Factors When Planning Recruitment In Health And Socialcare Nursing Essay
Health and social care is a very vast service sector undergoing changes rapidly, with new government initiatives giving it a higher profile than ever.
The factors to be considered when planning the recruitment of individuals to work in health and social care are firstly deciding what staffing needs health and social care sector have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations.
Attract and retain the number of employees required with appropriate skills, expertise and competencies
Anticipate the problem of potential surpluses and deficits of employees
Develop a well trained and flexible work-force
Improve the utilization of employees by introducing more flexible systems of work.
Reduce dependence on external recruitment when key skills are in short supply by formulating retention, as well as employee development strategies.
Recruitment is a process of finding and engaging the people the organization needs. Selection is that part of the recruitment process concerned with deciding which applicants or candidates should be appointed to jobs.
1. Defining Recruitments : preparing role profiles and person specifications, deciding terms and conditions of employment.
2. Planning recruitment campaigns.
3. Attracting candidates-reviewing and evaluating alternative sources of applicants, inside and outside the company: advertising, e-recruiting, agencies and consultants.
4. Selecting candidates – sifting applications, interviewing, testing, accessing candidates, assessment centers, offering employment, obtaining references, preparing contracts of employment. (Armstrong, M., 2009).
Vacancies may be created because of any of the following reason:
Retirement of the previous candidate.
fire of an employee for any reasons.
Sudden death of employee.
Job analysis: It can be describes as
Job description and
Job description: Description of job is very important as it makes the picture clear for both the parties that is recruiter and applicant. As it enables the recruiter to know exactly what kind of responsibilities are to be fulfilled by the appropriate candidates. Here in health and social care industry, it is required that candidate must possess relevant academic qualification and depending upon job requirement experience as well. There are some essential factors that need to be considered here. Such as:
The purpose of the job
Duties and responsibilities of the vacant position
Part time or full time
Temporary or permanent
Person Specification: Person Specification also known as recruitment or job specification, defines the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). (Armstrong, 2009) The person specification is very important part of the recruitment process because the person they are recruiting must match the requirement and cater the needs of health and social care industry.
Question 2 : Explain how legislative and policy frameworks of the home country influence the selection, recruitment and employment of individuals.
Every country has its own legislative and policy frameworks for the selection, recruitment and employment of individuals under labour law, so companies and organizations must follow that rules and regulations. Here in UK, the governing law gives equal opportunity for every body irrespective of caste, creed, sex and religion.
Equal opportunities and race equality considerations are reflected at every stage of the recruitment and selection process. The procedure embraces the requirements of the U.K’s Equality and Diversity policy and Race Equality Scheme and relevant Equal Opportunities legislation and practice.
The National health Services (NHS) of UK aims to employ a diverse workforce that reflects the society in which it operates. In order to achieve this, NHS encourage applications from those groups that are under-represented in the organisation. In UK, NHS encourage applicants who feel that equality and fairness has not been observed during the recruitment process to bring their concerns to the attention of the Associate Director - HR.
Every organization has its own code of conduct, policies, rules and regulations; these are very important as it gives the proper direction for everybody what to do and what not to do, apart from main duties and responsibilities. Confidential data of patients should not be leaked and given to any third party.
Employing overseas nationals
All external candidates invited to attend an interview are required to provide, at the interview, documentary evidence of their right to take up employment in the UK, regardless of their nationality (in order to safeguard equal opportunities, the Selection Panel will not see any of this documentary evidence). Prior to employment, the Institute is legally obliged to check and copy specific original documentation to verify an employee’s right to work in the UK. The HR Department is responsible for checking and copying these documents and new employees will not be permitted to start work until the required documentation is provided.
When a work permit has been granted the new employee is responsible for applying to the Immigration and Nationality Directorate of the Home Office for leave to remain in the UK. Whilst the application for leave to remain is in process the employee is normally permitted to start work pending the outcome of the application.
3. Evaluate different approaches that may be used to ensure the selection and recruitment of the best individuals for work in health and social care
In order to select and recruit the right candidate in health and social care industry, first of all make others know that a vacancy exist by advertisement or any other source.
Any of the following way can be used to advertise the jobs:
Newspaper : largest circulated dailies like The Daily Telegraph, Sun, Metro etc.
Radio : Radio, especially designed FM for youngsters, students and professionals.
