Health and social care management
Health and Social Care Management
1.1 Factors to be considered when planning the recruitment of individuals to work in health and social care
According to Foot & Hook (1999), for the recruitment of the two vacant posts there are some factors to be considered such as planning recruitment policy, overall aim of recruitment, organizational objectives, personnel policies of the organization, government policies, need for the organization and confirm the vacancy, legislation for the post selection, recruitment cost and financial implications etc. Now the factors are described below:
Defining requirements is the most important factor for recruiting a candidate. Sometimes there are some opportunities to replace an employee for fulfilling the company needs. So it should be justified and checked first. Requirement for the particular post should be set out in role profile form and person specification. A role profile where competence, skills, educational and experience requirements need to be provided to assess a candidate in a easier way in interview. Moreover, technical competencies, behavioural and attitudinal requirements, qualifications, training, experience, specific demands, manual handling competency, special requirements etc are need to be considered while recruiting the vacant posts in health and social care sector.
Armstrong (2006) states that internal recruitment may be considered firstly but if the organization becomes failure in this method they have to advertise for the vacant post. For advertising internet system, local and national newspaper, agencies, job centre pluses can be used. Advertising is necessary because it is one of the most effective methods for attracting candidates. In addition, an organization or a company should be more flexible to compete with the other employers to attract the candidates.
Without these, an organization needs to think about the recruitment cost and financial implications. Research shows that when a large company hires thousands of employees per year then they have to spend a large amount for human resource. For example, an organization has to consider some basic elements such as advertising, agency fees, travel cost incurred by employers and applicants, company recruitment cost etc.
1.2 Legislative and policy framework that influence the selection, recruitment and employment of individuals
According to Torrington et al (2008), employment policy & legislation employment act 2002, employment policy & legislation employment relations act 2004, sex discrimination act 1975, the race relation act 1976 influence the selection, recruitment and employment of individuals in the UK.
Employment policy and legislation employment act 2002: It is such a legislation that covers dispute resolution in the workplace, improves the employment tribunal procedures, covers equal pay questionnaire and others.
Sex discrimination act: Foot & Hook (1999) describes that generally job seekers are faced three types of discrimination and those are indirect discrimination, direct discrimination and victimization. Direct discrimination occurs when someone is treated less or more favourably directly to do her or his sex, racial origin, marital status etc. For example, a female may not given road construction job only for being a woman or a ugly man may not recruited as a cabin crew in an airline company though he has eligibility (Direct discrimination).
Indirect discrimination occurs when an applicant is treated unfairly for some requirements which would not have a particular group. For example, if any job agency advertises for a vacancy for a cleaner with the requirement of six feet height, it is discrimination for the women.
In conclusion, it can be said that these types of discriminations are avoided in the UK and while recruiting a candidate these acts and policy frameworks are maintained strictly. Thus these legislations and policy frameworks influence selection, recruitment and employment of individuals.
1.3 Different approaches that may be used to ensure the selection and recruitment of the best individuals to work in health and social care
According to Foot & Hook (1999) there are some steps for the best selection of a candidate such as taking interview, assessing candidates, assessment centre, testing, obtaining references.
Interviewing: The first step of selecting the best candidate is interviewing. A candidate can be interviewed by individual, panels and selection board. By interviewing, interviewer and candidate can discuss with them clearly about their impressions and can modify any superficial judgements. Overlapping can be avoided by selecting with selection board which is the most formal and convened by the official body. The only advantage of this process is that interviewer can have a look of the candidate and compare notes on the spot where it has many disadvantages. For example, while testing someone many unplanned questions are asked rather than formal questions, a interviewer can be overwhelmed by other's judgement. In addition, confident and articulate candidate are given more attention for selecting but doing so underlying weakness of a superficially impressive individual may be missed.
