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A study of factors affecting consumer buying behaviour

Chapter one


1.1 Background of the Study

“The study of consumer behaviour potentially deals with of the ways people may act in their role as consumers” said by Schiffman and Kanuk (2000).Today, firm oftenly focus on activities of consumer in among of the existing market because it is too wide and different needs with different consumer. Economist found out that people now have rational choice when making a decision. Schiffman and Kanuk (2000) suggested that attitudes of people influenced by rational or emotional and towards goods. For rational attitudes, people know their actual needs. Emotional given effect to people like for example they like randomly buy goods to release stress. Somehow, people will get easily influenced by other people include preference and taste as well, and observed what they bought most. On the other hand, people had experienced buying that brand and they felt good with it then they will repeatedly buying it. As a result, this is the reason why today marketers are very tough to predict and understand consumer needs due to their attitudes is always changed and they have unlimited wants. Thus the firm needs to segment the markets so they can respond more effectively to the needs and wants of the groups.

Consumer behaviour is oftenly changing, as well as needs and wants. Consumer behaviour involves of how people think and feel between different alternatives e.g. product, brand and the actions they perform in purchasing, consumption process. Referred to Schiffman, L. (2000), ‘needs and goals are constantly growing and changing in response to an individual's physical condition, environment, interactions with others, and experience'. People needs are often changed by a number of factors. As a result, marketer should identify factors for analyzing people needs. ‘Most human needs are never fully or permanently satisfied' (Schiffman, L., 2000), researcher means that people virtually have unlimited wants. People attitudes changing given a great deal of effects on marketing strategies. People today try to seek for product that needed, and make decision, select and buy product and service. Seeing as there have lot of products and service with different brands provided to consumer daily as a result the consumer will get confusion on it, and thus the marketers need to provide similarity and suitable of product to the consumer.

The modern world of marketing communication has become colorful and inundated with advertisements, and it is hard to get noticed. Advertising today in 20th century becomes multi billion industries and has greater publicity factor that are affecting hundred of thousand people life-style ( According to Nelson, in Malaysia country, during 1st half of 2008, advertising spending is reported at RM2.9 billion, and $385 billion worldwide, and exceed $450 billion by 2010 (

Malaysia Airlines (MAS) is the national carrier airline of Malaysia by government owned flag. Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is the first hub of operation in West Malaysia and the secondary hub in Kota Kinabalu. Other than that, Firefly and MASwings are the two subsidies of Malaysia Airlines to focus between on tertiary cities and inter-Borneo flights; MASkargo is the company found in 1972 to which manages shipment and aircraft cargo-hold capacity for all Malaysia Airlines' passenger flights. Going Beyond Expectations is the slogan using by Malaysia Airlines. And today, there is near to 50,000 passengers which is flied by Malaysian Airlines in every single day to about 111 destinations worldwide.

According to The Star news, it noted that Malaysia Airlines has started to launch the “Everyday Low Fares” (ELF) programme, by 6 May 2008, and it is an unparalleled move also new idea. The airline stands up for low-fare programme is to meet the current demand of customers purposely. At the same time, 1.3 million RM 0 (or low fare seats) offered by the airline for all domestic its destination which is co-operated together with Firefly. Yet this programme has been against AirAsia and starting the battle between the two Malaysia carries which are Malaysia Airlines and AirAsia with the same low-fare programme. Moreover, the airline introduced the Enrich and Grads (of frequency flyer programme). For more information, the Enrich is for those customers whose frequently fly with the airline to its destination with travel benefits and offering privileges which consists the priority check-in, priority standby and extra baggage allowance; the Grads is a programme that specially give benefit to those 12 years old above of students.

1.1.1 Problem Discussion

People now become dramatically and have unlimited wants on product and service, some more, their attitudes and behaviour often changed and elastic on price rise or low. Even if they want to make a decision on buying product, they also have rational choices. Seeing as now existing market has numerous of consumer, too wide and their needs are differ from one to another one, and thus marketers today are really difficult to understand these differences with consumer behaviour towards their brand and product. As a result, it is vital that marketers need to work more struggle on identifying their target customers' needs and adapt various marketing strategies to reach their needs. Thus if they could not do so can influence company profit and sales on their product and service.

