The Nuclear War In India And Pakistan History Essay
The nuclear war in India and Pakistan is a serious crisis and can lead to many problems all over the world. Nuclear weapons are very dangerous in many ways, they can cause a massive amount of pollution and a major conflict with agriculture. Scientists have studied and researched the impacts of a nuclear war on the climate and
none of these impacts are positive. They found that this can affect the climate by the pollution in the atmosphere by a large amount of debris and smoke that could block out the sun and cause what they call a "nuclear winter", where there can be a long period of darkness, they say this could happen but most likely will not.
Another negative affect a nuclear war can have is to do with agriculture, the debris could make all of the crops and plantations go bad, which will result in having no food and poverty, this could cause billions of people to starve to death and many more to die from diseases and other food problems. Nuclear war can also damage our ozone layer by putting holes into it, which can be very dangerous for life on earth.
One reason India is worried about going into war with Pakistan is because they are worried they might no be able to win against them, because they don't have enough people in their army or enough nuclear weapons to compete against Pakistan. Pakistan has the majority of terrorists on their side because the terrorists built their camps on Pakistan's grounds, which can lead to the Pakistan army becoming full of terrorists. This
can become a problem because Pakistan will have a much larger and stronger army then India will and they will be the stronger opponent and defeat India.
Pakistan and India date back to the common pre-historic Indo-Iranian heritage where they have a long and complicated history with each other. These two countries have become independent from Britain. When British India became independent, it was supposed to be divided into two parts. Areas with 75 percent or more Muslims were to become the remaining part of Pakistan and the rest of the territory in India. The Indian government saw Pakistan's action as a sign of invasion and sent their troops over. The result of this first war between Pakistan and India involving Kashmir was Pakistan controlling 37 percent while India controlled 67 percent. This shows that India had more than Pakistan at once but now India is not sure if they would be able to defeat Pakistan in a nuclear war today. Two more wars have occurred between Pakistan and India, one of the wars was in 1965 and the other in 1971. The Indo-Pakistan war in 1965 lasted for 5 weeks and cause thousands of major issues on both sides and was the largest tank battle in history since World War 2, this ended with the United Nations ending this war and making it come to a complete stop. The second war between India and Pakistan in 1971 did not include the issue of Kashmir, but was lead up from the crisis of East Pakistan. Within two-weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani surrendered to India, following this issue the People's Republic of Bangladesh was established. This war had the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan wars or conflicts, as well as the largest amount of prisoners of prisoners since the Second World War and also the largest amount of surrenders by nearly 90,000 Pakistan police officers and civilians.
There were also another two wars between the two countries India and Pakistan, but they were not nearly as big as the wars of 1965 and 1971 that these two countries had faced against each other. The Indo-Pakistan war of 1947 was called "The First Kashmir War". This war started in October of 1947 when the Maharajan of the state of Kashmir and Jammu pursued India and Pakistan to become independent. The United Nations was invited into to this because they were to resolve the conflict. The United Nations mission was to stop pursuing the opinion of the Kashmir's. The United Nations Security Council passed the Resolution 47 in April of 1948. This war ended in December of 1948 with the "Line of Control", which divided Kashmir into territories that were given by Pakistan and India. Pakistan had the northern and western areas while India had the southern central and northeastern areas. The United Nations Security Council passed the Resolution 47 on April 21 1948 and was created mainly for the purpose of restoring peace and order to the region and to decide on the main issues with Kashmir and how they will be resolved. The Indo-Pakistan war of 1999 was also known as the Kargil War, the conflict between the two countries was mainly limited. Pakistani troops along with Kashmiri troops crossed the Line of Control and occupied Indian Territory mostly in the Kargil district. The Pakistani government believer that its nuclear weapons would deter a full-scale escalation in conflict but India launched a major military campaign to flush out the infiltrators. Due to Indian military advances and increasing foreign diplomatic pressure, Pakistan was forced to withdraw its forces back across the Line of Control.
Other conflicts from the wars were that the two countries were expected to fight each other in 1955 after warlike posturing on both sides, but the war did not break
out. The Siachen conflict in 1984 was brought about because India launched "Operation Meghdoot", capturing most of the Siachen Glacier. Further clashes erupted in the glacial area in 1985, 1987 and 1995 as Palcistan sought without success to oust India from its stronghold. The Operation Meghdoot was the name given to the attack launched by the Indian military to capture the Siachen Glacier in the disputed Kashmir region.
