The structure and development of curriculum
The structure and development of curriculum involves many features, including how it is organised, the goals to be achieved in education, processes of teaching, learning and assessment, and finally how it the curriculum will cater for the future learners. We will discover how the curriculum framework is broken into these categories to form the structure and development. Department of Education and Training (2008) Queensland curriculum standard requirements state "All schools are required to develop and maintain up-to-date curriculum plans in consultation with the school community. This planning ensures that assessment, teaching and reporting match the intended curriculum." (Department of Education and Training, 2008) Curriculum planning is divided into three levels in schools, whole-school curriculum, plan the sequence of learning across all year levels, plan each year level, term and unit. The curriculum process is to educate learners, develop skills and knowledge so they will be able to contribute within society.
To define curriculum in terms of a document which includes details about goals or objectives, content, teaching techniques, evaluation and assessment is the key values that represent educating.
The Department of Education and training of Queensland (2008) states the curriculum is "all the planned learning that is offered and enacted by a school." The framework of Queensland curriculum includes a learning environment, resources, teaching approaches and strategies, assessment and programs methods, values relationships, and behaviours between peers and teachers. All these elements are linked and provide the experiences that contribute to learners learning. "A good curriculum has each of these elements aligned so that intended learning is what is assessed and what students achieve." (Department of Education and Training, 2008).Therefore, this document attempts to widen the focus on defining a specific view on what a learner can accomplish under the guidance of school learning.
Curriculum is organised through scope and sequencing. Scope refers to the level and the arrangement of the curriculum elements that occur across subjects, while, sequence refers to the breaking the content and learning experiences into manageable steps to facilitate learning over a period of time. Example of scope and sequence used in schools is the grammar scope and sequence which each year level will cover a selected element of grammar. Year two (2) teachers teach learning elements of nouns, by identifying naming words, word building with nouns, and year six (6) will use the elements of complex possessive nouns, introduce abstract and common nouns. The scope considers the processes or skills that occur in subjects. Scoping is structured how subjects are taught through activities or integrating units.
Scope and Sequence provides information for teachers about the literacy genres, numeracy opportunities and demands, and possibilities for using ICT in the learning program for each of the Key Learning Areas in each year. By using the scope and sequence organisation it allows teachers to focus primarily on the intended curriculum, providing support for teachers on what to teach, how to teach it and how to assess it. Therefore, allowing teachers to make the most of learning in their class. "The sequences for each Key Learning Area outline nine years of schooling. In particular, the learning descriptions outlining what is essential for students to know, understand and be able to do by the end of Years 3, 5, 7, and 9 are critical for future learning and progress.."(Department of Education and Training, 2008) Within each of the eight Key learning Areas: English, Health and Physical Education, Languages other than English (LOTE), Mathematics, Science, Studies of Society and Environment, Technology and The Arts there is a sequence, statements describing what essential learning is to be addressed within the Queensland Curriculum. Using the scope and sequence learning describe what the learner does as a result of the learning opportunities and environment therefore provides a result ,or outcome of the learning process:
The structure of the Queensland curriculum relates to several models of curriculum, the process-based model involving sequential phases of curriculum design and development relates to Tyler's model of curriculum, which includes objectives followed by content or learning experiences, then using a method or organising learning experiences such as scope and sequencing, and finally evaluation or assessment. But, the Queensland framework of curriculum also relates to Skilbeck's model because "A curriculum that maximises the learning of all students is one that recognises and celebrates diversity and engages all students in intellectually challenging learning experiences. It provides students with clear guidelines on what they are learning and how they will be assessed. It involves a range of teaching strategies to meet different learning needs and explicit teaching to scaffold students' learning so that they develop and consolidate the required knowledge and skills to meet the anticipated future demands of work and citizenship." (Department of Education and Training, 2008) Skilbeck's Situation model examines the main context and needs that continues throughout the process of development and implementation of programs weekly or daily teaching. The consideration of these factors steps in the curriculum process of situation analysis, goal formulation. program building, interpretation and implementation and feedback, assessment & reconstruction. Skilbeck's model, fully considers the 'situation' or context of the curriculum having external factors and internal factors. The external factors include
- Cultural and social changes expectations and changes