Customer needs often elastic and this can affect the airline product such as package trying to meet customer demand. Besides that, customer demand also makes changing on the current market stated and people reason for travelling. Airline industry relies on the current market because market now is always changing. Unpredicted event such as fuel prices and terrorist attacks brought the result on demand for flight tickets and given damaging factor to the airline business. Like for example September 11th tragedy and the Jakarta bombing. During economy crisis, consumers have switch to all of these substitutes such as to travel by train, car, or avoiding travel whenever possible. The elasticity of demand is very much affected by the customer's purpose for travel.

By effect of May 2009, the airline started lower fare with Everyday Low Fares campaign and then the airline offers free seat at 0.00 Ringgit for all of its domestic excluding the taxes. Yet the campaign is similar to AirAsia one - so called 500,000 Free Seat. So then, as people know, both of airlines are fighting over who has the cheapest campaign. Nowadays, people who travelling oftenly by flight they has one more choice. Why should I say that? Well, for those people who are going to travel and want to save money, MAS certainly not the first choice in the past, this is because of price is too expensive ( Yet after MAS lower fares then, people start to consider twice whether to fly with MAS or not. It is what I noticed during doing research and need to solve and improve.

Most companies have difficulties in understanding their target consumer needs and stimulating them. Marketers have tried using different marketing strategies or methods such as advertising and sponsorship for sustaining companies brand as well as appealing their target customer to support their product and service. Aside from that, sometimes advertiser delivers message or transfers information to markets in wrong way, customer would easily get misunderstood, and thus effectively delivering message is the objective of advertisers. But if creating images of the new brand or a product are not familiarity to markets, it would not be able to draw attention of targets, and thus customers are not recognized it (Erdogan et al., 1998).

Researches (Holbrook et al., 1996) argued that age-related impact has been ignored by marketers that affects customer's attitude towards goods like for instance segmentation of age, broken into group such as teenager or young-adult appealing differentially to identified customer. As a result, this study needs to research more information about effects affecting consumer buying behaviour based on the current situation.

1.2 Research Objectives and Questions

The objectives of the study are to gain a deeper understanding the key of factors, and to exploit the determinants of affecting a consumer buying a product or service on a local existing market. Apart from that, the study discussed the relationship between consumer behaviour and marketing strategies. The nature of consumer behaviour and the various groups interested to be discussed also in the study. The reason chosen this study is to distinguish and investigate whether these are a connection between studied factors that are affecting each single people making choice on product or service. The research questions that are relevant to the study are investigated and discussed in the following are:

  1. What are the factors affecting customer's attitude towards on consumption of product or service on the existing market?
  2. Is there a relationship between the factors' influence on the congruence products and service? If yes, how those factors gave a strong effect on their attitude and behaviour on consumption?
  3. To what extent and how far the factors of age, brand, advertising and sponsorship affect a consumer preference?
  4. Do different targets from another target have different degrees of influence on consumption on product and service?
  5. How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing strategies to more effectively meet consumer needs?

1.3 Significance of the Study

Marketers today are quite difficult to target consumer and approach need of people on the existing market. As a result the study will be a significant attempted in differentiating the factors affecting a consumer purchasing a product or service on a local existing market, and motivations of the consumer. And importantly, the study is beneficial to the firms segmenting the markets and the needs and wants of the specified group. The study is also helpful to marketers to identify and adapt their marketing strategically approaches for the groups after distinguishing the target group from others. Moreover, the topic is the one most important and providing a deeper understanding of factors affecting consumer buying decisions to students and for business education.

1.4 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was chosen in order to determine of what affects a person buying a product or service on an existing local market and variety identified factors need to be discussed and analysis as well. The aspects looked into were the theories that include preference and taste on customer and its effects need to be studied. This topic was only studied segmentation of age which is considered as the most effect. From age segmentation, target groups such as teenager and young adult was identified according to the age. Apart from that, this study was limited to analysis the objective of event sponsorship and celebrity endorsers on the study part of event factor. Finally, this topic has narrowed down the research to the Malaysian Airlines chosen from others local airline industries.

