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Organisational studies The effective of Team work and problems faced

1- Introduction

Groups and teams form a key part of life in work organization, coordination and cooperation are the most activities taking place within organizations which is only achieved by people working together. We always work as groups in our families, communities and educational systems, neighborhoods. There is no suspicion that the success of organization depends on the performance of its groups and teams. And by mobilizing groups and team the organization can meet its competitive demand in the challenging environment

In the last years competitive environment have lead to the managers to concern and ensure more on the groups and teams performance very well. By implementation teamwork in the organization its lead to reduce the costs and to increase the profits which are the key in any competitive market in today’s economic climate.

Managing groups is the most important aspect because most of the organization work done within group so to manage this group it’s requires Planning- Organizing- Leading- Controlling (P-O-L-C) functions.

This paper illustrate understanding the meaning of teamwork and groups and identifying the varied types of team and the three level of structure which are influencing teams and its importance in the organization behavior, understanding of tools and techniques that increasing the effectiveness of teamwork in organization.

Extend analysis of group and team working. And critically important to understand how groups and teams contribute to organization effectiveness. While their effect is potentially positive.

2- Teams in Organization

At the beginning of 1990s the use of teams within organization has been raised dramatic, such as the Miller Brewing Company increasing productivity 30% by using teams comparing with traditional organization.

And also many organization they obtained benefits by using teams, Instruments in Malaysia to reduce defects from 100 parts per million to 20 parts per million. Furthermore, Westinghouse reduced its cycle time from 12 weeks to 2 weeks, and Harris Electronics was able to achieve an 18% reduction in costs.( [1] )

Many companies switch to use teams and they did good job like Square D, they changed to self-directed teams and found that overtime on machines, than the production increased because the setup operators were able to control the work in much more effective ways than a manager could say.( [2] )

2.1. Definitions of Effective Teams

One of the most popular definitions by Schein defines a group in psychological terms “as any number of people who interact with one another; are psychologically aware of one another; and perceive themselves to be a group “( [3] ) Handy confirms this more simple-mind “as any collection of people who perceive themselves as a group “( [4] ) however both of this two definition doesn’t summarize why people work as a group, maybe this definition is better “a group is a collection of two or more people who interact with one another regularly to achieve common goals. In the a group within this definition, members

Are mutually dependent on one another to achieve common goals and

Interact regularly with one another to pursue those goals over a sustained period of time.” ( [5] )

Effective group is a group achieves high level of task performance and human resource performance in the standers sense of quantity, quality and timeline of work tasks. And a group whose members believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs. ( [6] )

2.2. Types of groups (Formal and Informal groups)

In organization, the groups can classify by two basic types Formal and Informal Groups.

Formal Group:

It’s an official group of people who designed to serve specific organizational purpose, and it’s contain of managers, subordinates, or both close relations among group members that influence the behavior of individuals in the group.

The head of the formal group is responsible for the group’s performance, but all members contribute the required work. Managers are typically seen as playing a key linchpin role that ties group horizontally and vertically with the rest of the organization.( [7] )

Informal group:

Informal groups are groups that appear unofficially and are not formally designed as parts of the organization, and contain of two or more individuals who are related with one another in ways not prescribed by the formal organization. And they occur through spontaneous personal relationships and specific interest. Not by organization support.

Friendship group contains of a group of people which they have a good relation with natural affinities to each other. And they prefer to do work together and even smoking, eating lunch and also socialize together.

3- Stages of Group Development

There is a robust model in 1965 which is still widely used today presented by American organizational psychologist Bruce Tuckman. He proposed a four stages map of group evaluation known as Forming- Storming- Norming- Performing Model.( [8] ) and then he enhance his model by adding the fifth stage called Adjourning.

Figure 1.1. Stages of a Group Development Model

Forming Stage

In the forming stage the group members maybe know each other for the first time or maybe there some members know each other, and the group come to gather for the first time so initial of this stage the group member start thinking about the future and the next stage, and member ask some question as he begin to identify with other group members and with the group itself, because the high level of uncertainty, and the member tend to act more polite and avoid conflict and observant.

Storming Stage

In the storming stage of group development is a period when the member feel save and feel included in the group, then the storming stage start becoming more genuine and more confrontational. In this stage conflict arise, hostility and infighting it may happen.

And some members feel the tasks are unfair some harder and easier, and now the leader should identify the problems and work out for the solutions and looking to satisfied everyone’s goals.

But in this stage the members become more authentic as they state their deeper thoughts and feelings, and start to understand interpersonal styles and effort made by each member to find the method to achieve group goals and in the same way satisfied group’s needs.

Norming Stage

The norming stage at group development, at this stage the group start to come together as a group, and the group members feel more committed to the each other and for the group goals and tasks, and they start to establish their own norms and rules and their goals and operating procedures. Hopefully in this stage the team starts to come together and members tends to be more open, helpful, and respect to each other and they may to share their personal information.

At this point need to be carefully managed and the leader should become more of a facilitator by letting the group presume more responsibility for its goals and tasks.

Performing stage

The performing stage at group development, in this stage the team members should be more mature and willing to solve any complex tasks. In this stage group develop, well functional group, organized, mutual assistant, creativity, understanding goals and roles, and independence, primary challenges should contain to improve relationships and performance. Now the group members are motivated and generally satisfied.

Adjourning stage

It’s an important stage for temporary groups, and it’s an well integration group which able to disband when its work finished and willing to work together in the future.

And in this stage the group closure, symbolism, and they do some ceremonies, and emotional support.

