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E-Voting System

An Investigation of a Potential E-Voting System

Chapter 1- Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Voting is very important to any democratic system. Voting permits the voters to select the representatives and give the power to decide how they wish to be presided over. Voting can come in many shapes and forms. To make democracy sustainable, voter's contribution is a key consideration. Apart from voters being encouraged to make this democratic right, the election that provides the functions must be believable, impermeable and free from bias.

E-Voting is now considered as a “hot” matter in many countries like Belgium, Australia, French and the UK as well. A government also grasps the view that electronic voting is modern. E-Voting technologies are still under progress in many countries. Electronic voting has demand of people's interest as being a person and modern alternative to usual elections. The beginning of electronic voting also provides an option for citizens who are ill or disabled.

The contexts of this research will describe the attractiveness of introducing a potential e-voting system that is geared towards promoting apparent, simple, scalable scheme and accountable voting.

This study will explore mainly the planning and design implications and the purpose of those relating to the implementation of a potential e-voting system. New methods may improve the election systems, increase voters numbers, resolve queuing problems, reduce costs, make simple earlier accessibility of election results, recommended more options to voters and make possible them to vote wherever they wish. The main concern of this research is not whether e-voting should be developed but rather how and in what ways e-voting should be planned and designed for successful implementation.

A theoretical overview for an introducing e-voting system will investigate the principles and key considerations methods to develop a well organized e-voting system.

This research will briefly describe an overview of the current technological and technical standards of electoral authorities as a basis of accepting e-voting system.

This research will describe a brief description of security issues relating to the principle of elections and security, security threats and attacks to e-voting such as eavesdropping, tampering and masquerading.

Relative overview of international case studies will be analysis to find out the international experiences where plans have been commenced, particularly in countries like India, Brazil and Estonia.

This research will briefly describe the field work experiments with the potential e-voting system, the methodology used to research the experiments and as well as focuses on the main findings. Finally, this research will draw some conclusions with value for a potential e-voting system.

1.2 Problem Statement

The major drawback of the e-voting is that the voter does not know what the machines record, when they cast their vote and also there is no physical proof existing for a recount or to make happy the voter of their choice. In the machines, there is no paper trail. So, if there ever a crash or virus attack occurs then it will not be possible to recover the data. Without paper trail, the chance of recreating the votes would be slim to nil. So, it has to be done again and also may increase the cost of election. This is a major drawback of e-voting system. This problem can be easily solved by implementing a RAID array. This technique will create a duplicate copy what the machines record in their memory and pass that copy into a different memory device.

Another problem of e-voting is that paper voting has earned a large amount of trust in the experience of citizens, partly due to the well organized social context. Progress in technology should not lead to problems with democratic progress in society, which may easily become the result of distrust in the election system. This problem can be avoided to develop the trust within the relation between citizens and democracy.

Accessibility is another consideration that must be thought of when e-voting is concerned. For both on-site and remote e-voting accessibility must be considered as on-site polling may not restrict voter access than traditional voting methods. Voters who are not familiar with the use of a Personal Computer (PC) or those who do not have a proper understanding of how computers work may pose some problems. This can be easily solved through proper voter education regarding voting equipment and procedures.

Another drawback of the e-voting is its security. All the tests completed on the software were automated and the hardware was not tested at all, which is quite a concern. Moreover, some software will run under a public operating system. If operating system is ever connected to the internet then operating system could be vulnerable to viruses and worms. So, hackers can easily break the system and can handle the supervisory commands. Such virus may interrupt the communication between the voter and voting system and in this way can change the vote. This problem can be avoided if use open source OS like Linux.

An additional problem of the e-voting is that the source code is not open and public has no access to the code. Thus, there have a greater chance of a partial election because programmers of the code can be corrupted, threatened, or the producer can do it in favour of themselves. This makes the system susceptible and can raise risk to the election especially if a candidate has political relation with the producer. However, this problem can be solved if the source code be released to the public.

1.3 Research Scope

The research scope of this study will be introducing the following aspects:

* This research will find out the development of an appropriate policy for a potential e-voting system.

* This research will find out the development of an operational strategy as an action plan for the implementation of the above policy.

* This research will find out detailed planning and programming of all actions concerning of a potential e-voting system.

* This research will find out voter education programme and retraining of relevant officials.

* This research will find out the development of an appropriate infrastructure and acquisition of relevant administrators.

* This research will find out an organisational exercise in order to equip the organisation to meet the new challenges.

1.4 Information Technology can Offer to the E-Voting Systems

Information technology can offer any application a wide variety of functionalities. In the perspective of an e-voting system, information technology can offer the following:

* Storing and retrieving large quantities of data.

* Communicating with higher rate and volume at lower cost.

* Tailor communications to offer people information or service according to their respective needs.

* Offer universal standards to accommodate wide span of circumstances.

* Offers powerful means based on mathematics to have accurate model for an improved knowledge of voting population. This may include simulation and statistics.

* Offers secure transactions of data which include authentication and cipher messaging.

1.5 Upshots

This research will find out the essential planning and design implications for a potential e-voting system. The main concern would be to find out the ways by how e-voting should be planned and designed for successful implementation. Finally, here will be presenting some efficient methods that could be valuable for a local government of a country whoever is planning to be introduced a well-organized e-voting system.

1.6 Conclusion

Adequate preparation and planning for the study has been completed successfully. The information for the study has been collected from books, articles and journals, Internet websites, Independent Election Commission Reports and different News reports. The next chapter will describe the literature review for this research.