The other conflict between the two countries was the Kashmir Insurgeny between November 1987 and March 2987 when India conducted operation Brassracks. This military exercise was feared that it could lead to another war between India and Pakistan. There was a terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on December 13, 2001, which India blamed on the Pakistan terrorist organizations. The operation Brasstacks was a military exercise by the Indian army in Rajasthan during November 1986 and March 1987. It was one of the largest of the armed forces in the Indian subcontinent. Many people see this as one of the most critical points between the two countries India and Pakistan with regards to the nuclear wars that were about to take place.
In 2002, the Kashmir crisis was when the Indian troops were placed on alert after a terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001. In early January of 2002 India had reportedly over 500,000 troops and three armored divisions along the frontier with Pakistan. India also placed its navy and air force on "high alert" and deployed its nuclear capable missiles. Pakistan reacted in kind, concentrating forces along the line of control that divides Kashmir. The development, which included troops in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat, was the largest since the 1971 conflict between the two rivals.
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. It is a territory split between both India and Pakistan, with some areas also claimed by China. These three countries own different sections of Kashmir, Pakistan owns the northwest portion, India controls the central and southern portion, while China has claimed the northeastern portion.
In 1947, Kashmir decided to join India, which had just decided to become and independent country. Pakistan, which is right next to India, thought that the Muslim region should be incorporated into Pakistan, which had also just gained independence. These two countries went to war over this issue in 1947 until 1949 and then again in 1965. In the time being China and Pakistan gained control of the territory claimed by India, although India still had owned the most populated areas of Kashmir. Jammu is the area surrounding Kashmir, which Jammu also one of the capitals of Kashmir. Jammu is the capital of Kashmir in the months of November until April, while Srinigar is the capital of Kashmir in the months of May until October. Kashmir has different capitals during different months because it is located in the Himalayan Mountains, which rise to about 28,000 feet. This causes different weather climates and causes the city to re-locate for different months of the year.
India and Pakistan are both fighting for the region of Kashmir for different reasons and are looking to fight or resolve these issues in different manners. India wants Pakistan to loose any control they have over Pakistan and does not want Pakistan to have anything to do with the region itself. Pakistan wants to fight for custody of what they rightfully own
and thinks the people of Kashmir should take a vote on the country they want to be part of. India does not agree with Pakistan's theory and wants nothing to do with this action.
The United States has stepped in on the conflict between India and Pakistan by trying to pressure Pakistan to stop having terrorism involved, while they are also trying to convince India not to engage in war by attacking Pakistan. "We are making it very clear to both Pakistan and India that war will not serve their interests and we're part of a international coalition applying pressure to both parties," stated President Bush, "particularly to President Musharraf. He must stop the incursions across the Line of Control. He must do so." What the United States is mainly trying to do is prevent war between the two countries India and Pakistan for ownership of Kashmir. The reason the United States is trying to prevent a war from occurring between the two allies is because this could start a war with the United States and Afghanistan, which could also lead to the start of the search for the al Qaeda leaders, which are believed to be hiding in Pakistan.
Over the years they have come engaged in wars over these conflicts and the question now is, will there be another war? In India there have been three terrorist attacks in a short time period of nine months, which have been done and organized by the Pakistani-based militants. In October 2001, Islamic soldiers killed 40 people in an attack in Srinigar, which is one of the capitals of Kashmir. In December, five Islamic soldiers entered the Indian parliament in New Delhi and were able to kill seven people before they were killed. In May, more soldiers from Pakistan attacked one of the Indian campgrounds and killed nearly 30 people, which mostly contained the wives and children of Indian soldiers. India has responded to these attacks by building up a military on the
Line of Control and has been threatening the Islamic militants from Pakistan. But Pakistan has been seeing India's threats as trying to keep control of Kashmir and continuing the policy they had originally wanted to stick with.
