Teaching and Learning in Clinical Practice
The purpose of this essay is to outline the episode of teaching and learning in clinical practice that I have been involved. It will describe the significance of under penning theory of teaching, It will demonstrate knowledge and understanding teaching and learning methods relate with learning outcomes/objectives, assessment, and evaluation and quality assurance. It will also going to looking at the reflection that has been required to the teaching session based on the evaluation. I am going to use Gibbs (1988) Reflective Cycle. This model is a recognized framework for my reflection. Gibbs (1988) consists of six stages to complete one cycle which is able to improve my teaching practice continuously and learning from the experience for better practice in the future.
Learning is the act or process by which behavioural change, knowledge, skills and attitudes are acquired Boyd, et al. (1980) therefore learning is not just attending a class or reading books it is all about changing behaviours and attitudes, reflecting what has been taught by practicing. There are three sets of learning theory generally used in educational circles these are behaviourist, humanistic, and cognitive. For my teaching session I have used Cognitive approach because the cognitive method is student-centred. In other words, as an adult learner, the students find out for themselves in a self-directed way Pritchard, A. (2008).
According to Knowles, M.S. (2005) and Quinn, F.M & Hughes, S (2007) cognitive learning is a great method that provides the means of knowledge, and goes well beyond simple imitation of others. Conditioning can never explain what you are learning from reading our web-site. This learning illustrates the importance of cognitive learning Conner, M. L. (2005).. Cognitive learning defined as the gaining of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive processes. The procedures we have for manipulating information in our heads Cognitive processes include creating mental representations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing Thorners.L (2009). In cognitive learning, the individual learns by listening, watching, touching, reading, or experiencing and then processing and remembering the information. Cognitive learning might seem to be passive learning, because there is no motor movement. However, the learner is quite active, in a cognitive way, in processing and remembering newly incoming information.
One of the most useful descriptive models available of the adult learning process provided by Kolb (1984) suggesting that there are four stages in learning which follow from each other: Concrete Experience is followed by Reflection on that experience on a personal basis. This may then be followed by the derivation of general rules describing the experience, or the application of known theories to it Abstract Conceptualisation, and thus to the construction of ways of modifying the next occurrence of the experience Active Experimentation, leading in turn to the next Concrete Experience. All this may happen in a flash, or over days, weeks or months, depending on the topic, and there may be wheels within wheels process at the same time Muijs.D And Reynolds.D (2006),……….
According to Pritchard, A. (2008) the best way for a person to learn depends on the person, of course. It is well know that people have different leaning styles that work best for them. The best approach for a teacher to take is to address a variety of learning styles with their teaching plan. It is also helpful to encourage students to understand their preferred leaning style. Teachers should make students aware of the various learning styles and encourage them to consider their preferred style as they complete their studies. Wragg.E.C (2004) recommended that teachers should create an environment with lots of tools for developing an understanding of the topic. I have provided PowerPoint slide and image from the web so that the students can learn in both way from the slide and image. I have applied them by allowing the students to be active participants discussing on the topic, monitoring student’s progress and ask lots questions and answer. Teachers should provide use of visual and verbal teaching methods as well as speak out loud student using technique. Student should think deeply and answer questions about the topic to further develop their understanding. Incorrect answer can be a good thing as it helps the student recognise that they need learn more to achieve purpose of the topic Conner, M. L. (2005).
Cognitive learning strategies include case studies, research, discussions, self-assessment and presentations. As an adult learner, I used PowerPoint presentation with good font size and good background light as well as topic related image which can attracts the audience and grape their tension. The topic of the lesson I have prepared was based on the audience level and relevant for their future nursing career. According to NMC (2008) we have a duty to facilitate students of nursing, midwifery and specialist community public health nursing and others to develop their competence. I have a responsibility to teach based on current evidence, best practice and, where acceptable, validated research when it is available. According to Malcolm (2005) the Andragogical Model in adult learners has a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions, for their own lives. Ones they arrived at that self-concept, they develop a deep psychological need to be seen by others and treated by others as being capable of self-direction. This includes letting learners know how the topic is important to learn, showing learners how to direct themselves through information and relating the topic to their experiences. In addition, people will not learn until they are ready and motivated to learn. Often this requires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviours, and beliefs about learning Conner, M. L. (2005).
Lesson plan is one of the most important principles of good teaching so that the teacher can check that he/she keeping to time and actually what the content of her/his lesson is, as well as a framework for reflection and evaluation Pritchard, A. (2008) Thorners.L (2009) I have structured my lesson plan by asking myself about the title for the session, the type of expected learning, about teaching and learning methods, length of time available, location of teaching session, access computer, internet resources, etc. I also think about the audience the number of learners and their study level or stage in training, and how will I know if the students understand? This is by assessing student Informal and formal way, questioning techniques, feedback from learners Knowles, M.S. (2005), Muijs.D And Reynolds.D (2006) and Surgenor.P (2010)
I have also set out the aim and objectives for my teaching session, that way the students know what to expect and also what they are expected to know by the end of the session. Surgenor.P (2010), Muijs.D And Reynolds.D (2006) explained that the goal of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the purpose of teaching to ensure the lesson is successful and the objectives are achieved. Clearly identifying learning objectives improves the communication between the teacher and the learner. When the objectives of a teaching have been clearly identified and presented in an orderly progression, the desired learning outcomes will be attained.