Figure 1.2. Stages of a Group Development Model

Forming

Adjourning

Storming

Norming

Performing

Uncertainty about groups, structure and leadership

Conflict & confrontation among group members

Members settle into “Team”

Fully functional and accepted

End of team {in case of task}

4- Nature of the group Task

There are many tasks that the group asks to perform it but also demand different things on them. The social demands contain relationships; members identify how to achieve the task and agreement. When the group faces a complex and technical task it will require a lot of information processing and solution. And the more the task complex the harder the group to perform more effective. ( [9] )

However if the group want to achieve goals they have to distribute their efforts broadly and actively, by this the group members will be highly satisfied with each other and accomplishments.

5- Membership characteristics

The characteristics of group members it’s an important inputs which may affect the way the group operates and achievements.

The group must have high skills and competencies to solve and perform the problem and talents alone cannot assure good results.

In Homogeneous groups, are groups whose members have similar backgrounds, interests, values, and attitude etc…. but they still facing the limitation of their collective skills.

In Heterogeneous groups, are groups whose members have diverse age, gender, experience, backgrounds, etc… and there is a wide range of talent and viewpoints for solving problem. But because of this diversity the group members will face difficulties in the short run or early stages of group development by defining problem, share information and deal with interpersonal conflicts .however, research confirms that diversity can be turned into enhanced performance potential. ( [10] )

The Diversity consensus dilemma refers to a tendency for diversity in group membership to make it harder for people to work together even though diversity itself expands a group problem solving capacity.( [11] )

6- Group Size

Group size can also have an influence the on group effectiveness. By having large group members which will help increasing the performance and satisfaction by dividing up the work and accomplish tasks. Anyway, when the group continues growing in size a lots of problems will occur, communication and coordination problems set in, turnover, absenteeism and dissatisfaction. Even logistical matters, like to find a place to meet and also time, the large group will hurt the performance.( [12] ) the most effective number of members of group is between five to seven members, the group with less than five it's might be so small to share the sufficient responsible. And with group members more than seven it might be hard to participate and offer ideas. And in big group it might be some members tend to act aggressive and to split into coalitions or subgroups.( [13] ) groups with odd number it might be more effective and efficient because speed of decision and using majority to resolve disagreements. But when careful discussions are necessary and the emphasis is more on agreement.

7- The Effective management and leadership systems

According to the Dr.Rensis Likert which’s did lots of research on human behavior within organization, especially in Industry sector, by establish a effective climate and a system of management that the key of good leadership and he confirmed that to reach the maximum profitability, high productivity and good relationships between the labors the organization have got to make the most advantageous use of their human assets.

After he did a research for many years he identified four systems of management:

System 1- Exploitive Authoritative

System 2- Benevolent Authoritative

System 3- Consultative

System 4- Participative

Exploitive Authoritative

In this system the responsible are the high levels of managements and the lower have almost nothing, and the decisions are on subordinates and the communication is very a little and no teamwork.

Benevolent Authoritative

Leadership is by a condescending form of master-servant trust, Where motivation is primarily rewards, and just the managerial level feels responsible and lower levels do not, and also there is a small communication and teamwork,

Consultative

leadership is by superiors who have substantial but not complete trust of their subordinates ,where a big amount of workers, especially those at high levels take responsible to accomplishing a organization goals, and some vertical and horizontal communication and a some of teamwork.

Participative

In this system where Likert found that it is the optimum solution, where the leadership is by superiors which they have full confidence in their subordinates and there are a economics rewards based on achieving the specific goals and high level on communication and significant amount of cooperative teamwork.

8- Characteristics of participative management system

Groups work high effectively and linked together by other similar effective groups.

High level of confidence between superiors and subordinates by depending and using on them.

Superiors always attempt to tap ideas on subordinates and use them to achieve it.

Workers feel responsible for organizations goals.

High level of communications between groups and individuals to achieve organizations goals.

The subordinates feel fully involved the decision making process.( [14] ) ( [15] )

Role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload/ underload

it's a common problem in groups when the team members feel unclear about their roles or experience conflicting role, and it can be managed when the leaders and team members identifies conflicts and ambiguities role and take procedures to explain role expectations.

Role ambiguity arise when the worker feel uncertain or don't know exactly about his or her role. To do jobs perfectly, members should know what is expected from them, and in many new teams because the role ambiguity it create problem like some members work efforts are wasted or unappreciated by others in the team. Even in the mature group the fail to share expectation and listen to each other it may make similar lack of understanding.

Role overload

Arise when the worker has a lot of work to and too much expected, role under load arise when worker don't work too much, feels underutilized and too little expected. By having clear and realistic expectations about their expected tasks and responsibilities typically the group members will benefit from that.

Role conflict

Arise when worker cannot meet the expectations of others. The worker understands what tasks and needs to be done but for some reason cannot fulfill, and can also reduce and effect satisfaction and relationships with group members.

There are four common forms of the role conflict:

Intra-sender role conflict occurs when the same person sends conflicting expectations.

Inter-sender role conflict occurs when different people signal conflicting and mutually exclusive expectations.

Person-role conflict occurs when one’s personal values and needs come into conflict with role expectations.

Inter-role conflict occurs when the expectations of two or more roles held by the same individual become incompatible, such as the conflict between work and family demands. ( [16] )

Lists of References

Likert,R.(1961), New Patterns of management, McGrawHill.

Likert, R. (1967), The Human Organization: Its Management and Value, McGrawHill.

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