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Internal, external, and construct validity

Internal, External, And Construct Validity

NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET

Learner:_________

THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETELY FILLED IN

Please Follow These Procedures: If requested by your mentor, use an assignment cover sheet as the first page of the word processor file. Use "headers" to indicate your course code, assignment number, and your name on each page of the assignment/homework including this assignment cover sheet. .

Keep a Photocopy or Electronic Copy of Your Assignments: You may need to re-submit assignments if your mentor has indicated that you may or must do so.

Academic Integrity: All work submitted in each course must be the Learner's own. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by the faculty mentor. The knowing submission of another persons work represented as that of the Learner's without properly citing the source of the work will be considered plagiarism and will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course, and may result in academic dismissal.

Research Methods and Designs

Assignment # 4 Internal, External, and Construct Validity

Faculty Use Only

<Faculty comments here>

<Faculty Name>                         <Grade Earned>                        <Writing Score>                        <Date Graded>

External, Internal, and Construct Validity

Northcentral University

External, Internal, and Construct Validity


Introduction

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) has been utilized with success in students with or without learning disabilities and it is mainly attributed due to increased time concentrated on reading materials or exercises on the computer. It offers productive practice and time management and is an effective tool to used as a supplement to providing drills

(Williams, Wright, Callaghan, & Coughlan, 2002). Some of the advantages that the CAI provides inside the classroom include one-on-one exercise with minimal supervisory time involving the teacher. In many cases, instant feedback to students allows mistakes to be rectified immediately. Certain programs offer features that monitor speed and accuracy of answers and the regularity of instruction for subject mastery (Wong, 2008).


Internal Validity Threats

In a research study done by Coleman-Martin, Heller, Cihak, & Irvine (2005), a slower acquisition rate score was recorded when a different Windows version (i.e., XP versus Windows 98) was used during one of the test sessions. The variation of the platform caused the PowerPoint slide presentation to run slower than the prior sessions that resulted to disrupting its timing and consistency. Computer skills, familiarity with the software programs, and prior knowledge in the question format (i.e., multiple choice) are factors to consider that might have influence the rate at which the students learned words identification (Coleman-Martin, et al., 2005, p. 90).

Similarly, according to research study conducted by Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Hamlet, C., Powell, S., Capizzi, A., & Seethaler, P. (2006) on the effects of CAI on number combination skill in at-risk first graders, their procedures did not take into consideration the keyboarding

skills of at-risk first graders and the possibility that errors related to the learners' typing skills reduced the effectiveness of the CAI.


External Threats to Validity

According to Savage, R., Deault, L., Abrami, P., & Hipps, G. (2009), one limitation found on their research regarding a randomized controlled trial study of the ABRACADABRA reading intervention was that students with inferior literacy and associated skills during pretest were more likely not to show up for testing at follow-up. The researchers believed that this is an issue of experimental mortality insinuating that the postponement of posttest outcomes are almost certainly less generalizable to typical reader samples than the more immediate posttest statistics ( Savage, et al., 2009, p. 602).


Threats to Construct Validity

Bannert (2000) and Van Gog (2005) research study suggested that giving the students control over portions of their instruction allow them to better negotiate the cognitive challenges placed on them as students. They further noted that learner-control participants performed better on a test of transfer than the participants who received no control. Van Gog (2005) hypothesized that over time, improved performance would be visible during training situations along with the capability of the learner to assess and rectify future problematic situations when learners are progressively awarded with more control over their instruction as their skill level intensified.

In contrast, Eom and Reiser (2000) revealed that junior high students who were given the opportunity to control their instruction displayed considerably worse performance than those who were not allowed to control their instruction. The same results were reported by several researchers (Farrell and Moore, 2000 and Swaak and de Jong, 2001) who stated that providing students control over their instruction concludes in trivial or insignificant advancement. It may be a case of poor construct definition where a construct may have been mislabeled or defined at a

wrong level either too general or too specific. In this case, it is possible that establishing the types of control given to the students will be a crucial factor.


Impact of Validity Issues

Several validity issues could affect the envisioned research regarding the effectiveness of the type of CAI programs that are currently used as a remediation tool for at-risk students. One limitation is the inclination for technology difficulties because technology can be unpredictable. In accomplishing particular learning objectives, the learning tool such as the software programs used in conjunction with the CAI should be developmentally appropriate.


References

Bannert, M. (2002). Managing cognitive load - recent trends in cognitive load theory. Learning and Instruction, 12, 139-146. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Creswell, J. (2009). Research design (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Coleman-Martin, M., Heller, K., Cihak, D., & Irvine, K. (2005). Using computer-assisted instruction and the nonverbal reading approach to teach word identification. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(2), 80-90. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Cozby, P. (2009). Methods in behavioral research (10th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Eom, W. & Reiser, R. (2000). The effects of self-regulation and instructional control on performance and motivation in computer-based instruction. International Journal of Instructional Media, 27(3), 247-260. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Farrell, I. & Moore, D. (2000). The effect of navigation tools on learners' achievement and attitude in a hypermedia environment. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 29 (2), 169-181. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Hamlet, C., Powell, S., Capizzi, A, & Seethaler, P. (2006). The effects of computer-assisted instruction on number combination skill in at-risk first graders, 39(5), 467-475. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Savage, R., Deault, L., Abrami, P., & Hipps, G. (2009). A randomized controlled trial study of the ABRACADABRA reading intervention program in grade 1, Journal of Educational Psychology. 101(3), 590-604. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Swaak, J. & de Jong, T. (2001). Learners vs. system control in using online support for simulation-based discovery learning. Learning Environment Research, 4, 217-241. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Trochim, W., Donnelly, J. (2008). The research methods knowledge base. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Van Gog, T. Ericsson, K. Rikers, R., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical framework of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology Research and Design, 53(3), 73-81. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Williams, C., Wright, B. Callaghan, G., & Coughlan, B. (2002). Do children with autism learn to read more readily by computer-assisted instruction or traditional book method? A pilot study. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 6, 71-91.Retrieved February 16, 2010, from EBSCOHost database.

Wong, B. (1991). Learning about learning disabilities. New York: Academic Press.

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