Chapter- 2 Literature Review

2.1 General Concepts of an E-Voting System

2.1.1 E-Voting Terms and Types of E-Voting

Electronic voting (e-voting) is any voting way where the voter's intention is expressed or composed by electronic means. There are two perceptions of e-voting: polling place and remote e-voting.

Polling place e-voting considers to processes where an elector cast his or her vote in a polling station or similar premises guarded by election staff. Voters mark their selection electronically (possibly on touch sensitive screen) rather than on paper ballot. The votes are counted on individual machines, known as Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) machines, and the votes cast are transmitted to the main tallying point by undetermined means. A ballot paper can be printed and retained in confidence in a ballot box for a further check.

Remote e-voting is considered to express those systems where a voter is able to casts his or her vote at any location exterior the polling station. This could contain the use of the Internet, text message, interactive digital TV or touch tone telephone.

2.1.1.1 Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine

The use of DRE machine within the controlled polling stations, persons could identify themselves to the system utilizing a smart card, a cd-rom or a password/PIN amalgamation. Physical transmit could complete transmit of the votes to a counting and processing place sufficiently. The voter frankly enters a favoured choice into electronic storage. The voter then press on a button or the suitable spot on the surface to record their preferences. If a voter desires to write-in an applicant, he can utilize a keyboard to type the name. The computer then saves the votes via a memory chip, smart card or diskette. An attached keyboard is given if the elector would like to write in a vote.

The benefits of the DRE machines are that it is easy to observe the software of the machine. Voting machines of DRE despite being the least reliable of e-voting systems are still heavily favoured upon because they allow physically handicapped and elderly persons to vote without further assistance from non-handicapped persons. DRE's don't issue verifiable ballots and thus are viewed as unreliable, ineffective and not that secure.

2.1.1.2 Internet Voting

Internet voting involves people casting their ballots online via a web interface but may also involve email voting. With online voting, the voter goes to the poll site using a web browser on an Internet capable PC and authenticates him or herself using a vote-id and passwords to see the corresponding empty ballot offered onscreen. The voter then fills out the ballot form and afterwards, clicks on the ‘cast vote' button to send the ended ballot back to the poll site server. Small scale use of Internet polls has been used in local elections in most European countries such as Ireland and England.

The Internet's main weakness for elections comprise its vulnerability to many kinds of attacks, which could lead to user letdown and even be open to automated buying and selling of votes. The first is to ensure that the system is not prone to attack that would interfere with the voter and the second is to provide a level of confidence as to the identification of the voter at the time of voting. Providing a multi-digit PIN numeral to voters is one technique of preventing fraud while physical identification method such as fingerprints, iris and retinal scanners could also verify one's identity when voting. This will be a significant development to make internet voting effective.

2.1.1.3 Telephone Voting

Telephone voting involves the use of landlines and mobile phone lines to vote for someone or something. Telephone voting permits people to call different telephone numbers to specify predilection for different choices or to call one number and specify a preference by pressing buttons in voice directed menu system. One major drawback of this system is its inability to identify each and every caller and it is also limited to one caller per operator at a time. A phone poll's main advantage is the relative ease of getting people to be involved and participate on it.

2.1.2 Advantages of E-Voting

The causes for introducing or considering the preface of e-voting within one or more phases of a political election or referendum can vary from country to country. Depending on the particular domestic circumstance in each country, these reasons include:

* Facilitates voters to cast their ballot from a location other than the polling place in their voting area.

* Make easy the casting of the ballot by the voter.

* Capable of preventing residual votes.

* Provides the contribution within elections and referendums of everyone those who are permitted to vote, and particularly of people residing or living abroad.

* There are also benefits when dealing with public with disabilities, such as sightlessness. E-Voting machines can offer headphones to read off directions to the blind user. Also other instruments can be added to these electronic voting machines to assist with other disabilities such as people with limited mobility or the elderly.

* Rises voter turnout by offering additional voting channels.

* Provides voting in line through new improvements in civilization and the growing use of innovative technologies as an average for communication and civil engagement in pursuit of democracy.

* Decreases the time, the overall expenditure to the election authorities of demeanour an election or referendum.

* Provides voting results persistently and more swiftly.

* Offers the electorate with a better deal in pursuit of democracy, by offering a multiplicity of voting channels.

* Offers multiple languages to users who may not have English as first language. This can be attained throughout a paper based system.

* Saves expenditure of paper ballots.

2.1.3 Electoral Requirements and Implications for E-Voting

In common terms, the accomplishment of any democratic system in the globe depends upon the trust of the voters in the system itself. Hence, any e-voting technology must address and adhere to the electoral requirements. In this consider, it is the accountability of legislative or executive bodies to set up the needs of an election procedure. They must make sure that requirements are technological and do not produce unfairness. The basic qualities should be maintained rather than treating ones. Once an appropriate set of basic system requirements are agreed upon, the disturbing vulnerabilities of the predictable elections systems will become obvious. The significance of electoral requirements is to reduce present and future risks. The following requirements are as follows:

* Accuracy: The system will record and count all votes correctly. Hence it is not possible for a valid ballot to be eliminated from the final count. Likewise, it is not possible for an invalid ballot to be included in the final count.

* Eligibility: Only authorised voters should be capable to vote.

* Uniqueness: Every voter must not be able to vote more than once.

* Electorate anonymity: No one can determine how a voter voted.

* Reliability: System should be robust without loss of any votes regardless of failures such as machine failure and network failure.

* Non-forcibility: Voters are not capable to verify to others how they voted in order to eradicate vote selling.

* Convenience: System should allow the voters to cast his ballot quickly and should not require many specialist skills.

