STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES
Pakistan was founded in 1947 and Pakistan International Airline was formed in 1955.
Flag carrier airline of Pakistan is PIA and its all operations based in Karachi and also it's the Sixteenth largest airline in Asia.
PIA operating schedule services to 73 destinations through the Middle East. Asia Europe and North America as well as domestic network towards 24 destinations. Main bases are in PIA Jinna International Airport Karachi and the Allama Iabal International Airport Lahore and the Islamabad Int'l Airport.
PIA also has secondary bases including Peshawar International Airport, Faisalabad Quetta International Airport and Multan International Airport which its connects the metropolitan cities with the main base, Far east and the Middle East.
PIA is owned by the Government of Pakistan through Ministry of Defence holds (81.01%) of the shares and thought BESOS(Benazir Employees Stock Option Scheme) transferred 12% of its share holding to employees. Individuals and other 7.83 % and other financial institutions 1.2% hold PIA has 17,944 employees (in 2009).
Company Name :Pakistan International Airline
Nature of Business :Airline Service
Net Premium :Year 2008 $1,049
Share Price :$ 0.04 while closing for 2009 was $0.03
Total Loss/Profit :Year 2009 69,150
as at 31st of December 2009
PIA currently has a number of 43 fleets and aims at increasing this numbers to 53 by the next few years.PIA is adoptive to changes and believe in innovation that's create new ideas
and translating these ideas into action
The Pakistan International Airline fleet includes the following aircraft:
(Annual Report 2010):Page
Pakistan International Airlines Fleet
Economy Plus only on domestic routes
Company in a Glance
PIA has a vision to be a world class airline, meeting customer expectations through dedicated employees excellent service, on time performance and customer safety.
Its driven by the highest standards of corporate governance and social responsibility.
In addition, as a public sector organization and a business leader, PIA believes in building strong relationships with customers, partners, employees, and the communities in which it operates.
Mission Statement Analysis
PIA mission statement is as follows:
Offering quality customer services and innovative products
Using state-of -the art technologies
Ensuring cost effective measures in procurement and operations
Developing safety culture
PIA CORE VALUES:
Mission statement analysis:
(sources: PIA Annual Report 2009)
Pakistan International Airline has 36 major operational airports in Pakistan and Karachi is the main airport both operating domestic and international cargo also operations at Islamabad and Lahore.
Approximately 70% of domestic passengers and domestic freight traffic handing PIA as the public sector airline and through facing small percentage competition from a few private airlines.
As a transportation sector PIA accounts about 10.5% of the country GDP and GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation )27.4% in last past years and providing over 6%of employment in the Pakistan's work force.
" SKYTRAX introduced the World Airline Star RatingÂ® programme in 2000 - the Quality Analysis system that ranks airline product and service standards, based on professional evaluation by airline audit specialists.
To achieve SKYTRAX Approved Airlineâ„¢Â status, airlines are subjected to a very detailed Quality evaluation across all areas of their front-line Product and Service standards by Skytrax - covering all areas that passengers will "typically" experience during their trip.
SKYTRAX Approved Airline evaluation covers over 750 aspects of product and service quality measurement, and is split across both airport and onboard environments - airport services based around an airline's home base airport. "
QUALITY RANKING USED IN AIRLINE RATING SUMMARY BELOW
Â =Â Excellent
Â =Â Good
Â = Fair
Â =Â Poor
Â = Very poor
03 STAR AIRLINE
::Â PIA PAKISTAN INTERNATIONALÂ ::
Swot is often used as part of a strategic of Pakistan international airline business planning process useful in understanding situation and decision making for all sorts of situations:
Leading Air carrier - it's the leading air line in Pakistan and more than 150,000 passengers and 800 daily flights around a month fling in PIA.
Domestic Market share advantage - Government of Pakistan through Ministry of Defence holds (81.01%) of the shares
Reliable service as well as low fares including
Convenient and frequent flights international destinations ex; London
Brand advantage - Pakistan national flagship airline 'We stand for national values'
PIA pioneer in airline industry in Pakistan since in 1965
Border target market :Strong operations Part of South America and Asia.
