Importance Of Information And Communication Technology Education Essay
This research work points to some of the importance of information and communication technology. Its definitions, advantages, elements, and its influence on educational development were discussed at length.
This proposal takes a crucial look at how information and communication technology can positively change the educational system and motivates tutors attitude towards their work, student’s behaviour towards learning and hence changing the institutional behaviour towards gaining competitive advantage.
The research is based on the primary and secondary data generated from questionnaire, participant observation, books, journals, articles, internet searches and personal experiences with the aim of portraying the influences of information and communication technology across educational institutions and determining to a large extent whether information and communication technology has been a great motivator of both tutors and students towards meeting their achievement.
Background of the study
The background of this study centres around information and communication technology, its influence on tertiary educational development. According to Foray (2004), information and communication technology and knowledge have had strong impacts on many economic sectors. With regards to tertiary education, the study looks into the use of information and communication technology in the education sector, as a way in the advancement of a knowledge economy. As knowledge and learning are part of economy building and social development.
This study is focused on the influence of information and communication technology on tertiary education to evaluate its use by students and also check how tutors method of teaching, based on the use of information technology has also been affected. The proposal also tries to show that the approach to studying teaching and learning with technology relies on three elements; a technology in use (e.g. internet), an activity for which it is used (e.g. information search) and the educational outcome of the activity (e.g. increased knowledge about topic).
However, an updated analysis computer in human behaviour shows that the computer-student interaction can improve learning. This involves the use of information and communication technology tools for educational performance and effectiveness.
This proposal analyses what is obtainable in School of Technology and Management London and how staffs and students utilise these tools to improve the quality and standard of education provided and also to gain competitive advantage over other institutions within its location.
Information and communication technology (ICT) as the name suggests encompasses all technology that facilitates the processing, transfer and exchange of information and communication services. Information and communication technology has always been available since the advent of the printing press, the only difference is that from late twentieth century, rapid advances in technology changed the traditional ways in which information was processed, communications conducted, and services available (Adu, 2002).
The 1990s was the decade of computer communication and information access, particularly with the popularity and accessibility of internet based services such as electronic mail and worldwide web.
Education is of course, at the core of the knowledge economy and learning society. Correspondingly, the role of information and communication technology in schools is shifting dramatically. Thus with the advent of the internet, education has definitely benefited in more ways than can be mentioned and although it will not take over the traditional methods of education, it will continue to play a major part.
Technology, in various forms has always held forth the promise of improving education (Wenger, 1998). This is true whether one speaks of scholastic education or its relatives, corporate and commercial training programs. Computer assisted instruction (CAI), instructional television (ITV), and programme instruction (PI) can be counted as early examples of the application of information technology to education. The most recent and perhaps most visible cases are web-based training programs and degree-granting programs from institutions offered via what is known as “distance learning”.
Globally, applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are making dramatic changes in economic and social development. These changes does not generally mean an increase in the number of computers appearing in homes, work places and schools but a change in the foundations of economic growth and its relationship to human capital. This economic and social change have been characterised by terms such as “knowledge economy” and “learning society”, that conveys the notion that knowledge and learning are now at the core of economic productivity and social development. From these, it can be perceived that knowledge is both the engine and product of economic and social development. Knowledge is dynamic, and the production of knowledge has more value than knowledge acquisition alone.
UNESCO’s International Commission on Education for the 21st century makes it clear that learning is a treasure within and that there is the need to develop learning society, of which education has a key role to play in achieving this. With these many countries developed policies for utilizing the potential of information and communication technology in education. UNESCO concluded that all education system needs to change. There is a general feeling that the education system as we have known it over the past 20 years or more no longer adequately serves the needs of present day society. It focuses too much on learning processes which can be characterised as ‘reproduction’ and that there is little attention to the ‘production’ of knowledge and skills (such as problem solving), Delors (1996).
In order to identify the driving force behind the learning process, COMMIT (1996) ‘Committee on Multimedia in Teacher Training: Teaching and Learning for the Future’ specified two dimensions, each with two forces (see figure). The horizontal dimension represents the relation between the actors in the learning process; the teacher and the learner or student. While the vertical dimension represents the learning infrastructure, consisting of content and of teaching and learning materials and infrastructure. Learning process takes place at the intersection of the dimensions as a result of the role played by four forces; teacher, learner, content and materials. The level of school organisation and management, represented by the outer circle, provides the environment for the learning process. The figure illustrates the view that a learning process is the result of the structural conditions derived from the learning infrastructure (school), the personal characteristics of the actors involved, and the interaction between the two.
Fig1 Sourced from Committee on Multimedia in Teacher Training (1996).
However, learning process in most educational instructions is predominantly teacher oriented. Thus adjusting education to the needs of the future means that schools, colleges and universities have to enable learners to become more active and to make them more responsible for their own learning process. Thus learning will always be a process in which the learner needs support, in terms of well adapted subject matter, the organisation of learning activities by a teacher, adequate materials and technical infrastructure. Information and communication technology is considered to have the potential to enhance a more student-oriented approach to learning that not only prepares for, but also meets the demand of, the 21st century Maltha et al., (1999).
