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Pestle analysis of education system

Pestle Analysis Of Education System In India.

Introduction

In a complex world of constant change, where knowledge becomes obsolete every few years, education can no longer be something that one acquires during youth to serve for an entire lifetime. Rather, education must focus on instilling the ability to continue learning throughout life. Fortunately, the information-technology revolution is creating a new form of electronic, interactive education that should blossom into a lifelong learning system that allows almost anyone to learn almost anything from anywhere at any time.

“Education is of great intrinsic importance with assessing inequalities of opportunity. It is also important determinant of individual's income, health (and that of their children) and capacity to interact and communicate with others. Inequality in education thus contributes to inequality in other important dimensions of well being. Measuring inequality in education is not an easy task”. (World Bank - Equity and Development, World Development Report 2006) The above statement makes clear the importance of education in different aspects of development of an individual. We are in the era of knowledge society and knowledge economy. Education has become the most important event of the individual and national development in terms of social and economic aspects. Even before GATS application, it has become an international event. On this background it would be worth reviewing the Indian scenario of education and its benefits reaching to the different sections of the society and the gaps.

The key technology in future education is interactive multimedia--a powerful combination of earlier a technologies that constitutes an extraordinary advance in the capability of machines to assist the educational process. Interactive multimedia combines computer hardware, software, and peripheral equipment to provide a rich mixture of text, graphics, sound, animation, full-motion video, data, and other information. Although multimedia has been technically feasible for many years, only recently has it become a major focus for commercial development.

Interactive multimedia has several key advantages:

1. Students receive training when and where they need it. An instructor does not have to be present, so students can select the time best suited to their personal schedules.

2. Students can adjourn training at any point in the lesson and return to it later.

3. The training is highly effective , because it is based on the most-powerful principles of individualized learning. Students find the program interesting, so they stick with it. Retention of the material learned is excellent.

4. The same videodisc equipment can be used to support a variety of training paths.

5. Both the training and the testing are objectively and efficiently measured and tracked.

Classroom training will always be needed for some things, of course, but interactive multimedia training should become the common method for teaching employees how to use an organization's systems, acquire the skills needed to handle a new job, and brush up on the latest management methods.

History

Historically India had very strong and internationally acclaimed system of education including higher education. In ancient India there was strong ‘Guru-Shishya' parampara (Tradition). We also had reputed universities in ancient India like Takshashila in North, Nalanda and Vikramashila in East, Vallabhi

in Kathiawad, Kanchi in South and Nadia in Bengal. During the period of invasion, the systems were disruputed and over a long period there was no university system existing in the country or organised education system, for that matter. The newer era of higher education started with the British initiative in the 19th century. Lord Macaulay (1835) through the Macaulay minutes stressed upon the closure of institutions of oriental learning and then a few colleges at different places were established by the British regime. In July 1854, Woods Despatch had proposed establishment of universities in India. Accordingly, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Universities were established in the year 1857 which are felicitating their 150th year. In 1882 the first Indian Education Commission under the Chairmanship of W Hunter was established. The report dealt with indigenous education, primary education, secondary education and university education.

In 1913 the Education Policy was developed by the then British

Government, which proposed establishment of new universities within each province. Accordingly, the Central Hindu College was converted to Banaras Hindu University in 1916 and Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College into Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. Universities were also stared at Mysore, Hyderabad and Patna. The Sergeant Report of 1944 was an effort to develop a national system of education in India, which suggested formation of University Grants Commission. During the post independence period, the First Education

Commission was constituted in 1948 on university education. The Commission was chaired by Dr S Radhakrishnan and also known as the Radhakrishnan Commission. This Commission “stressed on autonomous status of universities. The Commission pointed out ‘democracy depends for its very life on high standard of general, vocational and professional education'. The dissemination of learning, incessant search for new knowledge, unceasing effort to plumb the meaning of life provision for professional education to satisfy occupational needs of our society are the vital tasks of higher education”. As an outcome of these recommendations, the University Grants Commission was established in 1956. In July 1964 Second Education Commission known as the Kothari Commission was appointed to establish well designed, balanced, integrated and adequate system of national education capable of making the powerful contribution to national life. The Commission “emphasized on expansion of higher education, enhancing quality of higher education and research; and use of dynamic techniques for management and organization”. In 1968, the National Policy on Education was adopted based on the recommendations of the Kothari Commission, which led to the considerable expansion of education facilities all over the country. In rural habitations, schooling facilities were developed within a radius of one kilometer but these did not get translated into detailed structure of implementation. The National Policy on Education was adopted again in 1986, which was in response to the non-implementation of 1968 educational

policy. This policy emphasized on “elimination of disparities, equal access to every Indian of requisite merit, enhancement in support to research and inter-disciplinary research promotion”.

