marketing

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Market mix and integrated marketing communication

‘Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer’s requirements at the end of the day and also seeking a profit’ Marketing or marketing mix is traditionally classified into the 4P’s, namely Place, Product, promotion and price. Each of the 4P’s has an important role to play and each contribution help a business in promoting its product or service.

1.1 Elements of marketing mix, the 4P’s

1.1.1 Place

This factor needs to be considered before or how the product will be able to reach in the hand of the consumer. In this case, there are different ways to make this possible, like manufacturer outlets, wholesalers and retails outlets.

1.1.2 Promotion

Promotion is essential for creating awareness about a specific product or service. Traditionally promotion is done in order to inform the general population about a particular product, in terms of its features, quality, and benefits and so on. Above the line and below the line promotional methods can be applied. However, promotions require lots of finance.

1.1.3 Product

Among the other 4P’s, it is the most important one, as it’s the one that will be able to satisfy the needs and wants of the consumers. Product will help a firm to differentiate its current range of product from those of other competitors. Brand loyalty can be obtained by the product itself as well as market share and consumers loyalty.

1.1.4 Price

This P will determine the degree of value added by the firm to a particular product. Price will influenced revenue and profits levels of the firm. Price should be set in order to attract both the mass market and the niche market.

1.2 Evidences

Referring to the case itself, the article is based on ECOWASH and the different marketing mix that have been applied are Product and Promotion.

Evidence from the case in supporting the arguments; a new formulation of a washing up liquid\detergent is being produced, that is totally biodegrable. Due that, we can see that the concept of Product is being applied. This well describe the product of the article thus other facts are that, with the growing concerns of the consumers public about the ecology and the environment, Ecowash is the ideal one to choose. The product itself is environmentally friendly with the use of flowers and rainbows to symbolize nature. In this way, it is totally suitable to support Ecowash.

Furthermore, product s not only the one apply in this article, promotion is also applied. As we know without promotion nothing can be possible. Therefore in order to make the public aware of the product, Ecowash, the marketing manager had advertised its product to the targeted market. Doing a packaging which is totally legal will be a good for the business.

Task Two – 25 marks

(a)Explain in your own words what is meant by the use of ‘integrated marketing communications’. (10 marks)

2.0 Introduction of Integrated marketing communication

“Integrated marketing (IM) is a management strategy and meta-discipline focused on the organisation-wide optimisation of unique value for stakeholders. Although closely linked to integrated marketing communications (IMC), it should not be confused with it. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) is the integration of all marketing tools, approaches and resources within a company which maximizes impact on consumer mind and which results into maximum profits at a minimum cost. The aim behind IMC is to ensure consistency of message and the complementary use of media. Whereas IMC aims to ensure consistency of message and the complementary use of media, integrated marketing is concerned with the alignment and focus of the whole organization”.

2.1 Benefits of IMC

Integrated Marketing Communications

Media advertising to multiple forms of communication

Limited Internet access to 24/7 Internet availability and access to goods and services

General-focus advertising and marketing to data-based marketing

A manufacturer-dominated market to a retailer-dominated, consumer-controlled market

Increased sales or benefits to the company

Low agency accountability to greater agency accountability, particularly in advertising

Mass media to more specialized media, which are centered on specific target audiences

Table 1: shows the benefits of IMC

2.2 The two forms of IMC

2.2.1 Online marketing channels deals with the various facilities available in terms of technological facilities for different purposes. In this case some ideal forms can be search engine, pay per click, emails, banners and so on.

2.2.2 Offline marketing channels is the traditional way of promoting an issue or communicating something to the public. Some examples may include the traditional printing, newspapers, magazines, mail order, public relations, radios and television and other traditional methods.

2.3 Views

A company can create his integrated marketing communication program by using all the elements of the marketing mix, like place, product, promotion and price.

In order to know well the subject, an example can be form, “Belch and Belch (2007)”. The concept of IMC had a great influence for them, basically the discuss the needs to establish communication and sales objective together, the way how sales objective have its relation to the corporate objective is in term of gaining a certain dollar sales volume, unit sold, market share and profile level. With the sales objective it provides a quantifiable and measurable benchmark for the promotional campaign. On the other hand, promotional efforts are not the only factor that influences sales.

Critically evaluate the benefits to the marketing manager and their organization of using an ‘integrated marketing communications mix’. (15 marks)

3.0 Integrated Marketing Communications

“Integrated Marketing Communications is a term used to describe a holistic approach to marketing communication. It aims to ensure consistency of message and the complementary use of media. The concept includes online and offline marketing channels. Online marketing channels include any e-marketing campaigns or programs, from search engine optimization (SEO), pay-per-click, and affiliate, and email, banner to latest web related channels for webinar, blog, micro-blogging, RSS, podcast, and Internet TV. Offline marketing channels are traditional print (newspaper, magazine), mail order, public relations, industry relations, billboard, radio, and television. A company develops its integrated marketing communication programme using all the elements of the marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion)”.