Internet : company or health care industry website or online recruitment websites like : direct.gov.uk etc
Job centre : advertising job at local job centres.
Recommendation : Management, existing employees or those who have expertise in the industry can recommend the candidates about the vacancies.
Company notice board: Health care company can put vacancies on its notice board so that a part from employees, visitors and customers can also see the vacancy.
Review CV/Application Forms/Short listing: Once the action of advertisement is done, now it’s time for the reaction, health and social care organization will be getting applications and CV’s .The evaluation of the applications, whether the applications are meeting the criteria mentioned or not. Those who will meet the requirements the company will select them to go on the next step and the unsuccessful candidates will be informed as soon as possible . In general, written notification of rejection is send for those who could not go through the first step of recruitment. Those who applied online should be informed whether they are successful in the first round or not. Others who applied by post can be informed by post or through email or through phone line.
Interview and Selection Testing:
The so-called classic trio of selection methods consists of application form, interview and references.
As this interview is for health and social care assistant job, we will give priority those candidates who have got good track record of such experience. Should possess excellent communication skills, supervisoring skills.
Individual interview : This is the most familiar method of selection, as it involves the face to face discussion and provides the best opportunity for the establishment of the close contact with the candidate. The HR department of health and social care get to know which individual can fit better in the health and social care assistant position, and carry out the required tasks.
Interview panel: Two or more people gathered togather to interview one candidate is defined as interview panel.The HR department get here a wide chance of enabling information to be shared and reducing overlaps. Interviewers can discuss their joint impressions of the candidates behaviour.
If the candidate is selected in the interview step then comes the step of checking the references, the HR will ask for two references one from previous/current job and other will be from academic institutes. These two referees will certify the candidates about his/her eligibility to do that type of job.
Offering job and induction
After getting positive response from the both referees, we will move on to the final step of recruiting and selecting process which is offering the job and inviting for an induction session. Induction period is expected before starting any job as it will give an overview about the job and its responsibilities that he/she is going to perform, the working environment, company's rules and regulations and so many things.
The HR department of health and social care will collect data regarding the sex, race, disability, age, sexual orientation and religion of applicants and will monitor the representation of candidates by sex, race, disability and age at each stage of the recruitment process. The anonymised results of this monitoring will be published later.
If, by chance the HR recruit and select a person, and not able to extract work from him, and employees are not able to give their best, then it will be problem for the effective performance of the organization. So its always better and safe for the organizations to recruit and select the candidates who have the same kind of experience and in the same industry.
4. Explain theories relating to how individuals interact in groups
Different people when put together in a group may interact strangely. The well known model of how people work and interact in a group is given by Tuckman & Jensen
Groups may go through five stages (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977)
Important roles during each stage:
1)Forming - defining and structuring procedures: Initially when individuals are put together, they start knowing each other that is forming.
2)Storming - recognize mutuality and to build trust among group members : Slowly and steadily members of the group build understanding among each other which then turns into trust and bond among them.
3)Norming - identify with and internalize these group values, norms and beliefs : At this stage the members try to focus on the actual aim of grouping
4)Performing - change from directive task-oriented to consultant relation-
oriented leadership style : now at this stage they start performing towards achieving the goal.
5)Adjourning stages - solve the problems of disbanding: at this stage after finishing the task they again adjourn.
In case of health and social care its mandatory to have different teams and group, as it gives efficiency, builds mutual trust among the members and for over all achievement of the goals and tasks of the organization.
5. Describe different types of teams that work in health and social care
A team consists of a group of people linked for a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are complex and have many interdependent subtasks. Self-managed teams use clear boundaries to create the freedom and responsibility to accomplish tasks in an efficient manner. (Ken Blanchard, 2005)
Health and social care industry is very vast, there may be a number of teams. The important may be like:
Patients-handling team : a team which serves the patients form the point of their arrival in the hospital or social care centre to the point of their discharge.
Carers : a team which takes care of the patients needs and provide them services.
Representatives : a team which represents different department of the hospital for example like dental, eye-care, counselors etc.
Campaigning team : A team responsible for campaigning about the symptoms and treatment of any particular disease in order to create awareness among the people.
Health and hygiene awareness promoters : A team which promotes and focus on educating the people by means of leaflets distribution or camping in schools, colleges, universities or any other public places.