Assessment centre and test: Armstrong (2006) defines that in an assessment centre exercises are used to catch and assume the main theme of a job such as one to one role plays and group exercise. It is thought that performance in these simulations predicts attitude of a job. In addition, interviews and tests are used to group exercises. Performance is measured in various ways in terms of competencies required for achieving target level of a specific job. For example, structured psychometric tests, behavioural test, IQ, hypothetical question, capability questions and many other relevant questions are asked.
In addition, in an assessment centre several applicants are assessed together to permit interaction and to make experience more open and participative. Several assessors are used to increase the objectivity of assessment. Moreover, it gives applicants a better feeling for the company and its values so that they can be able to decide for themselves. In conclusion, it can be said that a well conducted assessment centre can achieve a better forecast for future performance and progress because judgement are made by the line managers or even personnel managers in the normal and unskilled way.
As there are two vacancies for a care assistant and a senior care assistant, so firstly I will recruit them. Then I will select senior care assistance as a team leader because normally the seniors have more experience and be adept of working in this sector.
2.1 Interacting system interact in groups by making reference to relevant theories
Tuckman forming storming, norming performing model
Bruce Tuckman's 1965 Forming Storming Norming Performing team-development model
Interacting system by forming:
Armstrong (2006) describes that forming means high dependence on leader for guidance. In this system, employees wait to learn or know something extra-ordinary or exciting. In this system everyone keeps themselves polite, cautions and try be well organised. Firstly they meet to learn about the opportunity and challenges. Then they try to be agree in a certain matter and begins to tackle the task. For interacting among the team members it is very important step because in this step everyone get the opportunity to know one another and exchange some personal information.
He further shows that in this step different ideas compete for consideration. Here groups address different issues and try to solve these. Every one up to each other and confront their ideas and perspectives and sometimes this step resolved quickly. This step is important for the growth of the team. It may be contentious, unhappy and even painful to members of the team who do not like conflict. So every team member should be patient and have the ability to tolerate problems because without tolerance and patience team can not be successful. Supervisors should be more accessible but need to be directive in their guidance and behaviour.
In this step, team member become agree, talk openly about their opinions and adjust their behaviour to each other and develop their work habit. Group members work in this stage by agreeing on rules, values, professional behaviour, shared methods and others. If norming behaviour becomes too strong they can lose their creativity. Supervisors become more active than previous stage and to participate more. Through this process group member can know one another better than before.
Through this step team members can understand, perceive with each other and make relationships with other team members. Those who can reach this step they are called high performing team and they can be able to function, co-operate and support with each other as a unit. Those who can reach this step they are normally motivated and knowledgeable, competent, autonomous and able to handle decision making process without supervision. Supervisors are almost participative and team members often make their important decisions.
2.2 Different types of team in Health and social care setting
Anon (2009) states Formal team: It is such type of team that is created for a specific purpose.
For example, a formal team can be formed by the surgeons, theatre sister, nurses, doctors and paramedics, MLT, data entry operator. For example, a doctor diagnose patient, prescribe something. The role of a surgeon is to take the whole responsibility of a successful operation. In addition, he or she should also inform the patient that what will be result of the operation. The responsibility of a theatre sister is to help the surgeon during operation period. While performing operation MLT (Medical Lab Technologist) is given the task of handling medical machinery.
In a hospital perform a bypass surgery to a patient there must be a surgeon who specialise with heart surgery, Cardiologist who diagnose the problem, Anaesthesiologist who diagnose anaesthesia ,Nurses who take care of the patient, this is a formal team they have to work together to save a life.
Walker & Miller (2007) define it is a team who emerge naturally and after the accomplishment of task they disappear.
An informal team may consist of the residents, carers, managers and others. For fulfilling resident needs firstly a carer becomes active. Normally a care looks after the daily necessaries of a resident such as making his or her food, taking bath, dressing, feeding them etc. The role of a manager is to monitor the whole care home, monitoring carer's performance, whether every thing is neat and clean and after all manage the whole care home.