- Relationships between adults and children, community assumptions and values
- Educational system requirements e.g. policy statements, assessment procedures
- Changing nature of subject matter
- Support systems
- Expected flow of resources
- Students student: aptitudes, abilities and educational needs
- Teachers values, attitudes, skills, knowledge, experience, special strengths and weaknesses, roles
- School ethos and structures and decision-making structure, power sharing
- Problems and shortcomings in the existing curriculum
- School community
The purpose or goal of education is to promote teaching and learning structure within a classroom and or school environment, is to make the most of a learners' learning and support learners to achieve their full potential. That learning experiences connect with existing knowledge and skills, students educational learning encourage a deeper understanding and that learners can connect purposeful. The principles found in the Framework policy states
"Quality curriculum maximizes each student's educational potential
All teaching and learning should be founded in the belief that, with good teaching, the right support and sufficient time, every student can develop knowledge, skills and understanding to achieve at higher levels. Teachers need to believe in their students as learners, have high expectations, and see themselves as responsible for improving the learning achievement of their students." (Department of Education and Training, 2008)
The development of the curriculum involves a curriculum for all learning aspects of the essential ways of working and knowledge ensuring that learners are engaged with learning and develop their knowledge and understanding. "This includes promoting excellence through a curriculum that supports all students to develop a deep understanding of important subject matter and the intellectual tools and strategies to think for themselves and to manage their own learning" (Department of Education and Training, 2008). Curriculum engages learners with strategies to develop sound understanding. Teachers applying these learning activities will guide learners, to work towards building on their knowledge, by applying, explaining, interpreting, and processing. Ensuring that a learner will achieve and participate within their learning is an intended part of the curriculum.
Teaching and learning practices within a school environment promote the student to maximise their educational potential. Through good teaching, supporting learners, it will assist with the developing their knowledge and understanding. .Therefore, learners are engaging with support and scaffolding between each other to gain further understanding, ensuring that the cirrculum provides students the key tools and strategies to think for themselves and learn how to manage their learning.
The quality assessment of student learning is an continuing course of action of collecting relevant data to determine what a learners knows, understands and reflect on area of the curriculum that need support. The principles of assessment require assessment be applicable, and should provide reliable information on the learners achievements. Students should know what they have to learn and what the criteria or standard will be set for assessment tasks.
Learners demonstrating their high order of thinking, they can apply their new skill to other contents. By providing feedback, it will provide learners to reflect on their learning and identify different steps to improve. Assessment is to reflect on the understanding of their learning. "Achievement of the intended curriculum including the quality or standard of achievement, assessment practices should also play an educative role for students, enabling them to reflect on their learning -particularly misconceptions and gaps in their knowledge - and take some responsibility for their own ongoing learning". (Department of Education and Training, 2008).
This new generation has totally different learning styles these needs should be considered in classroom teaching; technology plays an integral part within today's society. Learners are engaging learning to accommodate with new technologies. "The curriculum should reflect and build on the digital literacy's that students already have." (Department of Education and Training, 2008)
Therefore, in conclusion, schools curriculums make the vital contribution to the student's future, wellbeing, prosperity, and social society skills. The curriculum needs to work towards developing capabilities, as well as achieving outcome goals in the gaining of specific knowledge. The curriculum must go beyond just schooling foundation of education; these skills are further required in the workplace, community and recreational surroundings. The curriculum is one way to ground the concept of life-long learning in a knowledge society. Quality teaching and learning practices within a school environment promote the student to maximise their educational potential. Through good teaching, supporting learners, it will assist with the developing their knowledge and understanding. .
- Brady L : Kenndy, K. (2007). Cirriculum Construction (3rd ed.). Pearson Education Australia.
- Department of Education and Training. (2008). Department of Education and Training. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from P-12 Curriculum Framework: http://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/framework/p-12/index.html
- Marsh, C. (2003). Key Concepts for understanding cirriculum. New York: RoutledgeFalner.
- Nicholls, A.. Nicholls, H.. (1978). Developing a cirriculum. London: Biling & Sons Ltd.
- Queensland Studies Authority. (2010). Queensland Studies Authority. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/
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