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Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure Of Sampling Adequacy Media Essay

21stcentury has witnessed the advent development of a lot of technologies. Due to the advent of technology it becomes easier for people to take the advantage of the same. The role of television as a media is increasing day by day. Now we can see a lot of people opting for DTH, now we don’t have to rely on the cable to see the programmes. Due to this the viewership of people has increased to a greater extent.

There was a time when people enjoyed watching religious serials, educational programmes, movies & songs which provided entertainment. But now the meaning of entertainment seems to have changed and now a day reality shows has become the flavor of small screen. The small screen has been flooded with reality shows, namely X Factor, Just Dance, Little Champs, MTV Roadies, Emotional Atyachar, Ratan Ka Rishta, Comedy ka maha mukabala, MTV Stunt Mania, Kaun Banega Crorepati, etc. and the list goes on. Moreover, most of the reality shows have been hosted by one celebrity or other. The basic assumption underlying celebrity hosting the reality show is that the value associated with the celebrity is transferred to the brand of the reality show and therefore helps to create an image that can be easily referred by consumers. Consequently by association the reality show can very quickly establish the Creditability, get immediate recognition and improved viewership. However, there are many risks associated with such hosts. The viewership could slide down just as quickly as it moved up the consumers mind due to some problem in celebrity image, career graph etc.

Literature Review

(Khatri, July-Dec. 2006) has opined that celebrity endorsement does not itself guarantee sales. It can create a buzz and make a consumer feel better about the product, which in turn has to come to expectation of customers as a real star by delivering the promise. (Ogunsiji, 2012) has pointed out that Global brand endorsements demand a global brand management team. Thus regional and international organization is in place to maintain brand leadership through proper effective celebrity endorsements. So, companies with large brand portfolios need to have separate managers for each brand and its promotion. (S.K.Dube, 2011) has observed that in India today,

The use of celebrity advertising for companies has become a trend and a perceived as winning formula of corporate image building and product marketing. The use of celebrity for brand promotion is increasing day by day but it cannot be treated as an assured strategic tool to enhance market share, demand of the product or even profit because it mainly depends upon suitability of celebrity with a product and brand as well. (Kineta Hung, 2011) found that findings from a survey involving 1,030 respondents from a national panel of consumers, showed that consumer celebrity worship is a significant antecedent to endorser effects; over-endorsement by a celebrity is an important moderator; and the model is robust across both sports and entertainment celebrities. (Gouranga, 2011) concluded that celebrity is an important factor of interest to generate more positioning of interest in the minds of consumers rather than message and background set up at the time of recall in advertisements. So celebrity acts as an effective component of advertisement to make the advertisements more effective. (Jayant Sonwalkar, 2011) Observed that in a country like India, celebrities act as major opinion leaders and since awareness levels are low, celebrities play a major role in brand recall. Celebrities are helpful in initiating a desired state need among people. The respondents usually pay attention to those advertisements using celebrity icons. The study conducted by him also revealed that to some what extent celebrities initiate an action to buy that product. (Piligrimienė, 2011) has found that the sport celebrity can be used when it‘s possible to find a link between the product and sport, or

when the company wants its customers to relate the product with the sport, active and healthy life style. (Ibrahim, 2010) Observed that using celebrity where the measurable results of such high cost strategy do not justify the amount of money that companies spend on utilizing celebrities. The allocated budget for using celebrities needs to be reallocated in other marketing areas such as marketing research and marketing insights to understand customers needs in more details. (Datta, 2010) has concluded that there are lots of challenges involved in finding in right celebrity match with product or service. Further he opined that for the success of celebrity endorsement right fit between celebrity and band endorsed is must.

Objectives Aims and objective of the study: In this changing world consumer’s preferences toward reality shows is increasing and they are finding these reality shows as a good source of entertainment. Most of the reality television programmes are getting good response due to their respective hosts. How much an effective a particular host is? Does the response of consumers change due to change of celebrity host? Is the personality of the host is matching the personality of television programme? This study can help the sponsors and producers of programmes to choose an appropriate host for their reality show. Further this study can help in enhancing the viewership of reality programme.

Objectives of the study

1. To know the factors affecting consumer preference towards Indian reality shows

2. To study the reason of variation of viewership in program ‘Kaun Banega Crorpati’ between year 2000 to 2011

3. To study the compatibility of host personality (Amitabh Bacchan & Shahrukh Khan) with respect to ‘Kaun Banega Crorpati’

Need of the Study

Reality shows has become important part of the many people’s life. Now a days we are seeing a lot of Indian reality shows on television. Now most of the channels who wants more TRP are coming up with a new reality shows. Competition in this field has also increased to a greater extent. So producers of reality shows start hiring super stars for hosting there show. Producers are spending millions of rupees on hosts.