1.5 Conceptual Framework

Analysis model developed by Kotler et al. (2001), illustrates factors affecting customer buying behaviour. This analysis model was conducted in order to determine whether there is a relationship between the below of factors influencing a consumer attitude towards homogenous product and service, and thus it need to be discussed and analysis. Aside from that, this analysis model to be used also focus on identified marketing strategies to reach target markets.

Chapter two - Review of Related Literature

2.1 Consumer Preferences and Taste

A market of a billion people has different consumer with various choice of their products and thus an elasticity demand will be appeared in the market. Consumer differs from one to another one and arranging into age, gender, income, education level, and tastes. Moreover, it has relationship in between the unlimited resources surroundings and the consumer will be heavily make their choice changed always of the goods and services so that they will demand more and more (Kotler et al. 2005). Consumer not really understand why they would chosen the product and purchased it at the time and what actually control them to buy it and the reason why so because is always comes from their minds demanded. As a result, a number of factors have been identified and taken into considerations that are affected consumer's attitude towards product and service

2.1.1 Cultural Factor

An individual buying characteristic strongly affected by culture towards a particular brand. Culture makes shape on people making decision to purchase and to do their daily activities, and determines it. Yet each single people have his or her own of culture value to decide on something. Life style, beliefs, attititudes, also known as subcultures of people belonging to a particular culture and that is subculture (Kotler et al. 2005), such as geographical areas and human characteristics such as age and ethnic background.

2.1.2 Social Factor

Social factor like for instance reference groups, family, and role and status that also has influenced a consumer buying behaviour very much. Reference groups refer to an individual identified with a group using his or her group member value, attititudes or behaviour as the basic for his or her judgments, opinions, and actions, and to recognize behaviour. Any group has a positive or negative directly affecting on some people like as membership groups (credit card etc.) which can belong to. Some of people desires to belong to and involve into that group is called inspirational groups, like as a fan's admiration for an idol.

2.1.3 Personal Factor

These factors are age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle influence consumer' buying behaviour influences on a person or one family patterns. People always change their preference, taste, as well as their wants over and over their life cycle. Each job has required its own unique requirements or clothing like for instance an office lady has to wear formal uniform or business suite daily for their working time. However, lifestyle is a pattern of living as activities, interests, and the opinion of the people. An individual's buying behaviour differs from one another due to have different life style, taste, and preference in between of them likes as a man is oftenly to choose the casual clothes like as jean as compare to a business man who like to buy more business suites. Finally, economical factor also affects a product choice. It talks about a person's income, savings, or interest rate. If a worker has a low income and that's mean he or she has low demand to buy less.

2.1.4 Psychological Factor

It includes these factors affecting a person's buying choices. These factors are motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitude. A person has many needs at a given point in time and these need become the motive directs that person to buy a product they wants and seek their satisfaction. Anyway, how the person acts is influenced by his or her perception of situation may differ from one another due to perceive the situation differently. Some of people are liked to learn something and get its experience, knowledge and resources from the training or practical for example as they might train as an intelligent consumer to choose a good and cheaper product. And then from their learning and motivation, an individual needs belief and attitude towards their buying behaviour.

2.2 Target Market Selection

Firms nowadays are difficult to focus at all of consumer in the market since their wants are too unlimited and require more. Thus firms must select one segment, or more, as a target market, so marketers can identify the specific needs accordance to the identified target group as a result can develop marketing strategies to satisfy consumer needs. It is called as targeting market that are selecting a particular good or services valuable or attractiveness into the specified segments and pay attention on one or more segments. So, this research only narrows down to age segmentation of demographic and focus on teenagers, young adults and baby boomers, as well as to meet their need and want, and discusses how their attitudes towards product and service.

