McDonalds job Analysis
McDonalds Corporation is the world’s largest chain of fast food, Richard and Maurice McDonald started this business with a restaurant in San Bernardino California in 1940. Now a day McDonalds serves more then 56 million customers every day.
There are more than 30,000 restaurants operated by McDonalds worldwide in which more then 80% are operated as franchise and less then 20% are owned by company.
McDonald’s main selling products are hamburgers, cheeseburgers, double cheeseburgers, big Mac burgers, quarter pond burgers, tasty burgers, flit-o-fish burgers, salad and fruits.
McDonalds is the words largest fast food corporation, serving more then 57 million people in 119 countries daily with more then 31,000 restaurants world wide in which 6,899 are owned by company and 20,499 are operated as franchise and 3,960 are operated by affiliates.
McDonalds employing more then 1.5 million people worldwide, only in UK Company owned restaurant employed 43,492 in 2004 in which hourly paid employers are 2,292. 2,291 restaurant management and office staff nearly 500. and nearly 25,000 people employed in franchises.
In 2003 McDonalds owned donates pizza, McDonalds owned a majority of stake in chipotle Mexican grill until October 2006, in 2007 McDonalds sold Boston market to sun capital partners.
Andrew j. McKenna is the chairman of McDonalds Corporation since April 2004, aprill Harrell Perrine president blur cross and blue shield of Florida, Jim Dalton vice president Dalton agency, Ryan Schwartz treasurer Zurich insurances,inc. bill van zante secretary McDonalds.
The corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties and fees paid by franchises, McDonald revenues grew 27% over 3 years ending in 2007 22.8 billion and 9% growth in operating income to 3.9 billion.
MCDONALDS JOB ANALYSIS
McDonalds has many employees who are working on different posts and are working hard according to their own capacity. McDonalds conducted job analysis in order to hire new employees at every year that sometimes on quarterly basis. This also enables management to have a better understanding of the jobs and duties being performed at every level and also helps them in training the people who are freshly recruited.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD IN MCDONALDS
In job analysis McDonalds focuses on Work Activities and Human Behaviors of an employee for a job.
JOBS IN MCDONALDS
McDonalds has two types of job openings with their sub openings as listed under
A- Restaurant Jobs
B- Office Jobs
In the restaurant jobs, there is a clearly defined career path, from Crew Member to Crew Leader to Floor Manager to Assistant Manager to Restaurant Manager. And from there onwards the opportunities for growth and development are limitless Area Supervisors, Operations Consultant and beyond are just a few to mention from.
This is an entry level managerial position at McDonald's restaurant, providing opportunity to start and excel the career with the core business functions. Trainee managers handle various areas of professional excellence where sales, people, product safety and security are the minimum areas to be mentioned.
CUSTOMER CARE REPRESENTATIVE
This is an exciting career opportunity for the females, responsible to independently organize birthday events & various activities at local store level so that the challenging fun activities of the job will gear up the commitment of employees for providing the first class customer services
Crew Members are the core team members always ready to serve the customers on the floor with a shining smile unique with the services. This job is offered either as a Delivery Rider or a Crew Member. So the fun & enthusiasm prospect apart from extensive learning will make employees a key member of the team serving our customers.
There are three main areas of responsibility of a crew member:
3-Cleanliness and hygiene
Managerial jobs are categorized as Office Jobs in McDonalds. At McDonald’s office jobs are an excellent match, provided an employee can exhibit the right skill set up to excel in the areas of his/her Human Resource Management Project expertise. Depending upon the knowledge, experience and right aptitude, there are 3 key entry points in the office jobs
INITIAL ENTRY LEVEL
This entry level is specifically for beginners to start the career in a professional work culture, these positions will provide the opportunity to develop the skills as a successful business entrepreneur.
MIDDLE ENTRY LEVEL
As a middle entry level incumbent the incoming employee will perform as a liaison with team members to deliver the team objectives while ensuring the execution of assigned tasks as per defined standards and procedures
HIGHER ENTRY LEVEL
The higher entry level job incumbents are accountable for the execution of assigned tactics and strategic plan. The provision of leadership approach to work will enhance their sense of ownership and part of the winning team member
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD IN MCDONALDS applies the basic methods of Job analysis by which HRM can determine job elements and the essential knowledge, skills and abilities for successful performance methods. MCDONALDS uses the following job analysis methods according to their jobs:
1- Observation Method
2- Interview Method.