Different people have different perceptions regarding the celebrity hosts. Some people might enjoy seeing a particular host in a reality show, but some people do not like that host.Every celebrity is having his/her own personality. A marketer needs to know that whether the host’s personality is matching to the personality of the program he is hosting.

This research can help the marketer to know that what kind of host would be appropriate for his show. If the marketer can make the right choice in selecting the host for his program, he can beat the competition and can have highest TRP for his/her reality program.

Scope of the Study:

The scope of study is confined to Indian reality programs and data has been collected from people residing in Jalandhar and Phagwara region of Punjab. In this study we have taken one of the most popular Indian reality show ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’.Here researchers has tried to find the factors which affects consumers preference towards Indian reality shows. Further, researchers have tried to find the reason of variation in viewership of ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’ from 2000 to 2011 along with host compatibility with programme ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’.

Research Design: Here, by and large descriptive study has been followed. Researchers are trying to discover the insights that how the host personality is affecting the consumer preferences towards the Indian reality shows. Survey method with the help of structured questionnaire will be used for the data collection & the data collected will be analysed quantitatively and this also qualifies that our research design is descriptive in nature. Here we are also trying to find out the reason of variation of viewership & for this researcher will conduct one focus group discussion to find out the aforesaid objective. So our research design is also exploratory to some extent.

Sampling Design

Target Population: People residing in Jalandhar and Phagwara, who watch Indian reality show like ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’

Sampling Technique: In this research Convenience sampling has been used. This is a type of ‘Non Probabilistic’ sampling. As everyone don’t watch reality programme like KBC, so only those people have been surveyed who watch these programmes.

Sample Size and data collection: In this research Sample size 300 respondents from Jalandhar and Phagwara of Punjab region has been collected. Researchers has used structured questionnaire for this purpose. In the questionnaire for measuring attitude five point ‘Likert scale’ has been used. Few dichotomous questions have also been used to understand respondent’s behavioral pattern.

A focus group of 11 people consisting different age group and occupation was conducted to find out the reason of variation in viewership of KBC during 2000 to 2012.Secondary data has been collected from Internet, books, periodicals, magazines etc.

Time period of Data: The data is collected in between the time frame of month January 2012 to June 2012 across Phagwara city and Jalandhar city and its suburbs.

Pilot testing: Researchers have done pilot testing by using convenience sampling technique. A sample of 35 was taken for this purpose. A questionnaire containing ‘Likert Scale’ was instrumented for this purpose. Reliability testing for the pilot survey was decent with Cronbach’s Alpha 0.697. Some necessary changes as per requirement were made in the questionnaire after conducting pilot survey.

Data Analysis: Demographic variables like Gender, Age, Occupation etc. has been used for profiling of the customer. Also, profiling has been done on the basis of variables like does respondent watch reality programmes on television, does respondent watch KBC etc. from literature survey lots of variable has been found which affects consumer preference towards Indian reality shows. So, Factor analysis has been used to identify the important factors out of several variables. Apart from this a Focus group was conducted to know the reason of variation in viewership of KBC from 2000 to 2012.

Brief Summary of tools used for analysis:

1. Descriptive Statistics: - For profiling of customers.

2. Factor Analysis: - To identify important factors affecting consumer preference towards Indian reality Show

3. Q Score: To understand host compatibility with popular show KBC

4. Focus Group: To understand the reason of variation in viewership of KBC from 2000 to 2012.

Frequency Distribution

Here frequency distribution of the 300 respondents has been displayed who prefer to watch different reality shows.

Researcher has found that out of 300 respondents, 127 respondents most preferred Indian reality show is ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’.

However in response we have also found that all the 300 respondents were aware of Indian television reality show ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’ and they have watched it at least once.

2.Can you tell the names of celebrities who have hosted the show?

Researchers provided different option of celebrities name for this question, in which again all the 300 respondents were able to answer this correctly. Respondents were able to identify both hosts of KBC Amitabh Bachhan and Shahrukh khan.

Who is the better host Amitabh Bachhan or Shahrukh khan for KBC.

Researcher has found out that out of 300 respondents 254 has chosen Amitabh Bachhan as a better host & only 46 has chosen Shahrukh Khan as a better host.

