social work

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Describe How Active Participation Benefits An Individual Social Work Essay

Person Centred Approach or Humanistic approach by Carl Rogers is an approach that looks at treating individuals with empathy, unconditional positive regard, warmth and genuineness. Rogers believed that inside every person they have the ability to help themselves and that as a practitioner if we adopt the four key skills then individuals have the potential to fulfil their goals and reach the stage in life of self actualization. Over the years the person centred approach has picked up momentum and other theories such as person centred values have been added to the approach. To practice using person centred values involves respecting a client’s individuality, rights, choices, privacy, independence, dignity, partnership and autocracy when providing care for them. To practice with person centred values helps reduce abuse, discrimination and other forms of exploitation taking place within the therapeutic relationship.

Explain why it is important to work in a way the embeds person centred values

The primary focus of the care that I carry out as a Carer on a day-to-day basis must b centred around the person I am caring for. It is not just their physical needs that I need to maintain but also their uniqueness, their personal identity and their sense of being a person. This requires the ability and need to establish a rapport and supportive relationship with the service user and should encourage mutual respect and trust. I need to listen and hear the service user and overcome and challenges that may cause a barrier to effective communication with them. I should understand their preferences, their emotional needs and learn about their history as far as possible. By doing these things I will be helping to maintain the identity, self esteem and independence of the service user.

Explain why risk-taking can be part of a person centred approach

Risk taking can be part of a person centred approach because it helps empower people into active participation. If a Carer takes risks such as giving a client extra alone time it helps give them more autonomy and helps build their self confidence and independence by allowing them to find solutions to their own difficulties. The ability to recognise, assess and manage risks is essential to a person’s physical safety. It is my duty as a care provider to support the independence of the service user and manage any associated risks. Once the service user has made a choice a risk assessment needs to be carried out so they can make an informed choice as to whether to do something or not. If the risk is high I may be able to reach a compromise with the service user based on all the information available.

Explain how using an individual’s car plan contributes to working in a person centred way

The national minimum standards state that care must be focused on the individual and that the regulators must explicitly look for positive outcomes for service users via evidence of such things as active participation that is consistent with principles of choice, inclusion, independence and rights. Service users may have changing needs, and these need to be met. So local authorities and Care providers need to ensure they provide personalised care that is person centred as opposed the service centred. Personalised care planning should involve addressing the service user’s full range of choices, preferences and range of needs. This should also necessarily consider their health, educational, mental, personal, social, economic, ethnic and cultural background. A person centred approach recognises that it is not only a service user’s medical needs that can have an impact on their overall general health and well-being, but their may also be other issues also. Therefore, the care plan must be written within the boundaries of full consultation with the service user and will contain all aspects of the service user’s care. The final and agreed plan will then be signed by the service user and will thereafter be reviewed on a frequent basis, in line with any changes necessary due to the service user’s changing needs or preferences. Each subsequent review will then also be agreed and signed by the service user. By ensuring inclusion of their personal values the care company will be ensuring that the service user’s preferences and needs are being met.

Be able to work in a person centred way

2.1 Find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of individuals

A Carer always consult the care plan which is available. This detail a service user’s needs, preferences, wishes and their history. It is important to find out as much about these aspects regarding the service user as quickly as possible. To work in a person centred way a Carer needs to build a complete picture of the whole person, in order to provide the best care package for them. To do this the Carer will need to talk to various people involved in the service user’s life including the service user themselves, family, friends, doctors, and possibly other care professionals etc. This will help to build a picture and provide details in relation to things such as their favourite food, hobbies, where they have previously, their family situation and their medical conditions.

Apply person centred values in day to day work taking into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual

I apply person centred values in my day-to- ay work in the following ways: Firstly, I consult the service user’s unique care plan prior to administering any care to the person. This ensure that their choices and values are taken into account, as these would have been established and agreed when the care plan was drawn up. I then ask the service user about their preferences and choices whilst I am administering their care. For example, I may ask what clothing items they would like to wear that day, what toiletries they would like to be used for their personal care and what they would like for breakfast etc.