3- Questionnaire Method.
The CREW MEMBERS are like main workers of the McDonalds because they are the one who handle the stage work. McDonalds use direct Observation and Interviewing together Firstly, they observe the work of the crew member note the information as much as they can and then for further assistance ask the crewmembers about the detail of their work.
For CUSTOMER CARE REPRESENTATIVES McDonalds follow the similar
Interview Technique where they ask the employées that what they feel when they work in this fun environment, how they manage all the work and satisfy the kids and their parents.
MANAGERIAL JOBS McDonalds use the Questionnaire and Interview Method. They prepare a structured Questionnaire in which they ask employees about their jobs, purpose, education required for the job, experience or other key factors. Whereas, in Interviewing they further collect the information related to job directly from employees.
The job analysis is used to generate a job description, which defines the duties of each task, and other responsibilities of the position. The description covers the various task requirements, such as mental or physical activities; working conditions and job hazards.
JOB DESCRIPTION AS PER JOBS
McDonalds represent its Job Description as “Category Profile” and “Individual Competencies”
For office jobs Job Description is named as “Category Profile” I.
INTIAL ENTRY LEVEL:
1- Strong focus towards learning and adapting to the corporate environment.
2- A real interest in how people drive business.
3- Positive work attitude with the ability to lead challenging roles & responsibilities.
4- exposing good confidence level for delivering responsibilities at outstanding level.
5- Innovative approach for initiating change at different levels.
6- Strong communication skills to act as a liaison between stakeholders and team leaders.
MIDDEL ENTRY LEVEL:
1- Strong interpersonal and leadership skills.
2- Effective negotiation & problem solving skills
3-The ability to see the big picture while delivering organizational goals
For restaurant jobs the Job description is written as “Individual Competencies”1.
1- Effective communication skills able to work in a team environment
2- Proactive to exhibit true managerial capability
3- Career oriented with focus on continuous learning
4- Flexibility to adapt to a diversified work culture
PLANNING AND FORECASTING
McDonalds uses the method of “TREND ANALYSIS” for forecasting its personnel needs. This is a method in which the firm studies its past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs. McDonalds has been operating since a very long time and by now it has full information of where it stands in the minds of people. No doubt McDonalds has raised its value above mark. McDonalds forecasts its personnel needs according to what has been the trend of its sales, revenue and labor needs in the past. For this they use two ways
Managers are asked to forecast their staff requirements. They will do this on the basis of past, present and likely future requirements.
WORK STUDY TECHNIQUES
Work-study specialist’s works out how long various jobs take, using available machinery and equipment. Provided they know what sales are likely to be, they calculate the numbers of employees required and the hours they will need to work. McDonalds forecasts the need of staffing employees by inside and outside supply of candidates.
INSIDE SUPPLY OF CANDIDATES
In this forecasting method Information is collected on employees already working within McDonald’s. For this purpose McDonalds uses Qualification Inventory system.
A Qualifications Inventory of current employees gives the thorough information about current employees’ skills, education, career, performance and other interests. HR requirements of McDonald's may be met by training and developing current staff rather than recruiting externally
OUTSIDE SUPPLY OF CANDIDATES
After determining the number of employees that can be obtained internally McDonalds searches for the rest from the outside. For this McDonalds information system plays a vital role. It keeps track of the economic conditions and employment rate and after that forecasts its external needs accordingly. In this way McDonalds develops a pool of talent as much as possible so that it can choose best out of it.
Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes examination of the vacancy, the consideration of sources of suitable candidates, making contact with those candidates, attracting application from them, short listening, interviews and finally induction of the selected candidates within the budget of the department company.
In McDonalds recruitment process is decentralized. Every branch of McDonalds is independent to hire the employees. Usually at McDonalds employees are hired in a form of badge. Also the transformations of employees within the franchises of McDonalds took place for recruiting the employees. A typical McDonald’s restaurant can employ about 60 people who include the both managerial and floor- based staff.