Debt amount and loss in similar basis
comprehensive aviation policy and inefficient administrative issues
Staff crew unprofessional and not trained.
Inefficient use of resources (Human and Technological)
Free travelling facilities offering to government officers
Overstaff 17,944 employees (in 2009).
Non Pakistani travelers has made very poor order and law situation an unfavorable destinations: PIA Network Domestic 24 destinations : International 36+2 Destinations - Annual Report 2009 :Page 27
High fares when compared with competitors and these situvation have adversely affected the international business.
Lowered oil prices fuel price volatility,
Have maximum route and destinations compared with its competitors.PIA Network Domestic 24 destinations: International 36+2 Destinations - Annual Report 2009 :Page 27
Demand for low air travel cost fares and customer confidence
When passengers selecting a flight that price of tickets is number one criterion available of nonstop services :Report International Aviation Authority
Industry recovery for airlines market analysts reports says Next few years other
globle airlines industry making experience with upturn facilities.
Human Resources policy positive level :Cooperation allowed salary increases to all employees
High interest rate and Pakistan inflation rate become a another short term raise
5 major accidents had been involving PIA's planes
strong competition by Air Buses
Accidents can adversely affect customer confidence in PIA and result in declined revenues intensifying competition.
e. The ratio of issuing visas for Pakistanis by the first world had also decreased alarmingly
f. Government may capitalize this sector; in this case their biggest advantage of holding monopoly would end.
PESTLE analysis examines each factor to assess what their impact or potential impact on PIA can prepare strategically for any changes:
a. Pakistan has achieved some political stability in recent years. If the management of PIA believes that the present government will perform well then there will be more investment in the form of purchase of new airplanes and latest technology's. Change in government for Pakistan indicated change of business owners and its effect on PIAC.
b. Political factors : Afghanistan has an adverse effect for the international airline industry.
c. Also, poor law and order situation has made Pakistan an unfavourable destination for non-Pakistani traveller and it s effects to government's policy to continue support in has increased insecurity level in Pakistan which means fewer visitors come pakistan and hence its less revenue for PIAC, as its main reliance is on customer revenue.
D . Pakistan defence ministry announced PIA allowing small route planes to travel within cities, this can decrease the customer reach for PIAC. In 2009, passenger and cargo yields plummeted by 12% and 16% respectively. During 2009, passenger traffic shrunk by 3. 4% globally. Industry Revenue Passenger Kilometers (RPKs) and Revenue Freight Tonne Kilometers (RFTKs) growths have been negative at -3. 5% and -10. 1% respectively.
a. Economic factors has struck indicated on two countries : UK and America, as most of the economy of countries and Spain and Switzerland are highly dependent on UK and America's economy and indirect they are also badly affected. Moreover, the ratio of issuing visas for Pakistanis by the first world had also decreased alarmingly due to security concernsNow considering the fact that 58% of flights by PIAC are for America, UK and Europe. Means sudden loss in customer base. Hence decreasing revenues.
b. Pakistan's capital income has decreased and is expected to decrease the overall loss increased due to inflationary pressures, exchange losses and persistent financial charges.even more in coming years can be decreasing consumer's buying power.
c. Bank Interest rate in Pakistan is very high and its hard for investors to invest in PIAC.
d. Declining trend can be primarily attributed to a sharp rise in the current liabilities of the company over the yearshence decreasing the involvement of capital from stocks.
e. Inflation rate decreased from record high 25.3% average in 2008 to 8.87% 2009 and expected inflation for year 2010 is 11% as revised .Overall, the number of passengers increased to 2. 85 million as compared to 2. 63 million. However charter revenue could not keep pace, as there has been a decline in the UN troop movement. Despite improvement in fundamental numbers, like seat factor (76. 18%),
As a results of this Pakistan airline have both good and bad effects, firstly bad part is local travelers would decrease and may go to cheaper travelling with Air Blue and secondly good part is this will increase the customer travelling to international destinations.