2.3 Factors that influence the effectiveness of teams working in health and social care
West (2004) defines following factors that influence the effectiveness of team working:
- A slow commence with poor planning about the work
- Discussing a little information or ideas
- The ideas are not discussed elaborately
- Duties not being accomplished on time
- Lower controlling process
- Participation problem by the team members
- Expressing frustration by the team members
- Not valuing all members ideas
- Getting of the task or discuss about irrelevant issues
- Less effective communication skills
2.4 Approaches that may be used to develop effective team working
Berk & Lintern (2005) identify some approaches that may used to develop effectiveness in team working
- Allow to take time to all members for introducing themselves
- Brainstorming among the team members for developing a shared understanding of the group's task
- By developing an agenda and a timeline
- Confirm places and times to meet outside of contact time
- Exchanging all contact details as necessary such as names, email addresses etc.
- Involve all team members and ask everyone individually to deliver some ideas
- After generating some ideas disperse and research those further
- Ask the boss or teacher to listen to ideas and suggest further ones if all of the ideas are failed
- No need to discuss ideas thoroughly, list all new suggested ideas and make sure that all these ideas are tested
- Comment favourably, show interest or ask questions to encourage the speaker to explore the idea more
- Further research may be necessary to obtain ideas and try to establish the reason for being quiet or not participating of particular team members
- It may be better to allow each team member to have a 'turn'
- The role of 'encourager', 'trust builder', compromiser and harmoniser' may be helpful
- Listen to one another, respect others, consider their ideas, and provide positive and constructive comments about the idea.
- If you are disagree do so politely showing that you have heard the idea of your fellow
- A time limit on individual contributions should be fixed
- Ensure that every team member has a opportunity to speak
- Interruption should be polite. For instance, (as time is limited and can we hear what other people say')
- Identify the particular issues that seems to be affecting the poor communication
- Consider those tasks or process that may address the issue - for instance, if team members seem to be misunderstanding one another, then take on the process role of 'helps with communication' by clarifying what is being said
3.1 Different ways in which the performance of individuals may be monitored in health and social care
Monitoring the performance of a care worker: Poister (n.d.) has shown that there are many ways for monitoring an individual's performance in health and social care such as identifying the current level of performance, identifying those areas where candidates' improvements are necessary, marking an individual's level of performance, testing specific standards, fixing a standard that should be achieved etc. However, the way how individual's performance is monitored is called performance appraisal. It has five key elements and they are measurement, feedback, positive reinforcement, exchange of views and agreement.
Measurement means achieving the goals that was set by the employer and then performance should be assessed. Then information is given the individuals on the basis of their performance and progress which is known as feedback. A constructive criticism should be made concerning the matter which they should develop. This is called as positive reinforcement. The next step is exchange of view. In this section, the mistakes what happened in past is checked, how they can develop their performance, what support they need from their managers are viewed. The last element is agreement where all employees make them understand that what goals should be achieved by discussing themselves and how the problems can overcome. However, actually there is no fixed way for monitoring individuals' performance. But while monitoring, the objectives should be checked whether they have achieve it or not. If not, find out the reason.
3.2 Identifying individual's training and development needs
Foot and Hook (1999) states that for identifying an employee's training and developments needs reviewing business objectives, identifying critical activities, measuring performance quality, identifying problem areas, measuring and analyzing the weakness and problems etc should be checked. An employee also may need training when some new staffs are taken. Also, in the time of internal promotion, change of curriculum, for adapting with new procedures, legislations, standards or structures, they need training. Because when they are promoted, generally they need to face the new challenges. Without providing training if they are transferred they may have to face a lot of difficulties. After identifying these objectives, they need to select the staff those are most likely to be affected. The next step is to consider the skills which will be necessary to deal with the new circumstances. Then a competence level is necessary to be decided on the basis of requirement. The last and final step is to assess and consider a gap between current level and required level in the new situation of the employees. Moreover, for identifying someone's training and development needs it is also necessary to assess the appraisal documents, teaching and research plans, final evaluation report, references for new staffs, examiner's report, feedback etc. Going through these processes, an employee's training and development needs can be identified.
