The Effect Of Work Motivation On Job Satisfaction Management Essay
This study attempts to develop the effect of work motivation on job satisfaction on two big mobile telecom organizations zong and ufone. The questionnaire was developed to measure the correlation of work motivation and job satisfaction. Total number of observations was sixty and the mean for JS and WK was 3.53 and 3.99 respectively. ANOVA result was 0.042 that was not a significant level for the model that was selected. It can be concluded that, there must be some other variables that are intervening in our model and making contribution at a significant level. Thus the model has not attained the favorable level of significant and could not be used for further research. As p-value was less then .05 so it can be said that the variables chosen for the study was not highly significant. Researcher also found that overall the employees were quiet satisfied with their jobs and have their interest in their job. More than average employees were motivated to work for the organization. Some of employees think that they are not on their actual path and often feel over worked.
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There are many studies on job satisfaction, and work motivation around the globe but there is scarcity of this work in the local environment. Many researchers are agreed on the influences that job satisfaction is dependent on the work motivation. In past papers, researchers defined each variable and to some extent about the relationship between, work motivation, and job satisfaction.
While putting a glance on the organizations around us, we can find that the main challenge for the companies is to enhance the employee performance by implementing different strategies. These strategies include compensation to employees, motivation, rewards and bonuses or team empowerment. Job satisfaction makes the employees more attentive and concerned for the organization. The private organizations also take necessary actions to improve the employee's performance with the passage of time therefore the human resource management departments in organizations play a vital role to drive the organization in a certain way. If an organization have a good HRM system, therefore it's possible to produce more loyalty, commitment, and motivation to spend additional effort for the organization's objectives (Pfeffer, J, 1994).
Considering all the points, job satisfaction will be achieved, when the employee will be motivated to do work, and there are certain factors which influence on work motivation such as efficiency, productivity, absenteeism, turnover rates, and intention to quit (Baron, 1986; Maghradi, 1999).
Motivation could be described as a driving force that makes people willingly want to put in their best in what they do. The concept of motivation is that there is no need to force or threaten people to work harder, as any such force or threat is likely to be ineffective in the long run. Rather, it is better that people should be motivated as it is believed that the driving force which results from motivation will compel people to put in their best out of willingness and not out of force or threat. Motivation is believed to lead to an increase in employees' work performance. That in turn leads to an increase in overall organizational productivity levels. Furthermore, motivation is said to improve employee job satisfaction.
Rationale for the study
The rationale for this study was the basic psychology of the human mind about job satisfaction that a person motivated to do a task or a job will be having more satisfaction from that task or work. Secondly, the query to solve that what makes an employee a satisfied employee in an organization. The more the satisfied employees, the higher would be the organizational performance.
Researchers have analyzed that there are many factors that can effect the job satisfaction of the employees; work motivation is one of the factors. Our study will cover the impact of motivation on the job satisfaction.
Objectives of research study
The main purpose of this study is to identify the relationship among the work motivation and job satisfaction.
The classification of objectives will be as under:
Determine the level of motivation of employees.
Determine the level of job satisfaction of employees.
Analyze the effect of work motivation on job satisfaction.
Significance of Study
The research is based on the human resource management practice that is motivation. It is a deliberated fact that in our country, very few researchers are working in this area, so we have chooses this area for our research that would be helpful for further research and exploration of new ideas in this field. It will also provide an insight into the fact that how job satisfaction can be enhances within the organizations. In developing countries like Pakistan, it is required to work on such areas that can be developed to increase the productivity of employees and thus of the organizations as well.
The study will be delimited to telecommunication service organizations in Islamabad.
Review of Literature
Job satisfaction has remained a remarkable area of discussion in the field of management, psychology and especially in organizational behavior and human resource management, for a long period. Many economists have paid attention and inclination towards this subject in recent years (Kosteas, 2009). According to Ramayah, Jantan, and Tadisina (2001), Job satisfaction explains how employees are buoyant to come to work and how they get enforced to perform their jobs. What are the things who make happy an employee on doing work and not to leave the job? Other researchers narrate job satisfaction as being the outcome of the worker's appraisal of extent to which the work environment fulfillment the individuals needs (Dawis & Lofquist 1984). According to Locke (1969), job satisfaction is a state of emotional gladness, results from the achievement of the goals that one get through performing his part of contribution inside an organization.
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Rao (2005) in his study discussed that satisfaction at the job for a person acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction of the job. It is the combination of psychological & environmental circumstances that affect the person for his satisfaction with the job (Khan 2006). Thus Aswathappa (2003) discussed about the determinants of job satisfaction as it said that the wage payment and monetary rewards are the two determinants. Different organizations employ different wage system and other rewards. The organizations pay wages and salaries along with incentives, perquisites, and non-monetary benefits.