f. Last quarter of 2009 showed a consistent signs of improvement in the air freight business. Volumes and yields are now moving in the right direction - upwards - although there is still a long way to go before early 2008 levels are regained. Several years of growth have been lost in this extra ordinary downturn. Moreover, revival in the economic growth is very uneven - with a strong rebound in Asia and parts of South America but weak growth in developed markets - and is expected to remain that way for some time. that is very low as compared to other countries, hence decreasing good financers coming to Pakistan.
g. World trade is now picking up adding to the impetus given to air freight by the inventory cycle and mode switching. Yields are starting to turn up, as load factors recover, but low aircraft utilization and scheduled delivers imply that capacity remains a threat to restoring profitability.
a. Customers are more aware of market conditions and available options and want to get best value for their money. Service satisfaction of customers is core competitive advantage.
b. Pakistan people are immigrating to develop countries PIAC being among three arriers and being monopoly in international destination its benefit from this
c. The social environment of Pakistan is turning liberal with the new regime. The itiative to automate check-in and ticket booking process might not be very popular with the general public (even educated population) is still technology averse.
f. The level of checking for PIAC customers on international airports, it is fairly visible that travelling on PIAC means an hour wasted in extensive verifications and people are ore and more connected as compared to yesterday hence this type of news for educated people means bad for the business.
a. Pakistan is considering reviving Railways, introducing more modern tracks for Pakistan destination and as a results of this profit taker of PIAC the cargo service will face a threat.
b. Air blue Line is introduced 6 new air busses for new international destinations this will become a serious competition to PIAC.
c . PIAC currently has planes from Boeing, which is considered as a fuel guzzler when compared with air bus used by air blue.
e. Internet plays a key role in e-ticketing as consumer can easily reserve tickets and check the status of the flight.
f.Introduction of new satellite and cheapest global communication calling may lead to lower number of people returning to homeland to meet their relatives.
a. Volcano in Iceland has PIA customers has made PIA flights to be delayed, some new technological engine is required to make it able to go through that type of environments
b. UK is the more income market of PIAC, and environment in UK for last few years bad effected to aitr line industries also last winter UK forecast their lowest degree in 25 years. In addition, other Europe union countries which observed less temperature recorded in last few years
Porter's five forces analysis
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Due to following reasons bargaining power of suppliers is high in PIA:
In Pakistan, there are some competitor in air line industry : ex :Public air travel, Boeing and Airbus.
Oil companies giving fuel on credit basis to PIA
Ministry of defence handling ground rules and operation procedure dependent on Airport and Aviation rules and regulations.
Bargaining Power of customers
Due to following reasons bargaining power of suppliers is low in PIA:
Air line monopoly
Low competition ex :Air Bus
Pakistanis by the first world had also decreased alarmingly due to security concerns
Threat of Substitute Products
The threat of substitute products is compare with other traveling facilities because passengers are not used to travel by sea and other substitute
Threat of New Entrants
Threat of new entrant is low: Reasons as follows:
All international destinations covered by PIA :Monopoly
Pakistan bargaining market is very limited
Technology and development is a major driver of airline industry and specially innovation and the reservation in the booking system. Internet reservation key system role in e- ticketing as customer can easily reserve tickets and check the status of the flight.PIA was the first airline in the Pakistan to introduce and installed e ticketing followed by the market leader.
Human Resource Management
This organization is divided into following departments: Human Resource and Administration, Marketing, Corporate Planning, Information Services, Finance, Flight Services, Flight Operation, Engineering, Procurement and Logistics, Customer Services, Training and Development, Quality Assurance. The organ gram of the organization follows, with the Chairman at the top and directors of departments reporting to him.
The structure is centralized with the top-level management making the decisions.
PIA : Financial statement analysis is as a judgmental process and one of the primary objectives is identification of major changes in trends, and relationships and the investigation of the reasons underlying changes.