Team of doctors: A team of doctors who treat and diagonise the patients.
Management team: A team responsible for managing all the activities of the health and social care.
Nurses: A team of nurses which operates sometimes independently and sometimes as per the instructions given by the doctors.
Porters: A team of porters whose responsibility is to move patients and help the nurses.
Caterers : Team of caterers which provide the food to the patients and staff, etc.
6. Analyse the factors that influence the effectiveness of teams working in health and social care
The factors that may influence the effectiveness of teams working in health and social care are team composition, team collaboration, stability, time allotted to the various tasks, the presence of a team leader, clinical leadership of a specialist, and knowledge of and experience with quality improvement and senior leadership support (Lemieux et al, 2006)
If the team does not have the relevant required members with the required knowledge and skills and dedication then the team composition is not in line and may influence the team effectiveness. Every member in the team must co-operate and collaborate with other member so as to reduce the stress and enjoy the work together. Time plays a very critical role, so the time allotted should be ample and convenient so that every member in the group should be able to accomplish their desired task without any hurry and worry. Team leader is like the captain of the ship , if the ship has to sail well and reach the destination then whole responsibility lies with the captain, so as team leader must focus and follow up each and every step of task and process with the other team members. The team members must possess the knowledge and skills to carry out the task.
7.Evaluate approaches that may be used to develop effective team working in health and social care
There is no one right way to work as a team. Every group is unique, and must find its own ways of working together efficiently. Here in case of health and social care the approaches that may be used to develop effective team working are mentioned as follows:
The first factor in team effectiveness is the diversity of skills and personalities. The team members must use their strengths in full, and should compensate for each other's weaknesses.
To make sure that the team goals are totally clear and completely understood and accepted by each team member.
To make sure there is complete clarity and understanding in who is responsible for what and avoid overlapping authority.
Build trust with your team members by spending one-on-one time in an atmosphere of honesty and openness.
To allow the team members discuss different topis and issues and let them come to a conclusion. Give them some opportunities of extra social time with each other in an atmosphere that encourages open communication.
For issues that rely heavily on the team consensus and commitment, try to involve the whole team in the decision making process.
Engaging teams in health and social care activities and observing them. When managing teams, make sure there are no blocked lines of communications and you and team members are kept fully informed.
Be careful with interpersonal issues. Recognize them early and deal with them in full.
Never miss opportunities to empower team members. Say thank you or show appreciation of an individual team player's work.
Never limit yourself to negative feedback. Be fare. Whenever there is an opportunity, give positive feedback as well.
To organize and chair a team meeting with all staff at a nursing home, firstly we need to build different teams for different tasks like first team(T1) for organizing the meeting, second team(T2) for supply and maintenance and other team to manage the meeting(T3).
T1 prepares the plan or agenda to organize the meeting like : date, place, time, members invited for meeting, space required, seating arrangement, break between the meeting, key issues to discuss in the meeting, technological aspects like mic, projector, computer, audio-video systems etc.
T2 responsible for providing and maintaining the stuffs and T3 in co-ordination with the team T2 manage the event that is the meeting.
8. Describe different ways in which the performance of individuals working in health and social care may be monitored
As Weiss and Hartle (1997) commented, Performance Management is ‘‘a process for establishing a shared understanding about what to be achieved and how it is to be achieved and an approach to managing people that increases the probability of achieving success ’’.
These days 360-degree feedback is well known in corporate culture so we can implement this in our health and social care industry.
360-degree feedback, also known as multi-source assessment, is a process in which someone’s performance is assessed and feedback is given by a number of people who may include their manager, subordinate, colleagues and customers. Assessment take the form of ratings against various performance dimensions. (Armstrong, 2009)
It is used for a number of purposes, research conducted by the Ashridge Management Research Group (Handy et al, 1996) found that typically, 360-degree feedback forms part of a self-development or management development programme.
Ratings : Ratings are given by the generators of the feedback on a scale against each heading. This may refer both to importance and performance, rating the importance of each item on a scale of 1 (not important to) 6 (essential), and performance on a scale of 1 (weak in this area to) 6 (outstanding).
The employees of all level working in health and social care should be rated with a scale of 1 to 6, taking feedback from different sources like manager, doctors, health care assistants, patients, etc.