* Mobility: The voter should not be limited to cast his vote in a single physical location. System should be available from a number of different locations.

* User-friendliness: System should be easy to use and have a user friendly interface.

* Verification: The voter should be able to confirm clearly how his vote is being cast and is given the opportunity to modify his vote before he commits it.

2.1.4 Election Stages of E-Voting System

Generally, elections are divided into number of stages. The following all the stages must be conducted digitally in order to have an all out e-voting system.

1. Voters' Registration: This is the stage where election official posses list of all eligible voters. And give each eligible voter authentication data to log into the e-voting system.

2. Validation: Voter details must be checked before permitting voter to vote. In this stage, eligibility must validate in term uniqueness also.

3. The voting and vote's saving: The voting and vote's saving is a stage where eligible voters cast votes and e-voting system saves the received votes from voters.

4. Compilation: Here all votes are gathered.

5. Tabulation: Here votes are tallied and results are announced.

2.2 Technologies Analysis

Technology is critical for election management to the conduct of current elections. Technology is used at every phase of the election procedure, for compiling voter's lists, depiction election borders, employing and educating staff, printing ballots, accomplishing voter instruction campaigns and publishing election results. The suitable application of technology to elections is able to enhance executive effectiveness, decrease long-term costs and increase political intelligibility.

Technologies utilized for elections can be old models like ball-point pens, printing pushes, electronic calculators, manual typewriters and radios, or modern technologies such as optical scanners, and the internet, computers and digital mapping. Without use to technology, the logistics of new comprehensive elections would be outside our abilities.

The intricacy of technology utilized for elections about the world varies extremely. The speed of technological change is so rapid that the election management must frequently re-evaluate their use of technology to decide whether they should approve new or modernized technology to develop their performance.

2.2.1 Technologies Relating to Electoral Appliances

Elections are intricate, many-faceted dealings. To arrange and run an election, substance has to be designed, bought, stored, spread and returned; human resources have to be employed, trained, deployed and salaried; ballots have to be intended, printed/manufactured, extend, utilized by voters, returned, calculated, tabulated and accounted; voters have to be educated, trained and encouraged; nominees must contribute their parts; the media have to be stayed informed; and so on.

Technology is capable to be utilized to aid all these different features for the election management. As these errands vary broadly in scope and nature, a broad choice of technologies has election appliances. In the following the major types of technology with election appliances are:

2.2.1.1 Voting Systems

There are a number of different types of e-voting technologies. Those technologies are developed particularly for election intentions. Electronic voting is utilized extensively in India, Brazil, Estonia, and the USA.

The major types of e-voting systems are:

* Kiosk-style electronic machine voting systems

* EVM machines voting systems

* Punch card voting systems

* Direct recording electronic systems

* Mechanical voting systems

* Machine readable (optical scanning) voting systems

* Vote counting server voting systems

2.2.1.2 Scanning Systems for Electoral Purposes

Electronic scanning techniques are applied to exchange data marked actually on paper into electronic form. Though scanning is regularly used to capture voting data, such as records of electors who have voted or facts showed on forms.

There are three major types of optical scanning technologies:

* Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) systems

* Optical Mark Reading (OMR) systems

* Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems

2.2.1.3 Identification Systems for Electoral Purposes

There are some phases in the election procedure when a need arises to consistently identify a person. The clear phase is when a person votes, but detection systems may also be required when a person registers to vote, or else where a worker requires access to a place of work or a computer system. As e-voting becomes more extensive and more automated, mostly where voting is initiated on the internet or by telephone, detection systems become critical to ensure that only appropriate voters are capable to vote when they are entitled to.

There are many different types of identification systems are:

* Bio-detection systems (comprising hand, voice, retinal, finger/thumb detection systems)

* Passwords

* Personal Identity Numbers (PINs)

* Digitised photography

* Identity cards

* Bar-coding

* Public Key Infrastructure/Electronic signatures

2.2.1.4 Internet for Electoral Purposes

The internet is world-wide system of computers accessible by everyone with the essential technology can be utilized for electoral appliances of the internet contain:

* E-Voting

* Voter register

* Circulating information for voters, nominees, the media and other customers

* Email

* Election results publishing

* In-house intranets

2.2.1.5 Communications for Electoral Purposes

Communications are important to accomplish of modern elections. In order to arrange and run an election, a variety of communication processes need to be used. Data, voice, images and documents all are able to pass on electronically. The technology utilized for these intentions ranges from tried and comparatively simple ones, such as the telephone or radio, to newer, more exclusive ones, such as microware or satellite transmissions.

Some of the electronic transmissions methods utilized for electoral appliances are:

* Satellite systems

* Radio systems

* Television systems

* Telecommunication systems (phone/fax/cable/internet/intranet/data lines)

* Microwave systems

2.2.1.6 Geographic Information Systems for Election Purposes

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are computerised procedures for storing, manipulating and showing geographic data, mostly maps and data through an address component, such as voter registration data, voting statistics and demographic resident's data. Some electoral appliances of GISs include:

* Determining election boundaries

* Producing maps

* Registering voters

* Election planning

* Displaying election results

2.2.1.7 Specialised Electronic/Mechanical Devices for Electoral Purposes

In addition to modern computers and e-voting procedures, there is a broad range of specific electronic/mechanical devices that can be utilized for electoral purposes. These include:

* Televisions/videos

* Letter starters

* Slide projectors

* Counting machines

* Electronic whiteboards

* Sticker printers

* Mail adding machines

* Automatic numbering machines

2.2.2 Recommended Steps for the Election Management to Get Advantage from the Use of Technology

Progressively more, technology is the most important resources for election organization. It needs to be accurately handled in order to meet the organisation's goals in an effective way.