2.2.1 Age Segmentation

As a consumer age his or her needs and desires basically change and thus today firms use different collected survey data or marketing approaches to meet the wants of existing consumer on age differences. Example for one strategy is marketer offer the similar goods in different design to the targets such as toothpaste, designed for adult and children. Referred to Peter et al. (2005), marketers should analysis consumer-product relationship to segment market and researcher suggested that 3 steps of segmenting market as the following: first step is identifying product's concept and determining the type of consumer, second step is focusing targeted group and last step is considered as the secondary step and analyzing these difference, understanding relationship between consumer needs and homogenous product. Finally, this study was discussed about how today age-related gives impacts on existing market.

2.2.2 Age-Related Impacts

Teenage group such as student and their preferences tend to change and quickly switch to brand preference. Teenagers are considered as a sophisticated group and they had experience buying product and seeking brands as a result they can compare a valuable product from one another. Teenagers today are liked to spare more time after school and began having allowance from parents, and like to shopping. Thus marketers today are likely targeting on teenage consumer to meet needs and wants of teens in order to attract and satisfy teenagers, and by using advertising campaigns. Apart from that, marketers should target young-adults aged 18 to 34 as the market. In this group, people can be either is workers or fresh graduated student Young-adult had perspective of thinking like for instance people got jobs with self-incomes have positive goal of traveling and buying packages (Schiffman, L., 2000). Seeing as this young adult group mostly had own household and like to shopping together with family, marketers have to adapt its attractiveness products to this group young adult.

2.3 Brand

Brand is usually described as a unique name or trademark given to a product or service, or can be either is a term, symbol, design for a particular firm which is identified a good or service, or a firm to distinguish form its competitors. Consumers feel value and trust towards that brand if a firm's brand marketed well. Brand image is a symbolic structure created and has powerful motivates consumer to purchase products or services, and the image is given consumer the differential impression with its meaning about brand like for instance Malaysia Airlines, customer think about “Malaysian Hospitality”. Malaysian Airlines has best hospitality and always leaves good image to the public. These associations can either be developed over time through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme, from direct experience with the product etc.

2.3.1 Brand Equity

Brand equity refers to the value-added of a particular brand and brings to a particular good or service, and David Aaker (2005, p.173) defined brand equity as “a set of assets can liabilities to a brand's name and symbol that adds to or subtracts from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or a firm's customer”. Refers to The Sun, Dr. Admin Khan mentioned that Malaysia Airlines is going to offers more value added services and flight frequency to favorite destination such as Melbourne, dates from Oct 2009 to Sept 2010 to allow people traveling more. David Aaker (1991) has been identified four major categories of brand equity are: brand name awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality, and brand associations.

Brand Awareness

Brand awareness consists recognition of one particular brand which allows a potential consumer to recognize about a specific product or service's existence, and confirms that he or she has previously been exposed to it (Aaker, 2005), like for instance by Malaysia Airlines took over of the ad sites throughout The Daily Telegraph carrying out sustained awareness, as a result, consumers recognizes the airline brand in terms of its brand good-service images and names. Awareness of one particular brand can change a consumer's consumption and the involvement level for a specific product or service through a sense of familiarity (Aaker, 2005), and basically one consumer made the first consuming on a particular brand would be high involvement; once he or she is bought that brand frequently would be low involvement, and without thinking about the brands' risk factor.

Brand loyalty

Brand loyalty is fixed preference for one particular brand that results of a consumer generally loyals to a particular product or service and purchases repeatedly over time, as well as over competitor brands. Moreover, consumer has to continuous attitude towards a particular brand and repeatedly purchases the brand and without concerning any factor. If one particular brand had a greater advertising, builds strong and attaches a consistent value, it can retain loyal consumer who had experienced using his or her preferred brand and for a brand loyalist is less sensitive to price changes whether there is up or down, as well as can affect sales volume.

Perceived Quality

David Aaker (1991) refers perceived quality as a consumer's makes self opinions about a particular product or service's quality, or superiority for a variety buying reason, and oftenly affects consumer making the decisions. Consumers have all the information about a particular product or services before go after it and trying to understand it, and thus to use it as the guide for making a choices and judgment of quality for the product. Importantly, the feeling is based on perceptions of what is received, such as quality, self-feature and performance of a particular product. Furthermore, perceived quality often differs from the actual quality of a particular product, or a brand, and derives from consumer's previous experiences.