Rating for Services
Rating for knowledge and skills
Efforts and Hard work
Commitment and Dedication towards job.
If any of the employees aggregate total score is less than 12 points, then he/she should be assessed carefully and need to given appropriate training and support in that particular field.
Similarly, if any employee is excelling in any particular field say for example patient services, then he/she should be praised and rewarded.
Data processing : Questionnaires are normally processed with the help of software developed within the organisation or most commonly, provided by the external suppliers. This enables the data collection and analysis to be completed swiftly, with the minimum of effort.
In health and social care industry we can make a graphical presentation of the employees performance on a regular basis of six months or a year and it will be helpful in showing the evaluation of employee performance. So that those employees whose graph is dwarf than other should be encouraged and given the proper training and development.
It is often anonymous and may be presented to the individual or to the individuals manager or to both of them. It depends on organizations culture, whether the feedback is anonymous or not- the more open the culture, the more likely is the source of feedback to be revealed.
9. Describe how individual training and development needs may be identified
As we all know that nobody is perfect, so as we need to always update and gain knowledge and practice that. From the above monitoring process we get to know about the individuals and their performances. After observing closely and monitoring we get the results that which individual is giving how much efforts and how to train him/her and what sort of developments they need. Taking this clear pictures of the individuals and their performances we need to give them training and development.
Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.
For example in health and social care industry, if an employee is lacking the communication skills, then after monitoring and analysis we need to give him communication trainings; that is how to communicate with the patients or so. And if an employee is not able to deliver services on time, then he/she is lacking in time management skills, so training for how to manage time effectively should be given.
10. Analyse different strategies for promoting the continuing development of individuals in the health and social care workplace
Kaizen strategy is for never-ending efforts for improvement involving everyone in the organization – managers and workers alike. In case of health and social care as well it is equally important for continuous development.
The quick and easy kaizen process works as follows:
The employee or health and social care assistant identifies a problem, waste, or an opportunity for improvement and writes it down.
The employee health and social care assistant develops an improvement idea and discusses it with his or her supervisor or manager.
The supervisor or manager reviews the idea within the 24 hours and encourages immediate action.
The employee or health and social care assistant implements the idea. If a larger improvement idea is approved, the employee should make leadership to implement the idea.
The idea is written up on a simple form in less than three minutes.
Supervisor or manager posts the form to share with and stimulate others and recognizes the accomplishment.
Hence like this there may be a continuous development of individuals in the health and social care workplace.
11. Describe how an effective staff development programme may be implemented
When we develop an effective staff development programme (SDP) that would enable the staff to be the confident, competent practitioner;
We need to know for how many number of staff it is required and how to carry out this. For this to make smooth we can ask every staff who need this development program to fill a form and submit. So that we have valid information about all of them who need such programme.
- first of all we must ensure that this programme is transferable and can be implemented at ease
- we need to use proper competency statements to facilitate individual development;
- we need to ensure that effective assessment and support systems are well ordered and in place.
Then we need to initiating the programme across all the health and social care centers. All the staff must be trained and informed earlier about this, so that any inconveniences should not arise later.
12. Evaluate the effectiveness of a specific staff development programme with which you are familiar
I am familiar with staff nurse development programme (SNDP), a programme that was not existing before 2001, In this programme the competencies could also be added to, in order to produce additional competencies for senior grades. A career pathway approach could be introduced.
Every participant was given the:
- A set of guidelines for the participant and the assessor;
- The core competencies and assessment framework;
- The structure of the programme;
- A set of review forms to record progress at three monthly intervals;
- An example of sources of evidence and application;
- A personal development plan.
It was very effective and result oriented as the staff which was just qualified but not so competent and confident. The majority of those interviewed after completion of this programme, gave positive feedback regarding the principles of the programme.
However, a group of staff nurses from one trust said that the immediate start of the staff nurse development programme on qualification felt like a repetition of the requirements for the RN or DipHE qualifications, and recommended that evidence collection begin three months after qualification. This potential problem has been overcome by assuring common understanding of the principles of the programme.
13. Analyse how a range of theories of leadership may apply in the health and social care workplace
Dictionaries define leading as ‘guiding and directing on a course’ and as ‘ serving as a channel’. A leader is someone with commanding authority or influence.
According to Krech and Cruthfield (1948) ‘‘Leadership is an integral part of the group process’’.