The Election management can follow the below procedures to advantage from the use of technology:

* Conduct complete necessitates assessment examines to identify the essential surroundings, processes, regulations and tasks.

* Prepare a proper plan with a cost approximation and a benefits/risk investigation.

* Safe the financing crucial to obtain and sustain the selected technology.

* Acquire sufficient staff with technical proficiency.

* Safe transmission, warehousing and allocation of equipment, if appropriate.

* Make sure adequate testing processes before any technology is implemented.

* Execute appropriate security actions.

* Produce an education plan for staff and user training.

* Create suitable maintenance and backup processes are in place.

* Provide users access to an assist desk.

* Provide an enough deliver of peripherals and consumables materials, if appropriate.

* Prepare sufficient replacement plans and processes for equipment that can become outmoded.

The significance of elections and the need for correctness, security and transparency, the election management needs to state high standards. The following issues cover the main factors associated to managing technology to get advantage from the use of technology in the election surroundings. Checklists can be developed to find out the main concerns for the election management that make possible a successful election event.

* Expansion and Planning Strategies

* Quality Guarantee

* Management Constitution

* Computer Systems

* Recruitment, Training and Maintain

* Running Obsolescence

* Evaluation and Review

2.2.3 Minimizing Threats in Using Technology

The exploit of technology for any intention may involve serious threats for its clients. In the consideration of the election management, a technical or technological failure may impact seriously on a society, an area or the whole country. This denotes that while it is all the time vital to discover ways to reduce the impact of technology faults, for the election management and particularly for voting operations it may be critical.

Ways to minimise the threats in utilizing technology for election intentions include:

* Following systems authentication, testing and preservation processes to make sure that hardware, transportation and software manage efficiently.

* Make sure that the technology is actually safe, preventing unintended harm or illegal access.

* Executing data gathering processes and methodologies that make sure that data is composed and verified consistently.

* Arranging suitable election staff training

* Make sure that data and computer programs are protected, including the exploit of encrypting methods to prevent illegal access.

* Placing the data back up processes including consistent data storage and restoring.

* Offering manual eventuality systems

* Providing auditing code and defending computer software against computer viruses.

* Captivating out proper insurance measures to protection against financial or material loss.

* Creating in performance guards to make sure that staff and exterior suppliers have a direct attention in the successful achievement of an assignment, such as performance bonds, pay supplements or prosecution clauses.

* Implementing public assertion measures to make happy stakeholders that the technology is trustworthy and transparent throughout public logic and correctness tests, making software code accessible for scrutiny and conducting voter information crusades.

* Adopting and imposing privacy policies to make sure that personal and secret data is kept safe, while also guaranteeing that suitable public information is readily accessible.

One of the most significant techniques to minimise the threats in using technology is to make sure that the technology is protected. This includes Physical Protection, Data Access Protection, Software Protection and Virus Protection.

2.3 Security Analysis

2.3.1 Principles of Elections and Security

The institution and ways of believable elections claim adherence to principles and rights, which in exercise, impose considerable challenges for the election management to ensuring efficient security, including:

* Transparency refers that the stages of an election procedure be well advertised to the municipal.

* Elections should be held in agreement with national laws that typically create immutable timeframes.

* Liberty of speech and alliance can generate a politically-charged environment which may polarise societies.

* The institutions accountable for the election management and security of an election must complete their mandates neutrally, and may be controlled by the need to shun perceptions that they are supporting a particular political challenger.

* Inclusiveness needs that an election be an extremely decentralised operation, with huge logistical requirements relating to the staffing of tens of thousands of provisional staff, and the function of polling places and offices.

To work effectively within these election considers, security services require to be instructed by their own principles, comprising:

2.3.1.1 Impartial and Rights-based

Contributors in an election should be treated in an impartial way by both security services and the election officials. Logical and proportionate responses to activities must be stable, which cannot be partial by arbitrary issues, such as, political association. An election is a system by which people are capable to implement their political, national and human rights. Security protocols should consider and admit these rights, as well as the sharp sensitivity and scrutiny to the admiration for these rights that arise during an election time.

2.3.1.2 National Possession

Elections are a sovereign procedure. However, in some conditions such as, post inconsistency or transitional elections, nationalized security services may require to be strengthened by global forces. To the degree allowed, the security of an election should drop within the possession and manage of a national authority to imitate sovereignty and shun allegations of global interference. Beneficially, indigenous security services are the most responsive to their cultural exercises and may therefore be greatest located to interpret and reply to emerging intimidation.

2.3.1.3 Strategic

Elections are usually planned 18 to 24 months prior to polling day and happen as a widely spread exercise requiring important planning and preparatory actions. Security services (police and/or military) not often have enough standing possessions to safe an election, and concurrently carry-out their usual duties. Incorporated strategic planning by the election management is necessary to prioritise, assign and coordinate essential assets.

2.3.1.4 Non-partisan and Neutral

To be efficient, security services must shun allegations of supporter bias. If security services are started to behave in a partisan manner, rather than defusing stresses they may intensify them and undermine their individual role in the procedure. During the election time (particularly during the campaign time) normal security events may befall the subject of scrutiny which evokes political measurements. In politics in common, and in elections in meticulous, perception is as imperative as realism. As such, the election management must strongly consider these political measurements to reserve not only the realism, but the perception of neutrality.