Brand Association

Brand association connects directly or indirectly consumers to a particular brand and thinking of the brand that is identified its product or service category likes for consumer perceives Malaysian Airlines as low fares and good service associated with. The associations are usually meant to something and built upon product attributes such as product characteristics or features are identified and differentiated (Armstrong et al. 2005), and consumer benefits that gains from a consumer's experience of a particular product or service that is already familiar with, as well as a consumer's thought about a particular brand, and always influencing consumer purchasing behaviour and build loyalty.

2.3.2 Brand Positioning

As identified target markets' needs, marketers must try to position its product or brand and form an image or identity in consumers' minds (Peter et al., 2005, cited in Maggard, 1976). Marketers can associate brand or a product with one or more attributes such as features and performance in order to obtain differential advantages. However, marketers can identify the attributes through advertising or packaging, and those attributes that is relative oftenly has changed a consumer's perceptions of each product from collecting information and questionnaire.

2.4 Advertisement

Marketers today widely use advertisements as marketing tools to communicate target consumers and inform them about the existing of products or services (Belch et al., 2009, p.18). Advertising describes, presents and brings products or services to consumers as well as brings them into the stores, and in order to attract consumers' attention to buy it. Apart from that, Don E. Schultz et al. emphasizes that advertising often affects consumers' attitudes or behaviors towards the advertised products or services. Besides that, advertising is also used to give consumers information about products and services as well as to remind them where to find out it. People today are liked to buy a particular product or service that familiar with and confidence in referred to Tellis (2004), due to gaining knowledge of, experience with or having loyalty to the advertised products or services. As a result, familiarity also can influence consumers' attitude or behavior buying products and services. On the other hand, people easy to get bored to the familiar brands, and thus messages on advertisement should meaningful, distinctive, and believable. Finally, the research focused on advertising approaches to target consumers and discussed message strategies used on advertising campaigns, and is there whether affecting consumer attitudes or behaviour towards the advertised product and services.

2.4.1 Social Aspect

Advertising is very powerful influencing consumers' attitude towards consumption on product and service, as well as bought a result on the societal values and lifestyle. Advertisers now try to bring a advertisement consistently with values and lifestyle to adapt with target consumers whose advertisers want to approach. Advertising O' Guinn, T. C. et al. (2006, p.113) considered a number of social factors that affected by the advertising on educating consumer's, standards of living, happiness and well being, and mass media. This research only focus on the first effect is educating consumers and second is improving living standards.

Educating Consumers

Sometimes advertising is one of effective reason transferring education objective or information to consumer without giving them confusion. By educating and transferring information, consumers not only approach to get knowledge about the products' features and they also can know the value and benefits of the product that have. Thus the advertising sometimes can educate consumer in the good way. Moreover, product and service advertised can convenient consumer not too spending the time on searching the goods or services, and the reason is some of advertisement contains sufficiency information of to the targets, about products' functional features and performance result.

Improving Living Standards

Advertising as usually shown on media often promote the valuable and lower cost of product and service, and thus consumer can save more money to buy them besides drive benefit from the product. Moreover, advertising gives a variety of choice to consumer like for instance Malaysian Airlines provide many lower fares package to flight over some destination to draw their targets' attention to purchase their goods. Consumer's needs change dramatically causes now advertisers need to promote more and newest product or service to adapt today consumers' taste. Not only that the competitors in existing market already become wide and advertisers also have to produce fresh and differ over the competitor.