FACTOR ANALYSIS

Factor analysis was performed to know which are important factors which affect respondent’s preference towards watching Indian reality show. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 348 respondents, after scrutiny researcher has removed 48 questionnaires due to errors in response. The data based on Likert scale, which was meant for measuring respondents preference was entered into SPSS data sheet. Before applying Factor analysis Reliability test was performed and then data was subjected to Factor analysis by using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) method. KMO Value which determines the sample adequacy was found .816 which was highly satisfactory. Varimax rotation for orthogonal factors with Kaiser Normalization was considered to get the % of variance explained for 13 statements in the questionnaire. To find the relevant factors Eigen value of greater than 1 was considered. A table of Rotated Component Matrix is generated with the help of SPSS and three factors were derived. Here Factor loading above 0.50 are considered for Factor analysis. Then, the factors are derived based on the statements that have gone into each factor. The list of factors along with the supporting statements is displayed in Table 4.

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.816

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

1.322E3

Df

78

Sig.

.000

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test is applied to check out the adequacy of data. Here, it has been found more than 0.816, which is more than desired value of 0.5.

Rotated Component Matrixa

Component

1

2

3

1.Influence of host personality

.079

.070

.857

2.For the sake of knowledge

-.034

.445

.662

3.Just for Enjoyment

.326

.264

.331

4.Come on my favourite channel

.786

.190

-.094

5.Because of peer influence

.856

.208

-.032

6.Family Influence

.816

.142

.135

7.Perfect timings

.611

-.061

.467

8.Content of the show

.054

.289

.629

9.Match with my personality

.302

.529

.260

10.Like the way of portraying

.359

.099

.070

11.For viewers questions

.271

.709

.158

12.Challenge human capabilities

.083

.854

.094

13.Platform for common people

.150

.730

.243

Factor List

Channel, peer & family influence

competition and connect with common people

Host & Knowledge

Come on my favourite channel

Match with my personality

Influence of host personality

Because of peer Influence

For viewers questions

For the sake of knowledge

Family influence

Challenge human capabilities

Content of the show

Perfect timings

Platform for common people

Description of the factors

Factor 1, refers to, ‘Channel & peer and family influence’ and contributes to 33.978% variance. This factor is described in terms of Favorite channel, peer influence, family influence, and perfect timing of the show telecast.

Factor 2, describes the ‘competition and connect with common people’ contributes to 14.352% variance. This factor refers to Questions for viewers, challenge human capabilities, match with my personality and platform for common people.

Factor 3, focuses on ‘Knowledge and content’ and it contributes to 8.865% variance. This factor includes statements like influence of the host personality, for the sale of knowledge and content of the show

Focus Group discussion to find out the reason of variation in viewership of KBC:

To find out the reasons in variation of the viewership of reality show KBC, focus group was conducted.in focus group 11 people from different age group and back ground were selected. Main finding of the focus group has been summarized below:

It was observed during the discussion that, Change in the host of KBC from Amitabh Bachchan to Shahrukh Khan for ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati’ has a great inverse impact on variation in viewership. During focus group participating people noted saying that Amitabh Bachchan’s personality matches with the personality of show.

Most of the people felt that, ‘Kaun Banega Crorpati’ is a kind of Quiz show where seriousness of the host, proper discipline and intellectuality of the host is required. These all are the qualities possessed by Amitabh bachhan., which can be attributed to the success of Amitabh bacchan as a host of KBC.

A lots of other reality shows like Dus Ka Dum, Khatron Ke Khiladi etc. came on silver screen after the intial success of KBC, which also impacted the viewership of KBC. However, most of the Quiz show hosted by other super stars was similar in nature.

Four participants of focus group discussion who were female observed that as KBC was coming on Sony television from 9 PM to 10 PM on week days, and a lot of family serials were also being telecasted on different television channels on same time slots. Here, these female participants felt that they preferred watching family serial rather than KBC.

Five participants, who were doing jobs, found that KBC show used to come on working days and these people after coming exhausted from office looking for some refreshment programs, they were not interested in watching a show where they need to apply their mind.

It was also observed that most of the participants were agreeing that voice quality, overall personality and matureness of Amitabh bachhan was very good which was lacking in Sahrukh khan as a host of KBC, however later was observed charming and informal.

‘Q’ score Technique

Applying the ‘Q’ score technique to determine the familiarity, popularity and compatibility of two stalwart (Amitabh Bachhan and Shahrukh khan) among Indian celebrities as a host of KBC based on feedback from the respondent from different demographic background will be very relevant and useful for producers and directors in identifying and selecting the appropriate celebrity as a host of their respective reality shows.