2.3.1.5 Flexible and Proficient

Election procedures can face late-phase modifications to accommodate emerging legal, functioning or political situations that arise. In the first case, security planning should comprise a range of emergency plans and resources to make sure suppleness. Alternatively, obviously defined constraints on security abilities and resources based on professional planning should be accessible to inform decision producers on the range of choices that are practicable to accommodate. The effectiveness of these functions, both in sending substantive security forces and regulating to changes, is a significant indicator for the assurance of the election contributors.

2.3.1.6 Transparent and Responsible

In security procedures there is always a stress between operational security strategies of ‘need to know' and the civic concern. In an election time, disclosure policies are usually best weighted towards the civic interest, recognising the significance and value of transparency. In consider where it is essential to protect information, additional responsibility measures may be required to make sure post-event validations. Clearness in this circumstance also refers to increasing consultative systems with political groups, public society and other organisations to make sure the role and functions of security services are well understood in the procedure.

This aspect of the election procedure highlights the potential dissatisfactions that can occur between security and election officials. Eventually, a functioning solution cannot be measured advantageous if it does not address the essential political situations. This argument emphasizes the need for highly contact and coordination between security services and election institutions.

2.3.2 Security Threats and Attacks to E-Voting

Any e-voting system is vulnerable to a number of threats and attacks which must be contained effectively to maintain its overall integrity. The following are some generic viable attacks which an electronic voting system is subjected to:

* Eavesdropping: An attacker can disclose the content of the ballot.

* Tampering: An attacker can intercept and modify the content of the ballot.

* Masquerading: An attacker can impersonate a voter and hence can take part in election under false identity.

* Denial of service: An attacker can flood a channel with a junk ballot.

* Repudiation: An attacker can deny the ballot he or she has previously committed.

When analysing and developing a security mechanism for any type of system it is imperative to assume the worst. The assumption may include:

* Network channels are insecure.

* Attacker may have big resources at their disposal such as CPU power and storage.

* Attacker may have knowledge of algorithms used to secure the base system.

* Users can make mistakes and software can have bugs or faults.

However, empirical studies have shown that these attacks can be combated by the utilisation of a number of methods. The methods include:

* Encryption for eavesdropping.

* Message digest and digital signature for tampering.

* Passwords and digital signature for masquerading.

* Nonce and timestamp for replay attacks.

2.4 Comparative International Case Studies

2.4.1 Introduction

The comparative international case studies will focus on selected international experiences in e-voting. Estonia has been chosen because of the highly developed nature of their e-voting system and altogether is a very successful country in remote electronic voting. Brazil and India are also good example of successful countries in e-voting as a Third World country with a large population and rustic dynamics.

Concentration will be specified to achievements from which lessons can be learnt and negative experiences to be shunned. The main aim of international case studies is to draw lessons of experience for an introducing e-voting system. Moreover, lessons learned from the case studies will also investigate the mistakes that should be avoided in planning for a potential e-voting system.

2.4.2 E-Voting in Estonia

2.4.2.1 Introduction

Estonia built their e-voting system on the ID card of Estonian. For everyone, the card is a standard and compulsory national identity accomplishment as well as a smart card permitting for both protected remote authentication and lawfully compulsory digital signatures by using the Estonian country supported public key infrastructure. The aim of "one person, one vote" is continued as the voter can prospectively cast their vote more than one ballot but finally only a single vote will be count. Voting is accessible from an early voting period of sixth day to fourth day before the Election Day. Voters are allowed to modify their electronic votes a limitless number of times and the final vote only being tabulated but it is not possible to amend or cancel the electronic vote on the Election Day. But there also have an option for anyone who votes over the Internet to vote at a polling station through the early voting phase, invalidating their Internet vote. Estonia followed the implementation of their e-voting system in agreement with the commendations of the Council of Europe.

2.4.2.2 Plan and Design of Remote E-Voting System

In 2001, Estonia started the developing plan on remote e-voting system. In 2002, the legal requirements for it were put in place. The National Election Committee began the e-voting project throughout summer 2003. The system contains the use of smart cards and electronic signatures. In January 2005, the first tests were held for the remote e-voting system. A longer preparation phase preceded this project. At this phase, both the lawful basics and the required infrastructure basics were produced earlier by law versions. Short time latter, they issued more than 700,000 ID cards for the voter identification in nationwide. Overall, 13.7% of the voting participants were attended to vote via internet. The project succeeded without conflicts and technical problems.

After finish the successful pilot project in Tallinn, at last an e-voting system was offered countrywide for the first time in the local elections of Estonia by October 2005. In March 2007, the national election held in Estonia where a total of 30,275 citizens participated remote e-voting and also was accessible to Estonian voters of abroad. In the 2009 local municipal elections, 104,415 voters were participated over the Internet. This means that approximately 95% voters were attended to votes over the internet.

2.4.2.3 Processes of E-Voting System

Voter Application and Network Server are the main components of Estonian e-voting system. Votes Storing and Votes Counting Server are used for Back-office.

Voter Application is a web based application. The encryption and verification constructed into the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol prevent the communication between voters and Network Server. Windows, Linux and Mac operating systems are able to run the Estonian e-voting system. But Microsoft Internet Explorer is required for the Windows operating system. The public key PK of e-voting is built-in into Voting Application.

The procedures of Network Server are verification, the examining of franchise, transferring a candidates' list to voters, accepting signed and encrypted ballots. Network Server straight away transmits the received encrypted ballots to Votes Storing Server and exchanges the acknowledgements of receipt from Votes Storing Server to voters. Network Server completes the work when the period of e-voting finishes.

Votes Storing Server accepts encrypted ballots from Network Server and stores those until the end of the voting phase. For managing and cancelling Votes, Votes Storing Server is responsible.