Consolidated Balance Sheet
31 Dec 2008
31 Dec 2009
Total Current Assets
Creditors: Amounts falling due within one year
PIA is our business of choice and the information work out its current ratio as follows:
Consolidated Balance Sheet
31 Dec 2008
31 Dec 2009
Total Current Assets
creditors: Amounts falling due within one year
In the brief review of accounts section with PIAs financial statements,
The table to fill in:
31 DEC 2008
Current Assets: Current Liabilities
31 DEC 2009
Current Assets: Current Liabilities
The same with the year before:
Acid Test or Quick Ratio
A measurement of the liquidity position of the PIA ratio compares the cash plus cash equivalents and accounts receivable to the current liabilities. The primary difference between the current ratio and the quick ratio is the quick ratio does not include inventory and prepaid expenses in the calculation.
Finally ,the cash ratio is the most conservative liquidity ratio and its excluded all assets except the most liquid cash and cash equivalents.
Cash ratio : 2008 2009
Return on Capital Employed Ratio
The Return on Capital Employed ratio (ROCE) tells us how much profit PIA earn from the investments the shareholders have made in their company.
Calculations :The ROCE for the PIA the figures we need:
31 DEC 2008
31 DEC 2009
Profit for the financial period
Equity shareholders' funds
Return of Equality : 2008 :76.83% 2009:11.87%
The gross profit margin ratio Indicate profit of PIA makes on its cost of sales or service.
Gross profit is the profit earn before in PIA take off any administration costs, selling costs and much higher gross profit margin than net profit margin.
PIA Gross profit ratios as follows:
Gross profit :2008 :$ 45468
2009 :$ 189244
Gross Profit Margin : 2008 : 4.08% 2009:16.85%
2009 158061/1123085 =0.1407
2009 69150/1900396=0.0362008 2008
Net profit margins from the PIA
Year 2008 :-40.22
Year 2009 :-6.16
In principle, the lower the investment in stocks apart from PIA stocks businesses sometimes need in case of shortages of supply and strategic stocks in case of war, sudden changes in demand and so on, modern stock control theory minimise its investment in stocks.
PIA behaves in this respect.
Consolidated Profit and Loss Account
31 Dec 2008
31 Dec 2009 DMarch 2000
Cost of sales
Stock Turnover Ratio for the Company A
31 Dec 2008
830,126 / 365
31 Dec 2009
505,738 / 365
Fixed Asset Turnover
Change 2008 - 2009
Total Fixed Assets
Debtors due within one year
Debtors to total year 2008 :304.79 days Ratio 1:23
Debtors to total year 2009 :322.67 days Ratio 1:13
Debt to Equality ratio :2008 -0.351
Debt to Equality ratio :2009 -0.368
PIA - Pattern of shareholders as at 2009:
A Class share of Rs: 10/= each: 2,327,285,584
B Class share of Rs: 05/= each: 1,499,999
PIA - FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
As far as the profitability of the PIA is concerned, PIA has been facing a serious crisis, reporting financial losses for the past 2008 and 2009 :Total loss 2009 $ 69,150 and 2008 $ 458,031: the total revenue is 2009 $ 1,123.085 and 2008 $1,126,277 representing a 6% increase and cost of services amounted to 2009 $ 933,841 and 2008 $ 1,080,809 a decrease of 8%. Gross profit grew by 338%(2008 $ 45468 - 2009 $189,244)'
PIA Total Revenue :2008/2009
The gross profit Margin has increased from 2008 4.08% to 2009 16.85% in the current year due to growth of 338% in the Gross Profit. The total return on assets have grown from negative 2.58% in the 2009 3.6% showing an increase 86%
As for the liquidity of PIA , the corporation has faced a declining trend past years and the current year 2009 it has indicated little growth. The declining trend can be rise in the current liabilities of the company over the years. Basically, current liabilities have increased in the form of greater short term and long term borrowings(Ratio 2008 0.21 - 2009 0.25)Three number of Boeing 777 and three ATR aircrafts facilitated to purchased of long term basis.
The total turn over of the company has been rising over the years, 2008 an 2009 if we measure PIA performance by the abnormal impact of fuel price increases. Liability against assets basically to finance lease to purchase of three aircrafts and three ATR aircrafts Year 2009 the debt to assets ratio has decreased to 1.13 from 1.23 in 2008.
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