2.4.2 Messages Structure

Each advertisement message contains information and meaning to convey what advertisers want to inform consumers as well as to sell products and services. A successful advertising should have a number of characteristics of messages. Every consumer wishes to obtain benefits from using a particular product or service, and thus design and presentation of a message must be meaningful and a reason for consumers to be interested on advertised product and services. Seeing as people often not remember messages that presented on advertisement, and thus a particular brand name and key selling points need to present in early as well as repeating it again at the end (Belch et al. 2009), because of each single people always tends to best remember final word or last made point (Ronald, 2002, p.136). Each single message given should be truth thus consumers would not give any doubt on products and services advertised, as well as to retain consumers repeatedly buying the product. Moreover, message should be designed to appeal can either be rational or emotional to underlie idea for influencing customers' perspective. Finally, an advertiser must consider not only the content of their persuasive messages but also how this information will be structures for presentation and what type of massage appeal will be used. The few points of designing a message as mentioned above are greatly given advantanges to consumer and build consumer positive consumption behaviour towards product and service.

2.5 Sponsorship

Masterman G. (2007) emphasized that, sponsorship is a special event, or describes as an integrated communications tool to support firm goals by enhancing image of the company and its product or shaping consumer attitudes, increasing awareness of brands, ‘pushing' promotion or driving sales for a sponsor, as a result of the way to reach target markets. Firm today often use sponsorship in resulting to drive sales for a sponsor, and to offer practical opportunities for selling therefore sales take place due to sponsorship (ibid). Moreover, in order to successfully reaching target, sponsoring an event is the most significance key to differentiate brands from competitors and for taking advantages over competitors.

Sponsorship activities are often used to support an event, program, or person, as well as used primarily for reaching business goals; building brand awareness, brand image, and corporate image and boosting them are the most common objective for a sponsorship referred to Gwinner et al. (1999). More specifically, advertisers often use sponsoring of a program as an effective strategic tool to communicate brand or corporate image to target market in resulted increasing brand awareness (Masterman G., 2007). Apart from that, advertisers are likely used sponsorship to expose a particular brand or product and service to potential and current target markets, and run commercial, so that consumer can greatly recognize them through a sponsorship, but the most important is to receive a great deal of favorable publicity. Yet sometimes if cost of sole sponsorship goes beyond expectation of advertisers and cannot afford cost of sponsorship, and thus advertisers can go through participations without financial responsibility.

2.5.1 Event Sponsorship

Event Sponsorship already becomes more increasingly popular to reach targeted markets and grows every year. Sponsorship brings the company or a brand and displays on the event in order to drive customer's attention and interest towards the brand. The important is what the effects affecting customer thoughts and perspective about the brand or company when they attend to a particular event via advertising. So the sub topic needs to discuss the external and internal factors of an event image affecting transfer of image in event sponsorship as well as attitudes of customer. The factors are type of event to be organize, event characteristics that should note down, individual factors for the event and the final factor is moderating variables of the sponsorship.

Type of Event

Every type of event must follow meanings of one particular brand and try to relate the brand with the event. Seeing as different of event also has various target customer and catch their attention to the event, and thus organizes have to ensure the event reaching their target also, due to the image and reputation of an event is very important. An event image can greatly affect attitude of customer towards the brands. Nowadays there have different types of common event as usually people knew such as sports, music and festival, fine arts and professional meeting or trade show related. Like for instance the football super fans club will always tend to the football match event such as English Premier League.

Event Representative

Every event have own characteristics according to the event type. The characteristics always differ from one event to another event. Organizer has to determine a number of particular characteristics to design one event and each characteristic also need to match with the brand and company. Target markets often follow their preference and taste to seek and go for an event. Characteristic like for instance event size, such as length of event and how far media exposure of the event will affect customer view and thought. They will think how big the event can fix how many people for example, and same to event venue where to be held.

A Number of Meanings and an Individual's History

The individual factors are talking about a number of meanings, its strength, and a person's history. A number of meanings for an event image will be more difficult to deliver to targets and not easily to associate with it as well. That factor also will bring a number of factors to the event accordance to how many meanings need to transfer. So if an event has one meanings need to be delivered is more effective to associate with it. Moreover, even if an individual had a bad or good history in the past, it also will bring a result to the event image and the customer's perception to the event

Event Frequently with Product Involvement

The product that sponsored by the event have the similar degree to sponsor event and relevant directly to the image of brand, so it will not cause any mismatch in between the event and the brand. There often has a number of sponsorship on an event but accordance to the level. If the event had a great deal of sponsorship, target audience might more recognize the event and the brand. Furthermore, an event frequently organize to the public can influence public awareness to the event as well as affecting brand image, and the product that involved in the event will affect also.