Counting Server is used as an offline server, which recapitulates all encrypted ballots. In addition, e-voting system contains independent log files which outline the received encrypted ballots from Network Server. The log files contain all the records are linked by using cryptographic protocol. The election committee has the power to access the log files for resolving disputes.

2.4.2.4 Evaluation

Pros of this system include:

* There have option for every eligible voter to revote. In this case the previous votes will be deleted.

* If substantial attacks occur against e-voting system, Election Committee have right stop e-voting and annul the result of voting.

* Provide an essential equally accessible convenience in an information society.

* Voting is permitted during the period earlier of Voting Day.

* Classical voting in polling box annuls the voters' e-votes.

* Every citizen is competent enough to participate in decision-making.

* Citizens are able to complete the vote in 2 minutes at home or workplace.

* Manual re-voting is permitted if vote is cast in paper for the period of absence voting days, e-votes will be invalidated.

* There have no third party controlled authentication mechanisms or services.

* No components without source code and all completely documented.

* Crumple course for observers, politicians and auditors.

* All security crucial events: Logged, Audited, observed and Videotaped.

* All main IS-experts concerned in network-monitoring 24/7 for dDOS or Trojans.

Cons of this system include:

* Non-encrypted ballots are used in e-voting server.

* There have no independent log files system to inspect the accuracy of the procedures of e-voting servers.

* Vote counting server is keep stay in online and also contains the votes with the names of voters.

* There have no option for voters to sign the ballots.

2.4.2.5 Conclusion

Estonia acquires up a clear establishing role in the operation and the application of e-voting system within the European circumstances. In the European Union, it is the first country which makes the voting system via internet in parliamentary elections and also proved that it was legally possible. It was possible because most Estonians bear a national identity card which has a computer-readable microchip and these cards allow the Estonians to access the online ballots. The entire of a voter only requires a computer, an electronic card reader, their ID card and its PIN then they are able to vote from everywhere in the globe. Estonians are allowed to cast their e-votes only the days of advance voting. If anyone wants to give the vote on Election Day then he/she has to go polling stations and fill up in a paper ballot. After the municipal elections of 2005, the electronic voting system contained up the test of actuality and was recognized a success by Estonian election officials. The election authorities of Estonia took a regular course without any major technical troubles. So, Estonia is a best example to developed a successful e-voting system in nationwide.

2.4.3 E-Voting in Brazil

2.4.3.1 Introduction

The e-voting system of Brazil is broadly trusted by the population of the country and international observers. It has an effective and consistent mechanism of generating elections results that perfectly represent the choices of the electorate. In a country with population of over 110 million and voters spread over 3200 election constituencies, Brazil had the daunting task of ensuring the integrity of the federal, state and municipal election. In the election of October 2002, two million staffs were worked to operate 360,000 kiosk-style electronic machines that tallied the results electronically in minutes after the polls closed. Data was transmitted on protected diskettes or via satellite receiver to central tallying stations, where the results were calculated within hours. In that election, only 1% of polling stations faced the problems with the new technology.

Their aim was to implement an information technology platform that could provide a method for every electorate to vote irrespective of their literacy level, health status and location. Moreover, such a system would be obliged to defend against fraud and address the conventional problem of slow tabulation and result announcement.

2.4.3.2 Plan and Design of an E-Voting System

At the beginning of 1995, The World Bank was funded to the TSE to produce a task force comprising staff from the TSE and the TREs. The purposes of the task force were to stop fraud and to make a strength political participation and inclusion by simplifying the voting system. The previous system was complex where people required finding out the candidate names from a list and also they need to write their name on the ballot paper, but the level of uneducated people in Brazil was very high. It was about 30% of the population. The aim of produce this task force not only to improve the user friendliness of the interface (the ballot paper), but also the knowledge-base required to participate to the process.

Later than six months, the task force represented a proposal for the expansion of a computerized ballot box and called technical experts from Federal ministries to contribute in defining the system's technical desires and qualifications. In September 1995, system's development work was being started by a group of fourteen technical experts and in May 1996, the first copy of the electronic voting machine was released.

In October 1996, first time the machine was tested in the Municipal elections. This test involved all cities and all state capitals with involvement more than 200,000 voters, acquiring 33% of the voters. In general election of 1998, a second test was run for the system. This test involved all cities and all state capitals with involvement more than 400,000 voters, acquiring 67% of the voters. Finally, in the municipal elections of 2000, the system was used for the whole country.

2.4.3.3 Machine Requirements

An e-voting platform encompassing hardware, software and systems integration was implemented. It essentially provided electorate electronic ballot boxes to securely and accurately cast their votes. The voting machine has a very easy interface, including a clear presentation of voting options, affirmation and rejection choices, pictures of applicants and Braille coding on the buttons to safe universal access for illiterate and blind people.

The voting machine contains two terminals that were installed in each polling station. First one is the voting panel agent terminal has an arithmetical keyboard with a two shapes liquid crystal screen. It is used by the voting panel agent to find a voter's identification number. If he or she is registered in the precinct, his or her name is shown on the screen and the identification is accomplished. The voting panel agent checks the status of the voting machine on the screen and, if available, pushes ‘enter' to turn the machine on the ready state. The second one is the voters' terminal. When the voter goes into the booth, the machine must be ready to use. The voter terminal also has one keyboard and a liquid crystal display. The voter finds out his or her preference by inserting their candidate detection number. The screen displays the candidate's name, initials of the party or alliance he or she belongs to and his or her photo, and if these are accurate, voters push enter to confirm. The keyboard has two supplementary keys: the first on is the amendment key that permits voters to start the process again and the second one is the blank vote key that allows the voter to leave him or her vote blank.