3.1 The benefits of IMC to the marketing manager and the organization are as follows:

In order to gain all the benefits of IMC, it will have a positive impact on the organization and its image. First and foremost it can create lots of benefits like competitive advantage, boost up sales revenue as well as profits level, retained money for future investments, time factor and release the individuals of all his stress at work.

In the corporate world communication is very essential in order to be in touch with all the different stages of productions. IMC wraps his communication principal with his customers, in order to help them able to move along the various stages concerning the buying process. This way also means that it will be able to promote the image of the business and the relationship with the customers.

IMC may also act as a human resource manager, as he will enable to be in good relationship with its market. Doing so will be a way to bond customer loyalty on both a short term and a long term. The ability to keep a customer for life is a powerful tool as it will result into a competitive advantage for the business.

Increased the profitability factor is also in the hand of IMC, meaning that in order to be profitable the business should effective. That is it should have a clear way to do communication. This should be done in such a way that it should not be distorted as single information may be communicated into another way.

At another level, initial research suggests that images shared in advertising and direct mail boost both advertising awareness and mail shot responses. So IMC can boost sales by stretching messages across several communications tools to create more avenues for customers to become aware, aroused, and ultimately, to make a purchase.

Finally, IMC saves money as it eliminates duplication in areas such as graphics and photography since they can be shared and used in say, advertising, exhibitions and sales literature. Agency fees are reduced by using a single agency for all communications and even if there are several agencies, time is saved when meetings bring all the agencies together - for briefings, creative sessions, tactical or strategic planning. This reduces workload and subsequent stress levels.

3.2 Possible drawbacks of IMC

Despite its many benefits, Integrated Marketing Communications, or IMC, has many barriers.

Functional Silos

Stifled Creativity

Time Scale Conflicts

Lack of Management know-how

Drawbacks of IMC

Table 2: drawbacks of IMC

3.3 Golden rules of IMC

Senior Management Support

Integrate At Different Levels of management

Ensure the Design Manual

Focus on a clear marketing communications strategy

Start with a Zero Budget

Think Customers First

Build Relationships and Brand Values

Good Marketing Information System

Artwork

search for the optimum communications mix

Task 3 – 25 marks

In your own words, explain what is meant by “social marketing”. (10 marks)

4.0 Introduction of Social Marketing

“Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing, along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioral goals for a social good. Social marketing can be applied to promote merit goods, or to make a society avoid demerit goods and thus to promote society's well being as a whole. For example, this may include asking people not to smoke in public areas, asking them to use seat belts, or prompting to make them follow speed limits.

Although "social marketing" is sometimes seen only as using standard commercial marketing practices to achieve non-commercial goals, this is an over-simplification.

The primary aim of social marketing is "social good", while in "commercial marketing" the aim is primarily "financial". This does not mean that commercial marketers can not contribute to achievement of social good.

Increasingly, social marketing is being described as having "two parents"—a "social parent" = social sciences and social policy, and a "marketing parent" = commercial and public sector marketing approaches.

Beginning in the 1970s, it has in the last decade matured into a much more integrative and inclusive discipline that draws on the full range of social sciences and social policy approaches as well as marketing.

Social marketing must not be confused with social media marketing.”

4.1 History of social marketing

Social marketing began as a formal discipline in 1971, with the publication of "Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change" in the Journal of Marketing by marketing experts Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman. However, earlier, social marketing had already been used as a tool for birth control in India, where a persuasion based approach was favored over a legislative approach.

4.2 Components of social marketing

Components of social marketing

Consumer orientation to realize organizational (social) goals

Voluntary exchanges of goods and services between providers and consumers

Research in audience analysis and segmentation strategies

Management process that involves problem analysis, planning, implementation and feedback functions

Use of formative research in product and message design and the pretesting of these materials

Use of the marketing mix

Analysis of distribution (or communication) channels

Integrative and control functions

Table 3: components of social marketing

4.3 Views of social marketing

Social marketing uses the benefits and of doing social goods to secure and maintain customer engagement. Distinguishing features of social marketing is that “primary focus on social good but secondary is not the case”. Social marketing also implies that it’s not all public sectors and not-for-profit marketing is doing social marketing. Social marketing can used standard marketing techniques to promote their relevant services and organization goals. This can be very important but should not be confused with social marketing where the latter is focusing on achieving specific goals with the specific audiences in relation to different topics relevant to social good, for example: health, sustainability, recycling and so on. Social marketing applies a "customer oriented" approach and uses the concepts and tools used by commercial marketers in pursuit of social goals like Anti-Smoking-Campaigns or fund raising for NGOs.