Velnampy (2008), in his study on job attitude and employees performance concluded that job satisfaction contains positive influence on the performance of the employees as it enhances job involvement and the higher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed to the organization. The satisfaction and performance of the employee works in a cycle and are interdependent. Job satisfaction and involvement of the employee leads him to have high levels of performance.
Shahu & Gole (2008), in his empirical study of effect of Job satisfaction on Performance, they concluded that the job satisfaction factor is not been taken under consideration by the companies and companies need to develop plans so that their employees can show superior performance. Performance level lowers with lower level satisfaction scores. There should be some awareness programs, pertaining to the stress & satisfaction level in the industries. It will help organizations to understand the benefits of stress knowledge in relation to satisfaction and goal achievement in the industry.
Shah & Shah (2008), in his study of "job satisfaction and fatigue variables" found the negative relationship between the fatigue and satisfaction from the job. The fatigue has found as negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study clearly indicates the different issues for Call Centre employees in the context of Indian economy in which the researcher said that there are various factors leading to dissatisfaction that are "on the job" and "off the job". It's also been discussed in the study that if fatigue get minimized, job satisfaction can be improved by various innovative and encouraging strategies.
Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behavior and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs.
Intrinsic motivation, however, can be defined as the motivation to perform an activity for it, in order to experience the pleasure and satisfaction inherent in the activity (Deci, Connell, & Ryan, 1989). According to cognitive evaluation theory and self-determination theory (GagneÂ´ & Deci, 2005), rewards that are interpreted as information about one's competence and satisfy individuals' need for autonomy, will enhance intrinsic motivation.
Simon (1997, p.276) argued in his research work, why does the motivation required? The fundamental challenge of all companies is to encourage their employees to work for the organizational goals, whereas Pfeffer (1998) has argued in his research that in the long run, the success can be achieved by those companies that use to manage their employees; creating significant work and having satisfied employees, taking both side by side is the way to organizational effectiveness.
Frey (1997) showed that extrinsic rewards, like monetary benefits may interact negatively with the intrinsic work motivation. It has just seen that there is crucially dependence of intrinsic motivation on the extrinsic incentives.
Wright and Pandey (2005) described in their work that emotional attachment and loyalty is one of the most important factors of employee motivation that binds the employee to stick to the organization, many other benefits associated with the organization are also part of motivation.
Allen & Meyer (1990) have tried to answer the question that is; how an organization can analyze that whether it is keeping its employees happy, motivated and loyal to the organization? There is no pet answer as the work motivation is a counter effect of many factors linked to employees; how they interact with organization and what views they have about the organization. Work motivation can be evaluated by the degree of feeling attachment, obligations, and rewards in working in organization.
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Horwitz et al (2003) predicted that employees get high motivation through challenging work environment and support of the top management. If the employees are competitive and want to do work with full efficiency as it will utilize all their capabilities, then challenging work is the best motivator. Many of the employees like to make relationships and thus need to contact more and more to the higher authorities, so making more regular contacts make them feel that they are been observed and work with more motivation.
Locke and Latham (2004, p.388) defined the work motivation as outcome of both internal and external factors that force the employee to work more excitedly.
Bacon et al (1996), Deshpande and Golhar (1994), and Julien (1998) have stressed upon the fact that employees have the key position in maintaining a competitive edge over the competitive market by a business.
Relation between Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction
Gupta & Joshi (2008) discussed about the relationship between the Job satisfaction and motivation for the employees. Productivity in the work of an employee is outcome of satisfaction and productivity can be taken as indicator of satisfaction. Employees have to spend most of their time at workplace and need satisfaction at that place.
Herzberg et al.'s (1959) has described a relationship between two variables as Job Satisfaction is the result of two kinds of factors, intrinsic and extrinsic factor; intrinsic factors appraised the job satisfaction and extrinsic factors cause dissatisfaction and reduce the level of job satisfaction. The extrinsic factors were also called as hygiene factors. According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors results in the form of dissatisfaction and these were external or environmental features e.g. company policy and administration, supervision, work conditions, salary and benefits. The intrinsic factors are also called satisfiers and motivators, included creative or challenging work, responsibility and advancement opportunities.
Kovach (1987) also tried to identify the relationship; the need to provide the basic necessities of life motivates most people which in return make the employees satisfied from their jobs. Whereas Brown (1996) examines that when an organization is having some satisfied or delighted employees, it is likely to have satisfied or delighted customers. Brown said the employee satisfied and delightedness as a prerequisite of customer satisfaction. Thus Wagar (1998) explained that in the global market, one can be successful when it has highly motivated, skilled, and satisfied workforce that can produce quality goods at low costs.
This study was conducted to test the following hypothesis:
H1: Employee Work Motivation has direct positive effect on Job Satisfaction
Keeping in mind what researchers have discussed in their work with relation to the effect of work motivation on job satisfaction of employee, this paper is been designed and the research is been conducted to have a clear view of the relationship. In this paper, job satisfaction is been analyzed through the change in work motivation. A questionnaire was designed to collect the required data for motivation and satisfaction. Data will be analysed using descriptive statistics including mean, median and standard deviation. Regression Analysis will be carried out to study the effect of work motivation on job satisfaction of employees.