‘‘Leadership is the initiation of structure and the instrument of goal achievement.’’ (Horman,1950)
Leadership style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which the manager typically behaves towards member of the group. The style of managerial leadership towards subordinate staff and the focus of power can, however, are classified, broadly, within a simplified three fold heading.
The authoritarian (or autocratic) style: The authoritarian style is where the leader or manager takes the decisions and announces them, expecting subordinates to carry them out without questions (White and Lippit, 1959).
The focus of power is with the manager and all interactions within the group move towards the manager. The manager alone exercises decision-making authority for determining policy, procedures for achieving goals, work tasks and relationships control of rewards or punishments.
The democratic style: In democratic style the leader would characteristically lay the problem before his or her subordinates and invite discussions. The focus of power is with the group as a whole and there is greater interaction within the group. The leadership functions are shared with members of the group and the manager is more part of a team. The group members have a greater say in decision-making, determination of policy, implementation of systems and procedures (White and Lippit, 1959).
A laissez-faire (genuine) style: In this style of leadership, leader plays a passive role in group affairs, and normally interact with group members only on their initiative (Sadler, P 2003).
For health and social care industry the democratic style of leadership is required as it gives opportunity for delegation and participation of all the employees and staff. In which everybody participates and interact with each other in order to resolve the situation.
14. Explain how the allocation of tasks may influence the performance of individuals and teams
It is very clear that allocation of tasks influences the performance of individuals and teams, if somebody is not potential of doing a thing in right way, if he is given that task how can we expect the good results. And which in turn affects not only the individual but also the team as it wastes the time, labor, energy, creates dis-satisfaction and so on.
Now a days in corporates and MNC’s management and leaders use BALM- method to resolve this issue.
The “BALM” method to achieve correct role allocation:
Break down the bigteam goals into specific, individual tasks. List all tasks, and then rate each task in terms of importance;
Analyze and list the competencies required to perform each task;
List the competencies of each team member;
Match individuals to task competencies.
15. Analyse how working relationships may be managed
Following are some strategies to help you build and manage positive relationships with your co-workers and managers.
• Be courteous — Remember always to say “please” and “thank you.” Whenever required.
• Check in — It’s important to find out the management and your supervisor is satisfied with your work.
• Know your colleagues — you must know your colleagues and understand what motivates them. Before you ask for help check if it will overburden an already-busy worker.
• Know office protocol — Be sensitive to your department’s traditional methods of doing things, especially when the workplace is unusually pressured. A company’s unwritten rules usually evolve out of precedent and are somewhat unique to the organization.
• Share credit generously — Whenever you report the results of a project in which you were one of several people involved, always use “we” instead of “I” in both your written and oral presentations.
• Use humour appropriately —An employee with a good sense of humor is perceived as easy to work with and a welcome addition to a project team. Take your work seriously, but not yourself.
• Seek feedback — Always seek feedback regarding your work and enhance your performance. Give and take friendly feedback.
• Avoid the rumour mill — Never spread gossip or even listen to it. It’s not good for your professional image.
16.Evaluate how your own development has been influenced by management approaches encountered in your experience
I am always active and enthusiastic at the work place, but I used to get stressed very often when a load of work comes. Then I discussed this matter with the management and they helped me to resolve this problem.
Management approaches helped me a lot, people can be less stress by following various techniques such as:
Exercising regularly that helps a lot to keep body and mind both fit to deal with any situations.
Eating healthy and nutritious food as it helps to deal with stressful situations. mentioned plenty of water, fruits, vegetables, protein and whole grains as a part of balanced diet.
Avoiding drugs and other addicted elements will keep us more relaxed.
A person needs adequate sleep to recover from the effect of stress whereas little sleep weakens the immune system. Thus people will be less able to deal with decease and stress.
Another way of minimizing stress is to take a break from the situation which causes stress as it will help to keep people relaxed.
People can also reduce their stress by talking about it with the co-workers. The better of dealing with stress is to identify the reasons behind getting stressed and then talk about the solution of that situation.
By managing stress I am now able to improve my professional and personal life by means of following benefits which I have gathered from my experience:
Less stressed causes less absenteeism in jobs;
It improves job performance;
It enhances health, attitude and efficiency of doing work properly
It will improve sleep whereas decrease anxiety and pain
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