3.3 Different strategies for promoting the continuing development of individuals in the health and social care workplace
According to Torrington et al (2008) performance feedback and incentives are the basic needs for promoting continuous development.
Performance feedback: It is one of the most important criteria for improving an individual's performance because if any feedback is not given how can he or she understand about the performance that is done? It is very uncomfortable for the employees. If an individual is not known about it, so how he or she can improve his or her career? By performance feedback they can solve this problem because it informs them about their mistakes. Without this, most of the time feedback is relevant, specific, credible, frequent and timely. Also, it is not stopped only after informing them what to do next. They are also recommended or trained if necessary.
Incentives: For motivating an employee, performance incentives is also essential. It includes increasing salary, to provide training, to provide rewards etc.
3.4 Implementing an effective staff development program
Hishmeh(1987) states that performance management is an example of a staff development program. Actually it is a process designed to improve organizational, team and staff performance. It may be implemented by involving employees and managers of the framework, holding group meetings to emphasis the competency approach, providing training to manager, giving information to the employees, raising awareness, identifying the strengths and weakness in his or her workplace.
3.5 The effectiveness of a specific staff development program
From my experience I have understood that performance management is the most effective way for the development of a staff in a nursing home. This program is very effective because it is designed specially for the improvement of a staff. It is such a program that makes its' employee understanding about needs to be achieved. Progress and development is reviewed throughout the year so that employees can perform well. It motivates the staffs towards greater responsibility in the nursing home. The team members, staffs and managers can also make their relationship stronger throughout the performance management system.
4.1 Theories of leadership and applying them to management in a nursing home setting
According to Armstrong (2006), two theories of leadership are discussed and applied them below in health and social care:
- Behavioural theory and
- Situational theory
Behavioural theory: Actually behavioural theory is the complement of the trait theory. Because by putting these together it seems to pretty much encompass in every dimension that leaders do. One of the most important things of this theory is if we know what leaders do, then it is possible to teach every person about leadership. However, the idea of this theory started after the criticism of trait theory. Then theorists started to research about the behaviour of successful leaders, determine behaviour taxonomy and identify broad leader's style. They saw that the leaders are tended to a high power rather than affiliation. Researchers have also shown that successful leaders are generally self-controlled. By this theory leadership can be learned rather than being inherent.
Situational theory: Anon (n.d.) defines this theory as such a type of leadership theory and leadership model that presumes that various leadership style are contingent to various positions. However this theory argues that the best type of leadership style is determined by the situational variables. There are three types of leadership under these theories. They are authoritarian leadership style, democratic leadership style and laissez faire leadership style. The authoritarian leadership style is suitable for the crisis time but not for all the time. If it applies all the time, it fails to make happy to its followers where democratic leadership style is more suitable in situations where consensus is necessary. The laissez faire leadership style is a process that is appreciated by its freedom if the leader does not take charge. Again, there are two types of leader under this process. One is task oriented leader and the other is relationship oriented leader. Those who complete their duty with good relationship, are called “Relationship oriented leader” and who accomplish the task itself are called “Task oriented leader”. Now the question is who is the best leader? The answer is anyone can be if their leadership orientation fits well. However, the disadvantages of the two theories are that there is no universally leading style by situational and contingency theories. Basic premise might be effective in some circumstances but not all the time. However, this is such a theory that allows the leaders to choose which predicts their effectiveness. So, who follows this model, can be a successful leader.
The applying system of the theories in health and social care: As behavioural theory is greatly concerned for drawing conclusion is the most effective, so it can be applied in health and social care workshop. By following this theory, most managers can be successful to manage his staff in the workplace. Situational theory can be applied for solving difficult types of problem. For example, if a resident dies or become serious ill in a care home then a carer has to take some steps calling or informing doctor, calling ambulance etc. Throughout the processes situational and contingency theory can be applied in health and social care setting.