Q’ score – to help choose the right celebrity host for reality show

‘Q’ Score is normally used by marketing firms to select the right celebrity for endorsing their product/ services and determining the popularity ranking of the celebrities as per the consumers’ response. The ‘Q’ score answers the question “how appealing and popular is the celebrity among those who do know him or her?” Advertisers and advertising agencies can refer to “Q” rating score of a celebrity for choosing the right celebrity. In this process respondents are asked to indicate two things first – Whether they have seen / heard about the selected celebrities? Secondly, if yes- then the respondents are asked to rate the celebrities on a five point Likert scale scale that includes - One of my Favourite, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor.

Calculating ‘Q’ ratings:- ‘Q’ rating is calculated by taking the percentage of respondents who indicate that a celebrity is “ONE OF MY FAVOURITE” and dividing that number by the percentage of respondents who indicate that they have heard of that Celebrity.

Here, researcher has calucated ‘Q’ score to check the compatibility of host personality (Amitabh Bacchan & Shahrukh Khan) with respect to ‘Kaun Banega Crorpati’.

Q scores for Amitabh Bachchan:

A= How many people know Amitabh Bachchan as a host for KBC/ Total number of respondents

Here all 300 respondents were aware about Amitabh Bachchan as a host for KBC

So A= 300/300 = 1

B= how many respondents rate Favourite/ total number of respondents

As 184 respondents answered favourite Amitabh Bachchan as a host for KBC

So, B=184/300

‘Q’ Score = B/A= 184/300*100 = 61.3

Q scores for Shahrukh Khan:

A= How many people know Shahrukh khan as a host for KBC/ Total number of respondents

Here all 300 respondents were aware about Shahrukh khan as a host for KBC

So A= 300/300 = 1

B= how many respondents rate Favourite/ total number of respondents

As 70 respondents answered favourite Shahrukh khan as a host for KBC

So, B=70/300

‘Q’ Score = B/A= 70/300*100 = 23.3

Analysis: Based on survey researcher find that Amitabh Bachchan is having a ‘Q’ score of 61.3 & Shahrukh Khan has a Q score of 23.3. Generally Q score more than 50 is considered good. This indicates that Amitabh Bachchan is a better host for Kaun Banega Crorepati rather than Shahrukh khan.

Summary of research findings

Compatibility of host personality with the reality show is one of the most important factor for the success of reality show. Apart from compatibility show timing, nature of show, content of the show also contributes towards success of the show.

Factor analysis concluded that Channel & peer and family, competition & connect with common people and knowledge & content are the important factors which affects people preference towards watching reality show.

As a host of KBC, overall personality and matureness of Amitabh bachhan was very good which was lacking in Sahrukh khan as a host of KBC, however later was observed charming and informal. This is one of the main reasons of the success of Amitabh Bachhan as a KBC host.

Based on focus group we found came to conclusion that the reasons of variation in viewership of KBC between 2000 to 2012 are timings of the show, change of host of show, coming up of new reality shows, the content of the show is same from last five seasons which has created a boredom, increase in the number of channels etc.

Based on ‘Q’ score analysis it can be derived that : Based on survey researcher found out that Amitabh Bacchant is having a ‘Q’ score of 61.3 & Shahrukh Khan has a Q score of 23.3. This indicates that Amitabh Bachchan is a better host for Kaun Banega Crorepati rather than Shahrukh khan

Conclusion

After conducting this research it can be concluded that “competition & connect with common people”, ‘’Channel, peer & family influence’’ and “Knowledge & content” are three important factors which affect the consumer preferences towards Indian reality shows. Apart from the fact that KBC is being hosted by Amitabh Bachhan, reality show like KBC has become popular due to the reason that it is a platform for common people and the knowledge of the people is also increasing by watching this kind of show. Researchers come to the conclusion that the reasons of variation in viewership are primarily because of timings of the show is not appropriate because this show used to come on a time slot of 9 PM-10 PM which is a prime time and due to this clash of timing between different popular shows. People were in a habit of watching Amitabn Bchchan in the KBC as a host,but in the third season Shahrukh Khan came into picture & the TRP of the show fell drastically. Most of the people think Amitabh Bachchan’s personality best matches with the show and change in the personality show caused sharp decline in viewership. This research will go a long way in helping the advertising agency, directors & producers of reality show, who can make this, research a basis in selection of the celebrity for endorsement and celebrity as host for reality shows.

Future Research

The scope of this research study may be further enhanced by incorporating different reality sho in the research. This research can also be extended further for deciding celebrity for endorsement purpose.

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