Is ‘Ecowash’ a good example of social marketing? Fully justify your answer. (15marks)

5.0 Introduction of Social marketing

“Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing, along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioral goals for a social good.[1] Social marketing can be applied to promote merit goods, or to make a society avoid demerit goods and thus to promote society's well being as a whole. For example, this may include asking people not to smoke in public areas, asking them to use seat belts, or prompting to make them follow speed limits.

Although "social marketing" is sometimes seen only as using standard commercial marketing practices to achieve non-commercial goals, this is an over-simplification.

The primary aim of social marketing is "social good"; while in "commercial marketing" the aim is primarily "financial". This does not mean that commercial marketers can not contribute to achievement of social good.

Increasingly, social marketing is being described as having "two parents"—a "social parent" = social sciences and social policy, and a "marketing parent" = commercial and public sector marketing approaches.

Beginning in the 1970s, it has in the last decade matured into a much more integrative and inclusive discipline that draws on the full range of social sciences and social policy approaches as well as marketing”.

5.1Referring to the case

Ecowash is not an eco-friendly product. The reasons in saying so are as follows: it is not environmentally friendly, meaning that the Anglo-French company developments will affect the future generation. Doing so implies to disrespect the nature. Nowadays the world is developing at a rapid speed meaning that the rate of pollution is also developing at a rapid speed causing some natural problems like air pollution, water pollution and deforestation. In order to avoid it, it is better to be environmentally friendly.

Referring to the case it is said that ”high-profile experts in the relevant field to conduct research to back-up their claims that “Ecowash” was truly a biodegradable, eco-friendly washing-up liquid/detergent” this short statement implies that it is truly ecology but this is not the case. High sum of money was used to make this product eco-friendly. According to Advertising Standards Authority(ASA) he mention that Anglo-French have not been able to prove, demonstrate or support his claims that truly ecowash is a bridgeable product that would not affect the environment. The ASA stated in their report that Anglo-French were unable to show that their product was less harmful to the nature.

Processing on the packaging of the product, it is said to be environmentally friendly but it is not the case. The reason is such that both the consumer association and national consumer council expressed concerns in their reports. He is said that the business needs to review its rules regarding the product packaging. in order to be environmentally friendly the firms should adopt ht e concept of nature logos like flowers, rainbows and so on.

Task 4 – 30 marks

(a) You have been asked by your marketing manager to write a short briefing document for him/her, explaining the differences between “regulations” in terms of the various codes of practice, and “legislation” in terms of legal ‘acts of law’ as they affects marketers and marketing today. (15 marks)

6.0 Regulation and Legislation

“Regulation is "controlling human or societal behavior by rules or restrictions." Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, self-regulation by an industry such as through a trade association, social regulation (e.g. norms), co-regulation and market regulation. One can consider regulation as actions of conduct imposing sanctions (such as a fine). This action of administrative law, or implementing regulatory law, may be contrasted with statutory or case law.”

Regulations are requirements that can come in many forms. They may be industry specific regulations such as the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which addresses health care organizations. Regulations may also be wider in scope for example, the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). Regulations are the formal requirements that an organization must follow. Regulations can be either internally or externally generated, monitored, or enforced. Regulation refers to a specific requirement that can take on various forms, such as industry specific regulation or regulations that are much broader in scope. They are the way the legislation is enforced by regulators and they support the requirements of the legislation. In industry, they specify the particular formal (legal) requirements that need to be followed by organizations, workers and employers alike to create a level playing field within the competitive environment of the organizations as well as within a particular organization. This is so because regulations address product safety, consumer protection and other factors in public interest. The thing with regulations is that they could either be internally or externally developed so as a means of compliance, they may be developed through technical specifications or may be through some standards in the private sector.

“Legislation may be defined as the various codes of safety that must be applied to a particular product or services that will be delivering to the general public. Legislation is carried out to ensure the buyer or consumers that the product is fully useable and fully been produced according to the procedures that the company have mention in his given instructions on the specific product or service. Legislation is classified into different ways according to laws of different countries around the world. In other words, legislation refers to all the listed laws of the government about the world of trading”. Legislation is an external directive that places specific requirements on a particular industry. It must be met in order for the business to be legally compliant. Legislation is put into place by the government. Legislation is typically an external driver, unless, of course, you are part of the government organization creating the legislation. Legislation is a directive placed by a government or governing body on either an industry, a section of community or placed on people of a country which must be complied with in order to remain within the legal boundaries of that particular country, community or industry. In industry, legislation acts as an external driver which must be met by all players in order to be compliant.