4.2 The way of influencing individuals and teams by task allocation
Dowding & Barr (1999) state that task allocation is very important as it has a great influence of individual's performance. Before starting performing each member of the team should be given specific task. For example, in a care home different employees have different role. The responsibility of a doctor is to examine or diagnose a resident; the role of a junior carer may be arranged bed baths or manual handling where a nurse's responsibility may be to take of medication. So these tasks are allocated in accordance with their skill. If task are not allocated suitably then team performance or individual's performance will be affected. For example, a nurse is unable to perform a doctor's duty. Similarly a junior carer may be unable to perform a nurse's duty. So if the task is allocated suitably employees can perform better. Thus task allocation influences the performance of individuals or a team.
4.3 Managing working relationship
Tomey (n.d.) describes that for managing work relationship task should be allocated suitably. Every member has to understand about their role of job. Without these there are some characteristics by which working relationship can be managed. For example, trust is the foundation of any successful working relationship. Those who are trustworthy can share their successes and failures with each other to learn from them. In addition, employees should be mindful because in mindful relationships they are open to new ideas. Moreover being interrelatedness and respecting each other is also useful for managing work relationship. Effective communication skill such as face to face interaction or telephone conversation is also necessary for managing working relationship.
4.4 Evaluating own development that has been influenced by management approaches
There are some specific issues by which my own development is influenced by management. Among them I would like to discuss some of the things that I have known:
Leadership: It means a dynamic relationship based on common purpose and mutual influence between leaders and collaborators where they moved to higher levels of motivations and moral development as they effect actual and intended change. Again there are some theories of leadership such as great man theory, situational theory, trait theory, behavioural theory, contingency theory etc. In addition, I have known about zone leadership model.
Team working: It means working collaboratively with a group of people for achieving a goal. It is a crucial part as it is essential for the employees to do better in workplace. By team working people can co-operate, provide constructive feedback among them. It is important whether in games, playground and workplace as it can produce incredible result. A good team work is not easy to establish. Good relationship, effective communication skills, understanding each other, conflict resolution, setting up good examples are essential for better team work.
Recruitment: It is a process of screening and selecting suitable candidate for an organisation or a firm. For the recruitment of a candidate employers have to maintain many factors and policy. For example, before recruiting they have to advertise, make short list of the candidate, calling for interview and at last selection. Without this employers have to keep in mind many acts such as gender discrimination act, equal opportunity act and others.
Interacting: People can interact by forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Forming means high dependence on leader for guidance. Conflict, dividing responsibility, individual recognition happens in storming stage. Interdependence happens in norming stage, mutual assistance is for the forth stage and people become closure in adjourning stage.
- Anon.,2009. What is formal team,[Online]. Available at: http://www.answers.com/main/about_answers.jsp Accessed at: 30th July 2009
- Anon, (n.d.) , Situational Leadership Theory Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/situational_leadership_theory Accessed at: 08-august-2009
- Armstrong, M.; (2006), A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th edition, London, Kogan Page
- Dowding, L & Barr, J.; 1999, Managing in Health Care: A Guide For Nurses, Midwives & Health Visitors, 5th edition, Prentice Hall
- Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Q0_rQjIQaFIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false Accessed at: 07-august-2009
- Foot, M, & Hook, C,; (1999), Introducing Human Resource Management, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Financial Times
- Hishmeh, L.H (1987), Implementing an effective staff development program to improve the teaching of English as a second language, Los Angeles, University of California
- Poister, T.H (n.d.), Measuring Performance In Public And Nonprofit Organizations, WILEY
- Tomey, A.M. (n.d.), Nursing Management and Leadership, 7th edition, Mosby. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=q2gI-zXpDO0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false Accessed at: 07-august-2009
- Torrington, D,; Hall, L & Taylor, S,; (2008), Human Resource Management, 7th edition, Prentice Hall, Financial Times
- Wallker,J.R & Miller,J.E.,2007.Supervision in the Hospiyality Industry. 6th ed.Hobokon:United states
- West,M.A.,2004.Effective Team Work.2nd ed.British Psycological Services:Leicester Managing Human Resource 2009
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