is not only the problem of India but it also exists in a developed country like USA .the finding clearly indicate woman discrimination. In USA woman earned $45,258/year while men earned $50,250/ year, having a median wage gap of $4,965.
3. Joanne Healy and Zucca J. Linda Mid-American Journal of Business; Spring(2004) study that only 3 percent of the most highly compensated executives are female, that the position are held by disproportionately by men, and that female executive are likely to clustered in particular industry group.
4. Simon Appleton (1977) suggested that expanding female education will improve gender equity which was the outcome of the study done in Uganda. The study focused on the involvement of women in politics in South Africa and Uganda. He also found a relationship between the importance of gender equity to economic growth and traced women's civil society in Uganda was given importance.
5. Song, Appleton and Knight, 2006 study that boys are more attend school in China than girls, is the work of scholars who worked to find the causes of the same. Boys are more likely than girls to attend school in rural China. There is evidence that gender equity is a "luxury good"; the demand for female schooling is more income elastic than that for male schooling.
6. Another study by Shellenbarger to find out the nature of work undertaken or assigned also differs on the gender ground. Boys tend to be given more physical tasks like lawn mowing and fixing things, `while girls are stuck with housecleaning and doing the dishes. Even parents who fight for gender equity in their own marriages find themselves splitting their children's tasks along traditional gender lines.
7. The chairman and the CEO of PepsiCo, Indra Nooyi said that there was a need to educate the male population about women empowerment, besides educating the female population. "If you do not treat the women well, society will not progress.
THE METHODOLOGY OF GENDER AND EMPLOYMENT
1. For low income women seeking employment, one of the most critical problems is a lack of adequate skills. Therefore, the provision of skill training can meet an important practical gender need. In contrast to this, skill training in such areas as primary school teaching, nursing and dressmaking can and do meet the practical gender needs of women to generate an income and this will automatically reduce the gender discriminating.
Secondary data - In this study I use only secondary data for literature review, situation of gender and employment in our economy.
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