The Line of Control is a 450-mile line that indicates the boundary between the parts of Kashmir controlled by India and the part controlled by Pakistan. This was originally known as the " Cease-fire Line," but it was renamed the Line of Control right after the signing of the Simla Agreement, which was signed on July 3, 1972. The Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. This was an agreement made because it set the rules for each country and their ownerships of Kashmir and this could possibly help prevent future issues. Another line of control or "cease-fire" is on that separates the Indian controlled part of Jammu and Kashmir from the Chinese controlled area known as Aksai Chin, which lies further east and is known as the "Line of Actual Control".
In Kashmir, the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) established the help that was called for by the Security Council during the war of 1949 for the ownership of Kashmir. This helped the strength of its observers increase to 102 contributing countries. The United Nation Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan is a group of military observers that arrives to mission areas to help control the situations taking place. In this case the ONMOGIP arrived to a mission area on January 24, 1949 to supervise the "cease-fire" between India and Pakistan in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kashmir's symbolism to India is a critical as an security significance. India is unwilling to lose any kind of additional piece of land. New Delhi is also concerned
Kashmir authority would break away from other Indian states. To Pakistan, Kashmir is symbolic of its national commitment to protect Muslim interests against India. They believe their country is incomplete without the region of Kashmir. Kashmir symbolizes the importance that Hindus and Muslims need and rely on each other. Although, India and Pakistan are nuclear powers it may help the issue of a fourth Indo-Pakistani war to occur that can also entail in a nuclear exchange. Jammu and Kashmir was a heavy target of a religion-based terrorism attack. The aim of this is to divide people in India and Pakistan from fighting over the territory of Kashmir and the state of Jammu and divide it equally.
Two years after a serious war between India and Pakistan they announced recently a peace on a number of distinct matters, including the dispute over the long-term issues with Kashmir. This decision was made between President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan and the Prime Minster of India, Atal Bihari Vajpayee in the Pakistani capital known as Islamabad. They have not decided yet, but India's foreign minster, Yashwant Sinha, said they would come to a conclusion on Kashmir. Khursheed Kasuri a Pakistani hailed the announcement on the decision on what they were going to do in the settlement of Kashmir. "It is a victory for common sense. It is a victory for moderation. It is a victory for statesmanship," said Khursheed Kasuri a member of Pakistan that had to do with the agreement on Kashmir and the state Jammu. The joint statement from both of the Indian and Pakistan leaders was that they wanted to "promote progress toward the common objective of peace, security and the economic development for out people and for future generations". Relations between India and Pakistan have improved a great deal
since 2002 and before, with the two countries calling a truce and restoring the dispute of Kashmir. Kashmir is now divided between the two countries. This dispute has claimed over 65,000 lives since 1989 and been the cause of two out of three Indo-Pakistani wars since the countries became independent from Britain in 1947.
These conflicts have had many impacts all over the world, if a nuclear war were to break out between the allies it would have caused an even larger impact on the world today, a negative impact. This could have caused many things to happen to our atmosphere and if our atmosphere is not a healthy environment our society cannot be healthy and well functioning. The effects this could have had on our world today was problems with our agriculture and could have caused a massive amount of pollution. The massive amounts of pollution from the nuclear war if it were to break out would be causing holes into out ozone layer, which can have the pollution cover the sun and have what they call a nuclear winter. This war would break out over the massive dispute that has been going on for years between India and Pakistan about the ownership of the land of Kashmir and its surrounds, one being the State of Jammu. India does not want to give up any of their land that had complete ownership of Kashmir first. Pakistan fought for ownership of Kashmir because they felt the Muslims had to stay together to build a stronger religion. The region was divided into 3 parts with India, Pakistan and China owning a part, although, India had control over the most populated parts of Kashmir and the state of Jammu. Another reason as to why India and Pakistan would not go to war is because all of the terrorists build their camping grounds on the territories of the Pakistani people, which had them on their armies now and India would not be able to compete with
them. India and Pakistan did break out in a war though, but it did not last very long. The United States tried to help settle this dispute between the two countries because it was affecting the United States as well, it could bring up a conflict with the U.S. and Afghanistan.
Although there have been many conflicts and disputes between these two countries they have come to a compromise by splitting the land fairly. They have made a set compromise that will remain in books and prevent future conflicts in this situation.
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