RECRITMENT METHODS IN MCDONANLDS
McDonalds follow the two basic types of recruitment such as:
McDonalds uses the following two basic methods for internal recruiting
In Job positioning McDonalds select candidates from inside by considering their past performance. MCDONALDS publicize their open jobs on their site www.mcdonalds2.rozee.pk
Where their employees could apply for the job they also publicize it in their restaurants on Notice Boards. So that the working employees could be informed from the vacant position and apply.
For the executive posts McDonalds follow a succession planning technique where they recruit their managers or senior employees to executive level on the basis of their performance.
McDonald’s often goes for external recruitment though they mostly prefer internal recruitment or internal promotion of the employees to the higher posts. External recruitment of McDonalds involves:
1-Recruiting via internet
RECRUITING VIA INTERNET
Now a Days Recruiting via Internet is becoming very common. McDonalds has its own site where they publicize for the jobs and offer people to send their CV’s through online process and often recruit employees from their.
Advertising is the most used method for recruitment. McDonalds approaches the Newspaper or a magazine adds mostly to invite employees for jobs.
McDonalds follow the most common method of college recruiting known as
Internships because many floor base employees usually join McDonalds for internship. Here they have one advantage that they don’t have to pay them much and their workforce need is also fulfilled for a temporary period of time.
The selection process of McDonalds involves the following factors:
In initial screening McDonalds collects the application forms of candidates from their
Website online and also by Mail or Fax and than they choose those applications which are according to their job requirements and call those candidates for further process.
TESTING EMPLOYEES IN MCDONALDS
McDonalds take the following tests to check the abilities, knowledge and nature of work of employees.
MCDONALDS TESTING FACTORS
McDonalds conduct tests to know the following factors:
1-Motor& physical skills
2-Personality (attitude test)
3-Cognitive abilities (Aptitude and Intelligence test)
MOTOR AND PHYSICAL
McDonald’s measures the motor means motion or movement skills of its Crew Member to know about their physical abilities.
In Personality tests conducted in McDonalds are taken both from Managers and Crew employees to know their temperament stability in work, attitude or their interests.
McDonalds take Intelligence tests from employees who come for Managerial Jobs
These tests help them to evaluate the mental skills, intelligence, problem solving and for other intellectual abilities.
McDonalds always want a multi-skilled worker or employee who could work efficiently at any level. For that when they hire employees they test according to their above mentioned criteria that the employee should be little or more skilled to work in any area. In McDonalds employees are tested in two basic ways first through some ORAL OR WRITTEN TESTS they are judged and then they are allowed to perform a PRACTICAL WORK, where the McDonalds managers could evaluate them more accurately.
MCDONALDS TESTING METHODS
McDonalds took following tests of employees:
1-Physical fitness test
4-Case study test method
5-On-the-Job evaluation test
PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST
In motor and physical abilities McDonalds took a Physical Fitness Test for their crew members specially to know that they are physically fit, and could work fast in the hour of rush and as well they don’t have any sort of viral or infectious diseases like for the crew members who work in production lobby (food preparation area) and also to know their stress level that if there are large number of customers standing for order so in that case how could they handle the situation mentally.
In personality test that McDonalds take is related to Attitude of employees; in this test they measure the behavior, stress level and temperament of employees. In this test behavioral questions are given to them like, if you have a situation to deal with a customer who’s angry with you because of your irresponsibility that you have given him a burger with no cheese than What would you do in that situation? How would you behave with him? And try to cool-down him? Through this sort of question McDonalds measures the temperament and attitude of employee.
For measuring cognitive abilities McDonald’s took a Psychometric Evaluation (a written aptitude test) also called Aptitude Test . The test gives insights into the applicants' verbal and critical reasoning amongst other important measures.
In cognitive abilities the Intelligence test is most often taken from employees at managerial level. In McDonalds this test is conducted through Case Study A problem is given to employees in a form of case study for which they have to find solution. A business or job related situations or problems are given to employees Through this testing McDonald could know about the problem solving skills of employees and predict their practical performance as well.
ON-THE-JOB EVALUATION TEST
After the written tests in McDonalds employees undergo a two-day on-the-job evaluation at any of their restaurant, which provides the employee with an opportunity to work practically on the floor and show his/her skills. It also gives a chance to McDonald’s managers to observe and assess the employee’s performance.