Be able to establish consent when providing care or support

3.1 Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support

It is important to establish consent because it may upset a client if you do not, and thus, may create unnecessary difficulties between the carer and service user. For example it could be a service user’s choice of clothing in the morning if you pick them something without their consent this may cause them to become challenging throughout the day. Another example could be personal care where you have to provide toileting duties for an individual if you don’t get their consent it can be quite upsetting for them and undignified.

Establish consent for an activity or action

When caring for a service user I may need to obtain their consent with regard to various aspects of their care on any given day. For this to be gained there is a need to present the service user with all available information, details and choices, so that they are basing their decision on all relevant information which they have to hand.

Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established

A competent adult legally has the choice to either accept or refuse to give consent to care, even when a refusal may lead to a harmful result to them. As a Carer I must respect their wishes for refusal as much as I would their consent. However, it is also important that the service user is made fully aware of the possible consequences of their refusal, for example, consequences of medication refusal. Once this has been established I would inform my line manager and make a written record of the refusal. It is my line manager’s duty at this stage to decide whether other health care professionals, such as the GP, need to be contacted.

Be able to encourage active participation

4.1 Describe how active participation benefits an individual

Active participation can benefit a service user by including them in decisions about factors that affect their lives, in formulating and implementing policies, in planning, developing and delivering services and in taking action to achieve change. Active participation contributes to improved health outcomes and quality of care. By promoting active participation the Carer is empowering the service user, which will in turn help them to gain self-esteem, confidence and power to articulate their concerns, which will ensure that action is taken to address them. In my role as a Carer I achieve this by involving the service user in all aspects of their care, allowing them the choice of what to wear, what they would like for lunch etc.

Identify possible barriers to active participation

Each service user is an individual, and thus they are unique in the own ways. Some may be able to actively participate in all areas of their care whilst others may be limited in their participation because of various barriers. Although a majority will be able to contribute at some level. A service user may be unable to carry out their own personal care but still able to make choices such as if they would like a bath or a shower, have their hair washed etc. However, a major barrier to the active participation of a service user can be poor communication levels between the Carer and the service user. In these instances, a Carer needs to stay patient and find a more adequate method of communication which will better suit the service user and benefit the communication between the two individual’s. A barrier to communication may be as simple as the Carer being in a hurry and possibly being too ‘pre-occupied’ to give due attention to the service user. In a situation like this, the Carer must re-focus on the care of the service user and allow active participation in their care.

Demonstrate ways to actively reduce the barriers and encourage active participation

A service user who is unable to communicate through speech will have developed other ways of communicating. By ensuring that they are aware of these communication methods and any equipment the service user must use is available and working, the carer will be reducing the barrier which would be restricting them from being able to convey their personal preferences and choices. By offering the service user choices the Carer is encouraging their active participation in their care. This will then further improve their communication skills and empower them, which in turn will raise their self esteem and confidence. A service user with limited mobility may still be able to assist in their own personal care, by choosing their own toiletries, if they have a shower or bath, which clothes they would like to wear. They may be able to lift an arm or leg when getting dressed. Hence, the Carer should give the service user time to actively participate in their own care.

5. Be able to support the individual’s right to make choices

5.1 Support an individual to make informed choices

A service user should be given all the information available so that they can make better decisions when it is necessary to do so, which are based on informed choices. This information may need to be informative regarding their rights, consequences of their choices/decisions and what the possible end result of their choices may be. Information presented to the service user may necessarily need to be given to them in a format which they are able to understand, for example via leaflets, contacting third parties on their behalf etc. The Carer will also need to ensure that ease of communication between the service user and the third parties that can help them as it is this communication that will lead them to making their informed choices, for example, one of these individuals may be a benefits adviser – in this instance the service user would need to understand the information that they are being provided with. If the service user directly asks for help from the Carer it is important that the Carer’s own views do not influence their decision, as again, the choice being made must be the service user’s own informed choice.

