The Impact Of Advertising On The Mass Media Media Essay
With the social and economic development and frequent international cultural exchange, the traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television are going through a increasingly stable development in recent years. With the rapid development of high technology, Internet media is emerging as the fourth. These resulted in more frequent exchange of social information, and now advertisers have more convenient channels for their goods and services promotion. Mass media has become a major promotional platform for advertising; both news and advertising are interdependent and mutually compete for the TV broadcast time and newspaper pages published. Advertising development is bound to have increasingly important influence on the development of mass media.
Firstly, this paper will outline the research background and rationale. Following this, it will explain the intention and the importance of the research. Then, it will explain the aim and the objectives of the research. Next, the paper will review previous literatures which are related to this study. This is followed by the methodology of the research. The paper will explain the resource, sampling and ethical considerations of the study orderly. Finally, it will make out the conclusion of the study.
Background and research rationale
Advertising is a particular need, since the production and exchange of goods, advertising had began to be used in the life. The world's first ad is conducted by voice, also known as oral advertising, which is the most primitive sell advertising, which is characterized by simple forms of advertising in particular. Back in the early slave society of ancient Greece, people do the slave and livestock trade by public advocacy and yelling out the rhythmic ads.
The invention of the printing press created a new era of advertising. In 1473, Britain's first publisher, William • Kanke Si printed a lot of publicity religious content of the print ads and posted them in the many streets in London; this is the first Western print advertising. In 1622, Nicholas Brown and Thomas • Ke Qieer, who were both from the UK, founded the first English newspaper，which was named "Weekly News" and was published in London. Since then, newspaper has become a main carrier of advertising.
To the end of 1830, America has had about l200 pieces of newspapers, and 65 species of them are daily newspapers. Most or first full-page edition of many newspapers is advertising. 1830 -1850 is the penny press era, because the price is a penny foe each piece of newspaper. Due to the low price, the sales had increased, and the effectiveness of advertising had also been increased. While popular in the newspaper ads, magazine ads are increasing, and a large amount of advertising agencies and advertising companies showed up since then.
With the development and popularization of radio and television, they became a major carrier of advertising, because they have benefits of quick spread, vivid images and a wide range covering, which are more easily to attract the attention of consumers. After the 1980s, with the rapid development and popular of electronic media, computer began to be used for advertising design and planning. With high-tech, advertising has become part of the information dissemination activities in our lives. Inevitably, the development of advertising caused a lot of impact on mass media, both positive and negative.
Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to find the impact of advertising on the development trends of mass media, there must be a very complicated relationship between advertising and news in the mass media, and as all known, news provide real and quick information to people, but the function of advertising is totally different, which will lead different impact on the mass media. This research is aimed to find out all the elements which cause these differences and the result in the final.
This study will firstly introduce the original and historic development of advertising which takes the mass media as the major carrier, and then analyze the relationship between news and advertising on the aspects of their differences and common points, and find out how they influence mass media in different ways. In the following this study will explain the impact of advertising on the development trends of mass media, from both positive and negative aspects. Following suggestions which aim at improving the development of mass media will be given in the end of this study.
In the study “The impact of Advertising on media bias”, Esther Gal-or, Tansev Geylani and Tubapinar Yildirim (2010) investigated how and in what extent the advertising affected the extent of bias in the media. They believed that, when making choices on which media to do the advertising and how much they would like to pay for it, advertisers would evaluate both the size as well as the composition of the readership of the different medias, in this way, when the total ad spending to a fixed advertising costs, it can be used as a reference value, according to advertiser's strengths and weaknesses to make the final choice. They stated that, “Reasons for the existence of media bias range from journalists’ desire to enhance their career opportunities to media’s incentive to increase audience ratings. In a recent paper by Mullainathan and Shleifer, a link is established between subscription fees and media bias.”
There are some people doubts the objectivity of the mass media when they are purchasing economic benefit. Serge Kasper (2008) pointed out in his weblog “The Impact of Advertising on Society” that, “Critics has accused advertising companies of falsely using the power of sound and visual to convince unsuspecting buyers to purchase products that don't offer what they promise.”
John Harms from Southwest Missouri State University and Douglas Kellner (1990) from the University of Texas at Austin had cooperated a study “Toward A Critical Theory of Advertising”, in which that pointed out that “The studies such as what stated before have explore how the mass media influenced by advertisers and business, which is reflected in news and cultural differences.”. According to these previous studies, this point is almost inevitable. Chuck, Blore (2000), who is one of the partners of the advertising firm Chuck Blore & Don Ruchman said that “Advertising is the art of arresting the human intelligence just long enough to get money from it.” And this determined that the advertising is totally different from news in the function and purpose when they are televised or published.
Shah (2008) stated that, “Since the emergence of mass media, business is very natural to take them as channels and platforms to the promotion of products and services, there is nothing wrong in this point, because it makes the share of information and innovation come true and influence people’s daily life.”
This paper studies the impact of advertising on the development trends of mass media, which requires doing some analysis on a common phenomenon for many advertising sector of media, and drawing basic conclusions. If only concrete on individual cases, apparently, the conclusion can not be representative of all media in common. In this article, I will collect enough detailed information, and the questionnaire will help the final conclusion to a large extent. All the previous studies about advertising and media, as well as their relationship will be taken as useful data, and they will be collected and analyzed in a scientific way.
Questionnaire & Interview
In order to collect quantitative data for this study, this paper will use structured, close ended and five-point method to design questionnaire according to previous literatures. Before carrying on the questionnaire, this paper will try to summarize as more as possible previous study on the relevant topic, and analyze the information from different angles. A set of questions will be distributed to 10 people whose jobs are relevant to media or advertising and to another 10 who are common audiences and readers. Also there would be 2 open-ended questions and some interviews to those recipients.
Through the questionnaire and interview, those aims are expected to be realized:
1. Is the advertising also an important information resource in the daily life?
2. Do people believe what the advertising tells about?
3. When the mass media provide time and space for the advertising, are they only pursuing economic benefit?
4. Will the advertising have negative influence on the reliability of mass media?
5. Is it reasonable to separate news and advertising in the media?
All these questions above will be put into the questionnaires in detail, and the feedback will be gathered after the interviewees answering them, then the data will be summarized and the analysis will be make out, which will be helpful to the research of this topic.
This study will be carried on from XXX. The total term approximately will be XXX weeks. The following will the various stages schedule of the work which is going to be done in the future.
It will design the questionnaire of this study according to previous related literature from XXX to XXX. Moreover, this dissertation will implement pre-investigation to research the questions brought out in the above. It will implement converting data according to questionnaire, analyzing data, describing the results of analysis in XXX. It will gather all data together and write the draft of this study by the end of XXX. It will implement rectifying the dissertation and editing it according to standard format from XXX to XXX.
Following this, it will make the final amendments and print the dissertation from XXX to XXX. This dissertation will be finished on XXX, 2010. The schedule arrangement will be carried on critically according to timescale.
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