Reliability refers that if a same test is taken from employee twice or more times and if the result of test achieved is same than it means that the test that you conducted is reliable.
RELIABILITY IN MCDONALDS TEST
Now McDonalds also checks the reliability of its tests by using the Retest Technique. In this method if McDonalds managers took an aptitude test and what ever the scores of test come, they take that same test from the employees again to judge the reliability, so if the result of both test match accurately or with a little bit of difference than it means that the test is reliable. Thus this is most easy and appropriate method to determine the reliability of test and McDonalds follows this technique.
McDonalds testing system is valid because their testing methods reflect to Content Validity. In content validity job related tasks and skills are tested and if McDonald uses the on-the-job testing.
VALIDATION THROUGH AN EXAMPLE
McDonalds uses Case Study test for the managerial level of employees, now if a candidate applies for the Executive Manager post and in case study test he is given with the case that if in McDonalds an employee is working in marketing department and performing well, and K.F.C the competitor of McDonalds want to hire that employee and offer him more pay and allowances than McDonalds. So what steps should the candidate would take if as an executive manager to solve this problem because the employee is good and they don’t want to lose him. Now the candidate has to give solution with logic, here the test is being valid if the candidate answer well than it means he/she is best for this job and the test is also being valid because it is measuring the same thing (here intellectual ability and problem solving) for what it was made to measure. Well here if a candidate answers that first he will increase the pay of the employee and give more benefits to him by keeping in view his performance and secondly make a specific contract with him and if he gives him such pay and incentive benefit he would definitely demand for more every time so by signing a contract he will be bounded for a specific period of time.
All candidates after formal testing are called for the final interview. This is where the final and overall assessment of the candidate takes place and selection decisions are made.
The selection interview of McDonalds is classified it into as given classifications:
McDonalds employ Structured or Directive Interview content; the managers first make a set of proper Questionnaires related to job and also predetermine their answers and ask those questions from applicants in a structured order. Here questionnaires are prepared according to the job requirements.
McDonalds has a set interview content known as Situational Interview, they ask situational questions from their employees like give them a situation and ask their opinion that what would they do in that situation but the situations are job-related.
For administering the test McDonalds conducts a most common used system
McDonalds take panel interview. In this interview a panel or group of executives or senior employees usually HR manager and head of the particular department ask situational or other basic questions from the candidate. If an interview for a most senior or executive post ahs to be done than the General Manager (GM) of the McDonalds conduct that interview.
In McDonalds interviewing system apply subsequent method:
1-First they examine the job description, specification, duties, and requirements for a job such as skills, knowledge or abilities,
2-After that they create situational (job-related) questions for the candidate to know their capabilities.
3-Finally, they appoint the interviewers to conduct and evaluate the interview
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
At McDonalds, a job is never just a job; employees know that working at McDonalds provides them with a wealth of knowledge, experience, skills and above all a true fun work Environment. McDonalds follow a highly structured training process. Employees in McDonalds are trained at all levels. They are trained to work on floor base area to back area. McDonald's employee training programs are based on the company's core principles such as:
4-Value Abbreviated as (Q, S, C & V).
As like other organization McDonalds training and development program starts from orientation. In McDonald’s employee orientation program range from 5 to 6 months and it includes such contents:
1-A Welcome Orientation Day is arranged for the new employees where they got familiar with the history or background of the company, cultural values, present conditions, future goals and objectives or plans of the company. They also watch videos related to company’s information and handouts are also given to them.
2-Employees are formally told about what to wear their dress code or uniform
3-Then employees have to spend 15 to 25 days in different sub departments under one department.
4-The head of the department decides that what objectives a new incoming employee should carry out.
5-In McDonald each employee works with or under a “Training Buddy” (supervisor).
6-Employees get at least 6 months of time to show their skills and knowledge.
7-After these 5 to 6 months orientation employees get their appointment letters as a permanent.
TRAINING METHODS IN MCDONALDS
The most used training methods that McDonalds follow are given as:
3-Audio-visual based training
These training methods are often practiced by entry-level workers or crew members basically for the new employee.