The population of the study will be mobile telecom organizations and their employees in Islamabad. There are five mobile telecom companies that are providing services of telecommunication to their customers.
Sample and Response Rate
The sample for this study was drawn from two organizations in the telecom sector. The sample will include 30 employees; thirty questionnaires will be distributed in both the organizations.
Description of the Instrumentation
Questionnaire - to find the response of employees regarding Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction
Work Motivation - the Independent Variable
Job Satisfaction - the Dependent Variable
Case - Employees
A modified questionnaire tagged Work Motivation, and Job Satisfaction Scale (WMJSS) was used for the collection of data on the study. The questionnaire was specifically designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The first section collected information such as age, sex, qualification and, professional status. The second section contained the items, and was divided into two parts.
Part1. This measures job satisfaction, which included 7 questions. The item was adopted from Job satisfaction, Cook et al. (1981).
Part2. This measures work motivation, which included 8 questions. The item was adopted from http://jinnahprojects.com, time: 3.26am and date: 19th dec, 2009.
Both parts using a Likert scale ranging from Strongly Agree= SA; Agree = A; Somewhat agree = SWD; Somewhat Disagree = SWD; and Strongly Disagree = SD.
We have distributed our questionnaire to five employees of Zong and get the response from them. We have modified the questionnaire accordingly and consulted other people for assistance.
After getting feedback and the amendments in the questionnaire, we consulted a senior teacher and got his satisfactory remarks about that. Thus the questionnaire is valid and reliable.
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Convenient sampling was used to get data and two departments in Zong and two departments of Ufone were visited. In Zong, IT department and customer relationship department were been under observation and in Ufone, marketing and customer relation department. Sample of thirty was been distributed and got feedback from both the organization. Also verbal conversations were made to have conformity of the data collected. All the data collected is been edited by the researchers. There was very high response rate as it was a convenient sampling and getting feedback was quiet different from other sampling methods.
The following statistical tools were implemented to get the findings:
SPSS Inc 17.0
The following measures have been used to identify the relationship:
Means and Standard Deviations will be calculated, that will provide us a broader view of the data, how much people are satisfied and up to what extend the psychology of employees differ in a work environment. Regression Analysis will be carried out to determine the effect of independent variables on dependent variables.
The frequency table of job satisfaction and work motivation is showing the scattered data in a group form.
The total number of observations was sixty we have, and the mean for job satisfaction and work motivation are 3.53 and 3.99 respectively.
The standard deviations are showing the diversity of data which is indicating that there is a variety of opinions between the employees.
Analysis of variance shows that how much the model is valid and what is the significance of the model. In this research work, significance level is 0.042 that is not a significant level for the model that was selected. It can be concluded that there must be some other variables that are intervening in our model and making contribution at a significant level. Thus the model has not attained the favorable level of significant and could not be used for further research.
Sum of Squares
The regression data for the beta and the R square are given below;
Summary Data for Regression
The p-value shows the significance of variable. As p-value is less then .05 so it can be said that the variables chosen for the study are not highly significant. These results are outcome of the wrong model selected. This study has made us know that there should be a check for the variables that one use in a model. The value of R square is too low that can be used for the relationship analysis of the variables. The value of beta is showing the positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables but not a strong relationship. If there is some relation, that would be positive direct relation.
The table shows the correlation between job satisfaction and work motivation
Overall the employees are quiet satisfied with their jobs and have their interest in their job.
More than average employees are motivated to work for the organization.
Some of employees think that they are not on their actual path.
Many employees think that the organization hasn't fulfilled their promises, what they do in beginning especially regarding Promotion.
There is positive relationship between the motivation and job satisfaction.
Employees often feel overworked.
Conclusions and Discussion
To increase the job satisfaction level of the employees the company should concentrate mainly on the incentive and reward structure rather than the motivational session.
Ideal employees should concentrate on their job.
Educational qualification can be the factor of not an effective job.
Company should give promotion to those employees who deserve it.
For the researchers who want to do research on such variables, must see the validity of the model and intervening variables that may affect the relationship strongly.
Limitations of Study
However data is collected with full level of our efforts, yet there remain some flaws in our study. While doing research, many problems are there to be faced by the researcher. The prime difficulties which are been faced in collection of data in this study are discussed below:
Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored.
Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not possible to conduct survey at large level.
Small no. of respondents: Only sixty employees have been chosen that was a small number, to represent whole of the population.
Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many consumers were unwilling to fill the questionnaire due to lack of time. Respondents were having a feeling of wastage of time for them.
Small area for research: The area for study was limited to specific organizations that are quite a small area to judge job satisfaction level.
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