In this paragraph, I am going to reflect on the situation that taken place during my teaching session using Gibbs module which consist six stages. The cycle starts with a description of the situation, next is to analysis of the feelings, third is an evaluation of the experience, fourth stage is an analysis to make sense of the experience, fifth stage is a conclusion of what else could I have done and final stage is an action plan to prepare if the situation arose again NHS, (2006). Dunn.L, (2002) and Wragg.E.C (2004) gave some reasons why reflection is require in the reflective practice. They state that a reflect is to generate the practice knowledge, assist an ability to adapt new situations, develop self-esteem and satisfaction as well as to value, develop and professionalizing practice. However, Jasper M (2003) explain that reflection is about gaining self-confidence, identify when to improve, learning from own mistakes and behaviour, looking at other people perspectives, being self-aware and improving the future by learning the past.
Description, I had a clinical teaching session PowerPoint presentation for my fellow students at London South Bank University in January 2011. It was a 20 minutes teaching session based on nursing related topic I left home early as I wanted to print my note. Unfortunately it was just a shame that I forgot my student card and couldn’t print my work for this result I was panicking but I managed to teach using the PowerPoint slides. I thought the students will come up with lots questions which would challenge me.
Feelings, I was feeling nervous just before I begin to talk and during the first five minutes, and then things get much easier. Before I started to teach, I introduced myself and approached the students to build a good connection with them as I do not want them to feel bored as well as I myself was blank due to anxiety. My first approached was to ask them how much they know about the topic. The students were interested in the topic and they were quite knowledge about the topic. In this situation, I showed up my emphatic listening. According to Wold (2004) the emphatic listening is about the motivation to understand the other person not just judging the person’s fact. Then, I start going through slides in detail each point and I ensured if the students could hear me as I was quite quickly spoken and coughing during talk due to mouth dryness. In the meantime I used non-verbal communication skills with them including using my body gesturers and facial expression. “Body gesturers and facial expressions are referred as a non-verbal communication” Surgenor.P (2010) and Jasper M (2003). As a result, the students gave a good collaboration and enjoyed the session until finished.
Evaluating, I was pleased to see that the students did not disappoint with the session. I feel I make the right decision to accompany and assess student if they could hear me in order to get my point. Furthermore, I could develop my confident to teach/communicate more effectively. Although Pollard.A, (2008), would describe it as a task-centre communication as one of the element caused the lack communication among teachers. My worry was that during my preparation it was not considered how I could handle my anxieties and nerves which affect my communication by talking quick or may not clear enough.
In my analysis, generally the session went well because I used cognitive approach correctly and used appropriate teaching method. Point out that Pritchard, A. (2008) cognitive theory is a great theory to follow when teaching. I was suffering with mouth dryness and talked quickly, it seemed because I was nerves, otherwise enjoyed good teaching. During my presentation it might have helped to have a print out note of my presentation so that I don’t get blank and also I might have helped if it was considered how I will handle my own anxieties and nerves for example to have a bottle of water would have help to hydrate me. Study suggested that to practice my talk and keep a note of timings and any helpful stage direction as well as considering how to react under pressure. Study also shows that it is common to speak more quickly when nervous and therefore, it is useful to think of ways of slowing down at the beginning of your talk NHS (2006), Pollard.A, (2008), Skinner.D (2010).
The students were satisfied to learn new thing from the topic that has no previously done and learnt the important point of the session. I was satisfied with engaging students by asking questions and answering, student discussion and that they appeared to be knowledgeable. According to West, Clark and Jasper (2007) provide students with best opportunity for success during the assessment process it is essential to ensure they have a feasible workload for their stage of education that can enable them to learn as well as to work therefore I was giving them every opportunities to ask question and to discuses on the topic by assessing what they learnt and by asking questions which help students to build up their confidence.
Conclusion, after analysed the situation, I could conclude that I was able to know how important a good practice is valuing student respect them and treat them as an individual to deliver a good teaching. I also gain knowledge the skills for effective communication with the student weather I am nerves or anxious, I could communicate effectively with student such as approach the student, asking questions, be an active listening, show my understanding and support the encourage for further reading.
There wasn’t a lot I could have done in this situation; I did ask students as much as I could and I was able to answer their question as well which makes me feel good. However, I could have challenged the students by kept a little bit more if I had print out my note. The Gibbs reflective method has helped me to learn from experience and has given me an insight on what I would do differently if the situation happened again. In the future I believe that I will be able to demonstrate and work closely with both service users to support them, by assessing their needs, reviewing risks, policies and procedures that apply to them.
Action plan, for the future I will be able to give the best teaching practice because now I have gain more knowledge about how to prepare teaching session and how to teach. I am also aware that by assisting patients in many ways for example, help patients to contain uncomfortable feelings, by assessing what my symptoms are, I need to learn how to hide these symptoms and pretend to be more confident. For example, if my hands were shaking I wouldn’t hold my notes in my hands. If my mouth does dry, then I would keep a bottle of water along. According to Pollard.A, (2008), often by finding ways of controlling the symptoms, you will find that you are no longer feeling quite so anxious.
During this essay I learnt the role of teaching and learning theory and I have developed skills and professional knowledge to work effectively with others. Also this essay helped me to develop my knowledge in teaching and learning and understand how the laws and policies are set up to give a better quality practice for teaching so I will use this for my future teaching in practice.
I also learnt about individual needs in teaching and the important of approach to teach with student that promotes diversity and valuing differences, Self-esteem and positive group identity, fulfilment of individual potential, and, the full participation of all groups in society.
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