2.4.3.4 Voter's Biometric Identification

The advancement of technology, Brazil starts biometric ballot boxes that procedure the vote throughout the voter's biometric recognition. In 2008 elections, the new technology has been started to use. The Brazilian Election Justice's aim is to offer Brazilian citizens with a securest prospect for democracy and to escort Brazil into the technological advance guard of election processes in the whole world.

Throughout this system, the country will not only achieve the largely computerized voting, but also the securest one, since there will not anymore be any suspicions about the voter's identity. For a better understanding on the concentration of security accomplished, one should memorize that one fingerprint is sufficient to identify a person.

For any unexpected problems in case, if the voting board agent has any suspicions about the voter, or their fingerprint is not accepted by the biometric system, the agent has a record with the photographs of the entire voters of that part, where they can validate the voter's identity.

The aim of this biometric registration is to reduce the opportunity of someone taking someone else's position to vote, making it almost unattainable for frauds to be committed in the voting process.

2.4.3.5 Evaluation

Pros of this system include:

* Enhanced transparency of the election process. The totally electronic form of the votes precludes resorting to the counting of votes recorded on paper in case there is a dispute.

* Accurate tabulation of votes and prompt knowledge of return.

* Quicker process of tabulation and announcement of results.

* Reduces voter error which helps to eliminate spoilt or blank votes.

* Consistent and verifiable data.

* Cost effective system.

* Allow remote election such as in embassies in overseas countries.

Cons of this system include:

* Only partial parts of source code accessible to political parties for examination. Some machines use commercial operating systems that are a meticulous cause of concern.

* Lack of testing for the systems performance by the representatives of political parties and other who is interested individually.

* Storing data in floppy disk is a potential risk.

* Screens used are monochromes which are not suitable for people with weak eyesight.

* System is not cohesive as different systems are utilised in different regions.

* The use of numbers to select candidates will be impractical especially if there a lot of numbers to use.

2.4.3.6 Conclusion

Brazil has built-up the most modern and complicated electronic voting system in the world and has proved that it can work in a country of continental size, using low-cost technology. The electronic voting system of Brazil has a number of virtues that gave the electronic voting system reliability. The quick and un-crowded voting familiarity created a relaxed and almost festive atmosphere at the voting stations. To teach their children, many parents brought their young children with them to the voting booth and show them how they used the machine. Now a day, the judges were not spending time at voting stations to supervising the vote. Instead of that, they are giving the attention to other potential types of election fraud, like as political parties manipulating the voting selections at the locality of the voting stations.

Brazil is delivering the most computerized elections in the world that made an attraction to the continental dimensions of neighbour countries like Paraguay, Argentina, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic and Mexico. They made agreements with the TSE to utilize the electronic voting system for using their elections. The most considerable case is Paraguay where about half voters of the Paraguayan used the electronic voting system of Brazil in 2007. Throughout the Presidential election of that country in April 2008, its electorate was capable for 100% to utilize the technology of the Brazilian electronic voting system.

2.4.4 E-Voting in India

2.4.4.1 Introduction

Being the world's biggest democracy with an inhabitant exceeding a 1 billion people, India is another country which faces demanding election logistics. This is mainly due to the large population, the large number of polling stations and polling staff required, and the big number of candidates in first-past-the-post districts. In November 1998, India introduced EVMs and extended their use countrywide in 2004. India used the EVMs with 60 million voters in the parliamentary elections of 1999. In 1999 election, more than 95 per cent voters accepted the use of EVMs. The Indian Election Commission showed the success throughout substantial training and consciousness campaigns. That was a great innovation for Indian Election Commission and received well response from parties, staff, candidates and people.

2.4.4.2 Machine Requirements

The Indian EVM (electronic voting machine) is comprised of two elements which are the control unit and ballot unit. The two elements are connected via a five meter cable. The EVM control unit is with the polling officer and the balloting unit is located inside the voting booth. In order to give an electorate access to the voting booth, the polling officer in handle of the control unit will have to press the ballot button. Once an electorate is permitted access, he or she can cast their votes by pressing the green button against the candidate of their choice. A light has next to the button flashes followed by short beep to indicate that the vote has been submitted safely. Finally, the polling officer presses a switch to clear the machine for the next voter.

A notable feature of the EVM is that can be used in rural areas where is no electricity. Without power connection, they are able to run on a regular 6 volt alkaline battery.

2.4.4.3 Modernization of the Election Processes

The Election Commission has enthusiastically and effectively developed the application of information technology for elections as a way of managing the massive scale of elections in India. ECI provided to every registered voter a photographic ID card that enables him/her to vote liberally, and at the same time to stop fraudulent and multiple voting. ECI also provided the election registers copies to the political parties on CD-ROM for checking and gave the permission to use it on Election Day. By using the advantages of technology, results of the count are processed instantly at over 400 vote-counting centres and prepared results quickly. One more technological modernization was to utilize the EVMs at all polling stations. In 2004 election, ECI made the results within hours of count starting. Only that was possible because EVMs were used at all polling stations.

2.4.4.4 Success Story of Indian E-Voting System

India has broken a record in history, as it was the first time that the country held countrywide e-voting. From 20 April to 10 May 2004, the Indian federal and state elections were held. The ECI considered that event as the enormous election procedure and also was the largest experiment ever for e-voting technologies. More than 1 million EVMs installed all over the country in the election of 2004. However, technology was positioned to some in barren regions, remote top of hills and Himalayan valleys. For example, 10 days of rain occurred flash flooding and some of the polling stations were flooded in the north eastern state of Asam. Instead of these volatile natural adversities and unexpected human error, the ECI generally considered the elections a big success.