2.5.2 Celebrity Endorsement

Refer to Tellis (2004, p.180), a celebrity endorser is an individual who enjoy public awareness and serve as an advertising spokesperson using a brand constantly creating credibility. Advertisers today often use celebrities to draw attention of target audiences to their advertisement, as well as sponsoring an event. But a good deal of data suggests that physically attractive individual is more effective as a communicator; as well as is more confident of persuasive although they have less attractive counterpart. Moreover, they significantly have a positive impact and consumers' attitudes are more favorably influenced by their attractiveness.

Furthermore, celebrities are well known and have capacity to rejuvenate a stagnant brand that is not so famous and less acceptable to the market. Moreover, celebrities can make credibility of a brand to targets and thus targets will trust on that brand and using it as well. But the most problem is that a celebrity endorser will not have consistent of popularity even did some mistake or give a bad image in their performance. In other way round, even if the celebrities are mismatch with brand image or give the wrong message and it also will greatly give negative impact or publicity to targets' attitudes towards that brand (Shekhar Misra et al., 1990).

Chapter Three - Methods of Research

This chapter was discussed the used of method for the research, which has collected all the data that obtained from variety method and shown the way to study the topic, and analysis it. The method that are relevant are to investigate this chosen topic problem and its factor, as well as the reason for choosing the method that conducted in the field of study.

3.1 General Method

Descriptive Method

The main purpose for using this type of method is used to gather information that are significant and match to the existing and nature of a phenomena, as at the same time as the time of doing this study. Besides, this approach is a fact finding study adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. Before going to collect data, the studies needed to have clear opinion based on situation. Another part objective of using this method is to determine role of using questionnaire as well as to obtain first hand data from the respondents. This method also can identify similarities and differences of answer that are given by respondents. This research is kind of flexibility that can use either qualitative or quantitative data, or both approaches that are necessary to collect information that need.

Quantitative Method and Qualitative Method

This study was used quantitative method to identify the variables that were gathered and evaluate the relationship between the effect and variables. The quantitative approach is kind of explicit method that includes numerical data, statistic and measurement to collect and analysis data, and thus the collection of data is according to them. This method could try to evaluate the result from the situation that is difficult to explain and too complicated, and present a relationship statement in the end. Finally, any self bias can avoid when collecting and analyzing data as using this quantitative method. By the way, this method was used for the study. The reason of using it is the research setting not needs much to handle. The realistic feelings can generate from the researching not like as the quantitative method. It only focuses on knowledge about the situation that is occurred. Besides, it contains explanations that are clearer.

Primary Data and Secondary Data

The types of gathering data are primary data and secondary data was used for this study. Primary data was obtained from the answer that respondent done questionnaire given and by interview with those participants. This study was used secondary data to obtain validity of information that taken from published documents such as books, articles or journals, then collected all the useful data that are relevant to questionnaire.

3.2 Research Design

Survey Questionnaire and Participants

Normative survey was used to collect data. this is concerned with looking into the commonality of some elements. Since the present research is a status study, so the normative survey was the most appropriate method to use in gathering data. The instrument used to collect data was the personality questionnaire to determine their attitude towards competitive product and service. This instrument used is for explained advantage and disadvantage as well as its reliability. This was used because it gathered data quicker than any other method. Besides, the respondents were selected randomly a number of college student from Kolej Damansara Utama (KDU) to be participants and for coming out the sample. The participants selected must be student that considered as teenagers group. Selected participant and given them survey questionnaire for them to fill up. After they have filled up, they were interviewed by the researcher to find out their assessment of the questionnaire. Data gathered from survey from survey questionnaire were calculated along with descriptive. Questionnaire copied were then distributed personally to the respondents. The questionnaire was included two sections. First section was contained socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents such as age and gender and questions was listed into second section. After a few minutes, all the copies distributed were retrieved from them.

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