Legislation is passed as laws by a parliament of a country or some other legislative arm of a government. After legislation is passed, there will be regulators, usually government bodies, who will examine the laws passed and work out the details that need to be enforced so that they are followed. For instance a parliament may pass a legislation that enforces a uniform interconnection fee for telecommunication service providers in a country, and then a government department (regulator) of communications will detail the nitty-gritty of the legislation and enforce it. At times before a part of legislation becomes a law, it may be referred to as a bill. Some countries require legislation to be validated by the executive (usually President) before it could be enforced as law.

Commonly a member of the governing body or legislature will propose legislation or by the executive, which then becomes open for debate by legislators. Amendments are usually made before it is finally passed. Government legislative priorities often determine whether a given bill is proposed and enforced as law.

Critically evaluate “regulation” against “legislation” in term of its positive and negative effects upon marketing. (15 marks)

7.0 Introduction of regulation

“Regulation mandated by a state attempts to produce outcomes which might not otherwise occur, produce or prevent outcomes in different places to what might otherwise occur, or produce or prevent outcomes in different timescales than would otherwise occur. In this way, regulations can be seen as implementation artifacts of policy statements. Common examples of regulation include controls on market entries, prices, wages, Development approvals, pollution effects, employment for certain people in certain industries, standards of production for certain goods, the military forces and services. The economics of imposing or removing regulations relating to markets is analyzed in regulatory economics”.

7.1 Introduction of legislation

“Legislation is a directive placed by a government or governing body on either an industry, a section of community or placed on people of a country which must be complied with in order to remain within the legal boundaries of that particular country, community or industry. In industry, legislation acts as an external driver which must be met by all players in order to be compliant. Legislation is passed as laws by a parliament of a country or some other legislative arm of a government. After legislation is passed, there will be regulators, usually government bodies, who will examine the laws passed and work out the details that need to be enforced so that they are followed”.

7.2 Advantages of legislation

A set of different laws is set by the government in order to protect the fight of the product as well as the right of the buyer and other associated parties. It contains a range of laws such the business names act 1985 – trading names. Under this act, it is states that it is important to let your costumer know in what the business is specialize.

Consumer Protection Act 1987 - If a trader identifies a pricing error at the time of sale, they do not have to serve the customer.  If the product is sold to the customer, it must be at the price the customer has seen.  It is illegal to overcharge or use misleading or unfair price comparisons.

Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 - The Regulations introduces a general duty not to trade unfairly and seek to ensure that traders act honestly and fairly towards their customers.  They apply primarily to business to consumer practices (but elements of business to business practices are also covered where they affect, or are likely to affect, consumers).

7.2 Disadvantages of legislation

Certain laws may be biased as nowadays the law tends to change at a rapid speed. Some people may not know how they might be help with these laws. Some companies do not follow those rules to the letter as they have the tendency to mislead their products in order to boost up sales and to obtain a part of share on the market. Being a decision taken by the government, sometime it might be wrong and we may see its result in the near future.

7.3 Advantages of regulation

It is laws that the government have put in order to provide a good running of the country. Common examples are in term of price, wages, development approvals, pollution effects, employment, goods and services that will have a direct impact on the economic of the country.

7.4 Disadvantages of regulation

It will have a direct impact on the customers; if ever the firm does so then it will have impacts like market failures, society, endogenous preferences and so on.

7.5 Views

It is better to go forward with the concept of regulation.

Task 5 – 10 marks

Do you believe that a code of practice for packaging would work and be adhered to by manufactures? From what has been explained to you do you believe that all three parties; manufactures, consumers bodies and government could agree upon a workable code of practice for packaging. Justify your own views?

8.0 Introduction of Packaging

Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, and institutional, industrial, and personal use.

8.1 How packaging will be adhered to the three parties

In a business term, these three parties is referring to the concept of stakeholders, as we know stakeholders is a person or a group of persons that will influenced or is influenced by the running of the business.

8.1.1 Manufacturers

This party will be able to think ecologically for his business, meaning that he will need to apply environmentally packages in order to reduce its impact in the nature. The waste management system should in terms of reducing both quantitative and qualitative prevention, re-use, recycling, energy recovery and disposal.

8.1.2 Consumers bodies

He should be able to buy in bulk as customers likes to buy in small quantity which results into lot of plastic items. It should be environmentally useable, thus the buyer may be able to reuse this same thing again and again.

8.1.3 Government

He needs to put strong rules and regulation regarding this matter. He should encourage firms to start adopting eco-packaging. This will have less impact on the nature and on the other side it will act as a way to do sustainable development for the future generation.


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