In 1990, the Ramamurthy Committee was appointed to review the National Policy on Education 1986, which laid emphasis on quality of higher and technical education, its relevance to the needs of society and industry. With this background of different Commissions and National Policies, it would be worth glancing through post independence progress in expansion of education and its quality in the country. Also it would be worth identifying the gaps so that remedies could be worked out for further improvement.

Growth Of Distance Learning

Pestal Analysis Of Indian Education System

Political

  • Schools being privatised (like the NHS)
  • A government initiative creates the risk that the school may fail to deliver the policy or be diverted away from local priorities etc.
  • Changes to the skills required to be a teacher/ tutor
  • Changes to curriculum with short lead times
  • Requirement to be self managing
  • Requirement to be self financing

Economic

  • Central or local government funding decisions may affect school/ establishment finances
  • Closure of a local industry may affect fund raising plans etc.
  • Ability of parents to raise funds for optional activities
  • The need to run breakfast/ after schools clubs
  • Ability to invest 'savings/ surpluses'

Cost of providing resources:

  • Staff - teaching & support
  • Basics - books/ paper
  • Technology solutions laptops etc
  • Interest rates
  • Shortages of materials on national/ international markets
  • Over provision of school places in the area resulting in competition from neighbouring schools
  • The risk of highly valued, key staff moving on to more ‘up and coming' schools/ academies

Social

  • Decline in birth rate, reflecting national trends
  • Local population changes (increasing/ decreasing numbers)
  • Demographic changes may affect likely pupil rolls or the nature of pupils needse.g. pupils with English as a second language etc.
  • Closure of local firms providing employment
  • Inability to attract staff
  • Social networking - blogs, facebook, twitter
  • Changes to qualifications expected
  • Integration with local community
  • Integration of students with special needs
  • parental preference - an increase in ‘parent power' has allowed parents more freedom of choice over their child's school
  • the risk of highly valued, key staff moving on to more up-and-coming establishments
  • Information is accessible to staff anywhere in the world via the Internet
  • Staff were not given enough training or access to effectively change their habits and how they expected information to be made available

Technological

  • Changes to standards/ equipment required
  • Risk of selecting the wrong technology at times of change (i.e. windows -v- open source)
  • New computer viruses may affect school/ college operations,
  • Disturbing/ illegal images on the internet may affect ICT security measures etc.
  • Move from paper based books to e-book readers
  • Computer hardware being out of date
  • Computer software being out of date
  • Time to manage IT systems

Legislative

  • new legislation may create risks of non-compliance with the law, create new administrative burdens etc
  • Changes to child protection legislation
  • Raise the age of school leaving age
  • Raise/ lower the age of starting school. Nursery/ kindergarten
  • Change to school opening hours
  • Changes to funding of charity based organisations
  • Health & safety legislation

Environmental

  • A new highway layout near the school may create new dangers for pupils etc
  • Waste disposal
  • Reduction of green space available for activities
  • Changes to local bus routes
  • Using a significant amounts of paper and photocopier toner to produce printed information.

POLITICAL ANALYSIS :->

The government has experienced a number of criticisms from its parliamentary opponents. It also looks as if relations between the central and state governments will remain strained. In August 2004 the BBC reported that ministers from five BJP-run states walked out of a meeting called by the government to devise a new national education policy.51 But they also stemmed from a widespread recognition that India's education system fails large numbers of its young people, either because education is not available or because it does not provide students with relevant skills. The Common Minimum Programme represents a welcome attempt to reassert the traditional vision of education in India, concentrating on access, quality and secularism. But while these aims have remained largely unchanged since Nehru's era, it remains to be seen whether the current government can become the first administration to confront and manage the balance between excellence and equity.

ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS :->

In India from lower to higher class study is free. However there are several private schools and colleges are charged higher price. So education in India is more up to upper class people. Mean while government also try to make education free for everyone. But due to lack of awareness and other factor like society and money. The literacy rate is not increasing as it is to be increased. Mr Kapil Sibbal HR minister of India comes with several new concepts which are likely to be used. Govt. Also provide mid day meals and several others program to attract or increase literacy rate in India. However due to low economic conditions people cannot afford higher education in india.

SOCIAL ANALYSIS :->

In India social factor is one of the most important factor as it is a very big country and its society is divided into several cultures which also effect education in India. But now a day everyone knows the importance of education hence they like to study rather than other things. In India about 2600000 people are graduates and about 10,00,000 people are post graduates. But due to lack of proper education system they cannot have proper services which also give wrong message to the society. Hence people are not getting job's.

TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS :->

In India due to huge population proper technology are not used in education system. However In the near future, ordinary PCs will be able to vividly explain and show students the answer to a question in full-motion, talking, colour video graphics instead of simple written text. Personal digital assistants will become book-sized electronic companions for communicating, computing, and performing endless other tasks. Keyboards will be replaced with voice-recognition systems, and language translation will be computerized. Virtual reality will eventually allow one to enter any world imaginable. Screens won't be just the size of a desk, but an entire wall, so images will become life-size. Miniaturization of hardware will continue to reduce the size of information technology such that powerful systems will be cheap and small enough to put in a pocket. Already, one can buy a briefcase that incorporates a computer, printer, fax, copier, and telephone, permitting instantaneous contact from anywhere.

Comming Changes In Education

1. Students will attend televised lectures in their residence halls and draw materials form the library using computers in their rooms.

2. Some instruction will be conducted electronically and some will occur in small, informal meetings between faculty and students.

3. Local area networks (LANs) will enable universities to integrate many aspects of college life that have long been segregated in separate buildings.

4. Non-residential students will be able to attend lectures and use libraries form distant locations, such as their homes or places of work.

5. Electronic access to library catalogs will eliminate the need for some reference space but probably will increase the need for computer space.

6. The teacher's role will shift form lecturing to advising or coaching students on tough, messy issues, such as choosing materials, topics, career paths, etc.

LEGAL FACTOR:->

The National Policy on Education was adopted again in 1986, which was in response to the non-implementation of 1968 educational policy. This policy emphasized on “elimination of disparities, equal access to every Indian of requisite merit, enhancement in support to research and inter-disciplinary research promotion”.

In 1990, the Ramamurthy Committee was appointed to review the National Policy on Education 1986, which laid emphasis on quality of higher and technical education, its relevance to the needs of society and industry. With this background of different Commissions and National Policies, it would be worth glancing through post independence progress in expansion of education and its quality in the country. Also it would be worth identifying the gaps so that remedies could be worked out for further improvement.

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS:->

India's education system turns out millions of graduates each year, many skilled in IT and engineering. This manpower advantage underpins India's recent economic advances, but masks deep-seated problems within India's education system. While India's demographics are generally perceived to give it an edge over other countries' economies (India will have a youthful population when other countries have ageing populations), if this advantage is restricted to a small, highly educated elite, the domestic political ramifications could be severe. With 35 per cent of the population under the age of 15, India's education system faces numerous challenges. Successive governments have pledged to increase spending on education to 6 per cent of GDP, but actual spending has hovered around 4 per cent for the last few years. While, at the top end, India's

business schools, Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and universities produce globally competitive graduates, primary and secondary schools, particularly in rural areas, struggle to find staff.

Indian governments have seen education as a crucial development tool. The first part of this paper provides a historical perspective on the development of the education system in India, highlighting the changing emphases within government policy. Since Independence, the education policies of successive

Governments have built on the substantial legacies of the Nehruvian period, targeting the core themes of plurality and secularism, with a focus on excellence in higher education, and inclusiveness at all levels. In reaching these goals, the issue of funding has become problematic; governments have promised to increase state spending while realizing the economic potential of bringing in private-sector financial support. The second part of this paper examines how recent governments have responded to these challenges, which have remained largely unchanged since Nehru's era, despite the efforts of past governments and commissions to reform the Indian education system. Attention will be paid to more recent policy initiatives, both those of the previous BJP-led administration and the proposals of the current Congress-led United Progressive Alliance. It will become clear that the same difficulties that existed nearly sixty years ago remain largely unsolved today - for example, the need to safeguard access to education for the poorest and most disenfranchised communities of India.

STRENGTHS

  • -sufficient methods, equipments and techniques to train stuff in all parts of education
  • -all educational institutes have official licences/status
  • -specialists on different levels of education
  • - forest schools offer tailored courses
  • -vocational schools have contacts with enterprises
  • -John Deere and Ponsse willing to assist in training
  • -quick changes possible to meet the needs of forest sector
  • -know-how on preparing seminars (e.g. with Silver Taiga)

WEAKNESSES

  • -lack of financing
  • -no official programmes for forest machine operators
  • -no qualifications or diplomas for forest machine drivers
  • -no qualifications to use machines, no possibilities to increase education for working staff
  • -no skills to use new techniques or materials

OPPORTUNITIES

  • -ready to study the state of market
  • -possibility to research the market demands
  • -possibilities due to the join project in terms of studies
  • -growing need to educate specialists

THREATS

  • -shortage of specialists in this project
  • -new forestry legislation causing unpredictable future
  • -lack of long term forest policy in Russia

SWOT ANALYSIS OD EDUCATION SYSTEM

'Need to reform education system'

TNN 25 November 2009, 09:40pm IST

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MANGALORE: State primary and secondary education minister Vishweshwara Hegde Kageri said there was an ardent need for reforming the system of education that has continued to be under the colonial influence.