THE ROLE OF ICT ON TERTIARY EDUCATION
Across the past twenty years, the use of information and communication technology has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, information and communication technology has begun to have a presence.
The role of multimedia in education is often referred to as the role of information and communication technology in education. This creates some ideology that it links with major issues in education which includes, processing of information in an interactive communication process with peers, tutors and experts.
In the late 1980’s, governmental and educational institutions invested heavily in technology integration into curricula. However, in the 1990’s, the main output of technology push were computer based-training and simulation programmes. By this time the teacher-student interaction was replaced by computer-student interaction Kulik and Kulik (1991), shows that the computer-student interaction can improve learning.
The advances in information and communication technology towards the end of the 90’s brought about a renewed interest in technology as an element of curriculum. The World Wide Web, video conferencing and groupware opened up the possibility of students having access to information and interacting with others through electronic communication. This lead to the shift in educational approach from teacher-oriented to a more student-oriented.
Information and communication technology can be put into various uses in teaching and learning process, which can be classified into;
Learning about information and communication technology (ICT as an object of study)
Learning with information and communication technology (ICT as a tool)
Learning through information and communication technology (ICT as independent learning resources that replaces the teacher, peers and readers).
Learning with information and communication technology:
This basically tends towards supporting student as they search, process and store information on issues related to learning. With such support students tend to develop the necessary information and communication technology and information skills. In this approach, students use word processing, spread sheets, access the internet and use e-mail and news-groups. Learning with computer engages students in authentic activities that correspond to the way in which technology will be used in later practice.
Learning through information and communication technology:
This involves the use of technology as a tool for delivering instructions. It changes the teacher’s role from a primary knowledge source and knowledge transmitters to a guide and mentor in learning process.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this proposal is to ascertain how information and communication technology positively influences education hence changing the institutional behaviour towards teaching and learning.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The growth of information and communication technology (ICT) has brought about a heightened information flow and system. Information and communication technology is now being used in variety of ways to promote productivity, communication, and business, among other things. Information and communication technology usage for education is just receiving recognition because of the need by most institutions to connect academic staff to global resources for improved teaching, research, and to provide resources for students.
The primary objective of this study is to assess the influence of information and communication technology on tertiary educational development. In other to achieve the specified aim, it will be pertinent to;
Examine the accessibility of information and communication technology component such as the internet, school portal, biometric device etc.
To investigate what they are used for and explain how they are used
What they are used for.
And its benefits.
To investigate the benefit of information and communication technology usage by both staffs and students.
The above objectives shows that information and communication technology definitely plays a major role in which an institution will be educationally developed, however for the purpose of this dissertation the researcher will like to focus on the research questions below to validate the aim of the dissertation.
What are the components of information and communication technology available to education generally and those available at school of technology and management London
Has the use of information technology and communication technology improved college staff motivation
What are the benefits of information and communication technology use in the college to the students
What are benefits of information and communication technology towards producing knowledge based society.
LIMITATION TO STUDY
Even though the research work has been planned religiously It is envisaged that time might pose a slight problem. Because it might take time to get people to answer questions or fill questionnaires.
STATEMENT OF THE DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
In order for the aims of the project to be actualised, it is important to have an understanding of the processes and strategies used by the school of technology and management London. The college will assist the researcher in the event that information is needed concerning the college.
The methods that will be used for the purpose of this study will focus on population, research instrument, validity and reliability data collected to ensure a credible data analysis
The population of this research will be drawn from both students and employees of school of technology and management London which will comprise of members of IT department staff, and lecturers.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
Data collected for the purpose of this research will be based on the exact response of all that will participate to ensure that a true picture of what is expected by all is analysed. Hence the college can deduct constructively the direction it should be moving.
The research will use a sample size of about 50, with the total number of questionnaires to be sampled amounting to 45, while interviews will be conducted for 4 lecturers and 1 IT staff. To ensure credibility participant observation from the research will proffer a strong foundation for the research.
SOURCES OF DATA
This research will be based on both primary and secondary data collection. The primary data will be in the form of questionnaire, interview and participant observation, while the secondary data will be еxtrаctеd from various sources such as journals, аrticlеs, report, books, and internet searches.
METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
Quаlitаtivе and Quantitative rеsеаrch will be used for the purpose of this study. Quаlitаtivе rеsеаrch could be said to be subjective while quаntitаtivе rеsеаrch is the use of different methods of collecting information which could be both primary and secondary data which is objective in nature. For the purpose of the dissertation the researcher will use the two methods because of the following reasons:
To use one approach to inform the other, such as using qualitative research to develop an instrument to be used in quantitative research
To aid the research by increased validity of data i.e. confirmation of results by means of different data sources
For complementary purpose that is adding information using words and numbers to validate the aim and objectives of the proposal
Creating new lines of thinking by the emergence of fresh perspectives and contradiction
The Combination of both rеsеаrch method is usually known to be еffеctivе and efficient in acquiring information.
One of the most crucial aspects of dissertation is timing. It is of very much importance that one creates enough time to afford one to extremely study the resources available to the research and to leave room for some unforeseen factors. Timing should be flexible; hence timescale must be appropriate, realistic and achievable. Below is a projected time table for the dissertation.
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