Use agreed risk assessment processes to support the right to make choices

Although risk taking is part of our everyday lives and is to a lesser degree a part of almost everything we do it should not exclude an individual in participating. It is essential to a service user’s safety that the service user themselves and the Carer are able to recognise, assess and manage possible risks. It is therefore the duty of the Carer during the promotion of supporting the service user’s independence to manage any associated risks and make the service user aware of these, in a way he/she will understand. Once the service user has made a choice about something that contains an element of risk a risk assessment must be carried out so as to ensure the service user is making an informed choice of whether to do this something or not. Should the risk be high it may be possible, via good communication methods, to reach a compromise based on all of the relevant information. However, ultimately the decision must lie with the service user.

Explain why a worker’s personal views should not influence an individual’s choices

It is important that a Carer does not let their own views impact on the care that they provide for an individual. For example one of my service user’s wanted to order a pizza, burger and chips at 10am for breakfast the other morning from a well-known fast food restaurant. My own view was that this was very unhealthy habit but I was consciously aware that it could create conflict if I did not respect her choice and individual rights by preventing her from ordering this.

Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others.

All decisions that involve a service user’s care should be discussed, explained and given details as to how and/or why a decision was reached. Should the service user disagree with any decisions made about (or for) them by third parties they are perfectly entitled to challenge this. In this case, they may need the Carer’s knowledge and support in order to do so. The first thing for the Carer to do would be to ensure you have obtained their permission and then establish exactly what it is that they wish to challenge regarding the decision. If the challenge is in relation to an element of their care the Carer must firstly advise the service user of the company complaints procedure, and then, if needs be, assist them to complete the necessary paperwork. The Carer must also report the matter to their line manager. Should the service user wish to challenge a decision made by an external agency the Carer could look into the possibility of offering themselves to be the service users advocate if they do not feel confident/able enough to speak up for themselves.

6. Be able to promote individuals’ well-being

6.1 Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked with well-being

In order to promote a service user’s well being it is important they are able to retain their identity. A Carer can help them to do this by ensuring their care plan takes into account their personal values, preferences, needs and wishes. By assisting a service user to make informed choices and decisions about their care, by enabling them through activities and participation and by encouraging and praising their efforts and successes, you will increase their self esteem and feelings of well-being.

Abraham Maslow developed a model which interpreted human needs. This is called Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. There are many factors which contribute to the well-being of individuals and fulfilling their basic needs leads to their well- being. The illustration below shows Maslow’s theory and how each need has to be fulfilled to reach the next level. You can relate each step to what you would do for the service user you are caring for.

Physiological – Ensure the service user has access to meals and drinks

Safety – Protect the service user by following health & safety policies in your workplace

Love and belonging – Encourage to participate in activities, share mealtimes,

Show the service user respect and dignity when caring for their needs

Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well-being

When caring for a service user a Carer must ensure that they (the service user) is treated with respect, dignity and shown value as a unique individual. Preferences, wishes and rights should be promoted along with trying one’s best to ensure they are able to enjoy their life – for this to happen an individual needs to valued, respected and safe in their surrounding environment. Choices should remain for the service user so that they are able to continue to enjoy their rights and independence, thus, continuing to strive for their full potential. By following the GSCC code of practice the Carer will ensure they are promoting the individual’s well-being.

Support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self-esteem

Although Carers are there to support a service user in their independence it is important that the service user feels they are able to exercise their rights of choice and are in control of their own life. The Carer should actively encourage participation in activities and praise efforts when the opportunity arises – this will give the service user confidence in the own abilities and in turn increase their self-esteem. By considering their preference, choices, values and wishes in their day-to-day care the Carer is helping to maintain the service user’s sense of ‘self’, their own identity. Therefore, they should always be given choices in each aspect of their daily care.

Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes well-being

The environment in which a service user lives is of great importance on their life quality and well-being. How the physical space within either their own home or a care home (if they live in one) is set up can help promote a sense of wellbeing. Windows with a view to an accessible outside space, good lighting, distinctive colours for different units, open shelves and cupboards inviting individuals to explore the contents, and clear signage are just some of the ways in which the environment can be used positively. Many possible changes can be identified with the help of staff, residents and relatives, and often made with little expense.

The ways a Carer can contribute to an environment that promotes well being are things such as:

Ensuring their personal belongings are in their room

Encouraging service user to attend activities

Encourage service users to have their meals together

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