The first stage of training is at the Welcome Meetings. These are usually arranged in a Training Centre or Room. These lectures set out the company's standards and expectations for the new employees. Where, employees are introduced with a complete description about the job, and a guideline that how to work and what are the job requirements and procedures. A verbal outline is given to the employees.
The majority of training is floor based, or "On-The-Job" training because people learn more and are more likely to retain information if they are able to practice as they learn. All new employees have an initial training period. Here they are shown the basics and allowed to develop their skills to a level where they are competent in each area within the restaurant. They will also attend classroom-based training sessions where they will complete workbooks for quality, service and cleanliness
McDonalds also uses the most known type of on the job training “Job Rotation”. It is done within the specific department so that the employee becomes familiar with all level of jobs.
AUDIO-VISUAL BASED TRAINING
For the new trainees McDonalds also provide them with DVDs, films, video or audio tapes related to the operational or functional work of the organization.
MCDONALDS EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
McDonalds has a comprehensible strategy of occupational health, safety and security of employees.
HEALTH SAFETY IN MCDONALDS
McDonalds has a safe environment regarding to health, there are no such serious health safety threats in McDonalds but they have developed a systematic health and safety program for those employees specially who work in production lobby. Such factors could be a health and safety problem for McDonald’s employees:
MCDONALDS HEALTH SAFETY SYSTEM
McDonalds keeping in view the above factors take the following steps ahead to prevent their employees from any health hazard:
Proper ventilation systems such as exhausts are placed so that the high temperatures don’t cause any health problem to employees who work in production lobby (cooking area).
INSPECTION: For the hygiene of office and cooking place per month a inspector from food department visits to observe the cleanliness system, this is better for employees themselves and the customers as well.
NO SMOKING RULE:
In the office a smoking rule is obeyed for the health protection of employees and restaurant environment.
A medical check up of employees is conducted to know that any employee doesn’t have any viral disease and if any employee becomes serious ill he/she is granted a leave so that no other employee could suffer from same problem. When employees are hired in the training session they are informed with a complete description and safety measures related to their health.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
HR POLICIES AND PRACTICES OF MCDONLADS
The HR polices and practices involve certain core tasks to fill such as: Recruitment, Selection, Evaluation, Performance, Compensation and certain other factors.
The HR department of McDonald’s fulfills all the requirements of these tasks or functions in a true sense of the meaning.
McDonald’s strongly believes in the well being of people and its workforce and that is one reason why it is the leader in the fast food industry and it proves that the strategies the company has chosen are right and efficient for their business.
EVALUATION OF HR POLICIES AND PRACTICES OF MCDONALDS
The policies and practices of McDonalds which we discussed above in the report are according to our literature all their strategies of HR meet up with are literature of course because during interview we asked all their HR practices according or comparing to our literature.
After critically evaluating the HR Functions of McDonald’s we recommend the following suggestions according to the each section of HR:
For job analysis we recommend that McDonalds should also include
Performance Standards and Human Requirements which would help them more in making job description and specification.
JOB DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATION:
Well their job description and specification is not clear they have intermingled it. In Job Description they have written about the skills required in an employee not about the duties he/she would have to perform. Similarly in Job Specification they have just written general information not about the skills and personality traits.
PLANNING AND FORECASTING:
In planning and forecasting McDonalds is using trend analysis method for personnel needs but according to our opinion Computerized Forecast Should be used because McDonalds is a large organization and they should estimate their need of employees through computerized system it would be easier for them.
All over McDonalds has a good formal testing system but in our view for crew members specially who deal with customer care area a Communication Skill Test should be taken which includes testing of accent, language, talking way and facial expression of employees.
McDonalds should also ask Behavioral Questions from the candidates so by knowing their past experience they could judge their attitude and mental abilities more accurately.
COMPENSATION & BENEFITS:
For the employees at lower level like crew members, a proper Medical Check-up after every month should be provided to them and their pays should be increased comparing to the economic conditions of country. For higher level employees a Life-insurance policy should be made.
4- People Management and Development by Mick Marchington second Edition
In the end I would like to give very warm thanks to all my friends , family and specially my teacher for help me to prepare this assignment. In the last but not the least special thanks to my Marketing Management teacher Mr. Hashim Hirani for helping and give me good amount of knowledge.
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