Speaking at the inaugural session of the Bhagavad Gita campaign organized under the aegis of Sri Swarnavalli Mutt here on Wednesday, Kageri said such campaigns should strive for building up the public opinion to pressurize the governments to decolonize the system of education by infusing the traditional thoughts.

Kageri who was critical about the employment oriented system of education said that the present system had failed to provide the students correct vision of life and tuned them mere job hunters. He requested the organizers to conduct the campaign among the students so that they could emerge as enlightened citizens. The mentality of the people these days was akin to the mentality of Arjuna as portrayed in Bhagavad Gita. People can come out of the condition of imbroglio by going through the teachings of Lord Krishna. It will help reform the personal lives of Indians, he said

Suggessions

There are national agencies, which are looking after drop out and quality issues. But I strongly feel that this is the stage in which higher education system should take interest in their feeder area or supply chain to improve quality and drop out as a priority need of the community and duty of higher education system and

lastly for their own growth i.e., higher education system. It is always debated, as to whose responsibility it is to maintain the quality of education whether policy makers, administration, universities, teachers, society or students. I consider this is a joint responsibility of all stakeholders, which needs coordinated efforts and definite commitment to improve the system. I feel the university system should take lead as they have got pool of intellectuals with infrastructure to do research and training. The university departments like education, sociology, and economics could take projects in their drainage area, directly or through affiliated colleges in which they can, evaluate the enrolment rates, drop out rates, quality of education and underlying reasons; evaluate the teachers and infrastructure available and workout remedial measures. These remedial measures could be implemented in some of the schools on experimental basis and within a few years the outcome may be studied. The successful module may be sent to government for implementation or convince local community to take over the responsibility. This will be a great national service by the universities.

The issue of non-availability of the Teachers at the primary school headquarters and their frequent long absence needs to be addressed. One suggestion in this regard is that select the best talent with proper qualification, preferably married ladies residing in the same village and train for the job. Keep the job non-transferable, keep refresher courses at regular interval; constitute a village education committee for the school, involve them in management, establish liaison with district/state education authorities and genuine NGO's. This experiment will help to bring stability to teachers and quality in school education. We desire to be a developed country, we have to make special efforts to promote education for disadvantaged sections of the society for a balanced growth, otherwise large section of the society will be left out of social and economic growth, which will have negative impact on democratic and economic growth. We talk of our proud heritage of “Vasudaiva Kutumbakam” i.e., Global Family, why we are not able to take care of our own national

family?

Conclusion

The educational changes introduced by the BJP did not play a major role in the May 2004 general election. While access to education was an issue in some rural areas, roads, power, water and jobs were more important. The NDA manifesto on education had changed in emphasis, moving towards a more ‘communal' and nationalistic stand. Three points stand out:

While the Congress-dominated United Progressive Alliance government remains in power, these policies will not be implemented. But education will remain a key issue in Indian politics. The government will have to deal with the inherent problems in the education system and, for its own long-term political survival, it will need to reverse the changes introduced by the NDA.

As mentioned above, in its Common Minimum Programme, announced on 28 May 2004, the government pledged to raise public spending on education to at least 6 per cent of GDP, impose a cess on all central taxes to ‘universalize access to quality basic education' and reverse the creeping communalization of school syllabuses of the past five years. Both the budget and the Independence Day address stressed the importance of education as a key to tackling poverty, one of the main causes of which is illiteracy. The president, Abdul Kalam, has called for expenditure on education to be raised by 2-3 per cent of GDP.

The government has already experienced a number of criticisms from its parliamentary opponents. It also looks as if relations between the central and state governments will remain strained. In August 2004 the BBC reported that ministers from five BJP-run states walked out of a meeting called by the government to devise a new national education policy.51 But they also stemmed from a widespread recognition that India's education system fails large numbers of its young people, either because education is not available or because it does not provide students with relevant skills. The Common Minimum Programme represents a welcome attempt to reassert the traditional vision of education in India, concentrating on access, quality and secularism. But while these aims have remained largely unchanged since Nehru's era, it remains to be seen whether the current government can become the first administration to confront and manage the balance between excellence and equity.

Biblography

1. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=18206&sid=6&Fmt=3&clientId=129893&RQT=309&VName=PQD

2. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-5269065,prtpage-1.cms

3. http://dimdima.com/forumnw/message.asp?Tid=64&q_title=Today's+Education+System

4. http://www.highereducationinindia.com/

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