India's Chief Election Commissioner said, “In the past elections, counting used to take many days but the new system has allowed the results to be announced in just three to four hours.”

Moreover, many countries have exposed their attention to buy the EVM from India including Australia, South Africa, Mauritius and Singapore.

2.4.4.5 Evaluation

Pros of this system include:

* Cost reduction as paper ballot does not need to be produced, printed, transported and stored. Moreover, considerable reduction in staff, such as counting staff and election officials, add to the limitation of cost.

* Easier to distributed and transport EVM in comparison to ballots boxes since EVM are lighter and portable.

* Tabulation is carried out quickly as results are announced within 2 to 3 hours in comparison to 30 to 40 hours under manual paper ballots.

* Since illiteracy is considerable amongst the Indian population, EVM appears to be more fitting as voters need to simply push the blue button against the applicant of his or her choice and the vote is submitted. Whereas under the paper ballot system, the voter had to place a voting stamp on the sign of the applicant of his or her choice. Then fold it vertically and horizontally and finally place it in the ballot box.

* Ballot stuffing is greatly decreased as the EVM is programmed to record five votes a minute which can frustrate bogus voter. But under paper ballot system, a false voter is able to stuff thousand of votes in the ballot box.

* The control part can save the result in its memory for more than 10 years.

* Spoilt blank votes can be avoided under EVM. When the paper ballot system was in place, the number of spoilt or blank votes was greater than the winning margin in India.

Cons of this system include:

* Candidates can identify electorate from which polling station voted for him or her and people from which did not. This was clearly apparent in the Indian 2004 general election. A possible way to combat this drawback was mix system of counting machine by feeding votes in every EVM into a centralised counting machine.

2.4.4.6 Conclusion

India has proved that it is achievable to use new technology on a large scale to earn election results very fast. Electronic voting system of India also serves the voter by giving the polling procedure easier and more apparent because they have a number of user-friendly features. The e-voting system of India has some virtues that give the voters the option to cast their vote within an election region other than the assigned one, and easy for uneducated people and visually impaired voters to use.

2.4.5 Conclusion

This research has learnt that e-voting requirements to be accepted before it is implemented as the task team of that country. The desired type of voting system must be selected when planning for e-voting. Estonia selected to use remote electronic voting and also giving the same access for abroad Estonian. Brazil has selected to use both kiosk-style electronic machines and Internet Voting in particular to accommodate people who do not have access to the kiosk machine specially the abroad people. India has selected EVMs. Any developing country can use this type of system because of its facilities. This system is very simplistic and reliable and also can use in any rural area.

On the above lessons of experience from different countries e-voting systems have shown concerning the massive role of modern technology and mostly the role of e-voting in modern society.

2.5 Planning Principles for a Potential E-Voting System

2.5.1 Introduction

It has been proved by plenteous evidences that planning is the most prominent and persistent of the management functions or procedures. Planning is important because of the proof of failure in organizations are responsible for poor planning. Planning is the preparation for the prospect on management's ingredient. Planning is essential in that it cuts throughout all management purposes and is a function that is appropriate to all managerial levels.

Planning is involved in various management operations of arranging, controlling, recruitment, directing, and choice making in the logic that it is a critical and essential component of every of these procedures. Planning is appropriate to each managerial level as managerial deed and decision making, whether at the principal executive's stage or at the first-line supervisor's stage, should preferably be predicated upon initial thought and expectation of future concerns, problems, or details that continually come to play in the procedure of making organizations work.

Planning is a procedure of thinking throughout all surfaces of an issue or a crisis before taking deed. At the similar time, it offers the ingredients for action. Planning is a procedure that involves in an appraisal of the organization, its capital, and its environment and includes the setting of objectives. By using that appraisal as a background, planning entails to find out the past, the present, and the future.

This study investigates accomplishment aspects, software choose steps, and execution events critical to a successful implementation of a potential e-voting system so as to contribute to basic research necessary for such actions by the designated authorities. In particular, implications on important planning principles provide a basis to election management for the planning and design of an e-voting system. Lessons of experience in planning with management issues identify important areas for a potential e-voting system. The following debate will offer to election management a brief overview of experiences concerning different approaches to planning for the purpose of understanding the nature of the planning and designing of a potential e-voting system.

2.5.2 Different Planning Initiatives for a Potential E-Voting System

2.5.2.1 Strategic Planning

According to the public sector circumstance, strategic management is described as the complete set of the managerial decisions and actions in shaping the presentation of the organizations in the long run in relation to the government's vision. Strategic management presents to the complete procedure that comprises visioning, strategic planning and strategic objective setting.

Producing a strategic plan is the primary phase for election management for a potential e-voting system in focusing the functions of a set of approved objectives based on its legally identified responsibilities. The strategic plan can be used to an e-voting system's boundary with its external surroundings mostly its stakeholders and basic decisions for election management in different service criterions.

The strategic plan exploits to election management to make the primary decisions for a potential e-voting system like for its operational planning and precedence, its resource distribution, its agreement standards, a proposal for service, organisational reinforcement, integration and enhancement. The strategic plan is an appliance that is useful for the election management to work with a high level of performance and to accomplish good customer contentment for an e-voting system. The strategic plan is also essentials for the election management to understand its changing surroundings.

The strategic plan can be used as a public document for an e-voting system that contains a record of what the election management places for, what it performs and why, and what it aim to attain. The strategic plan can create a road map for a potential e-voting system that gives the direction and inspiration to the election management for an identified period of years and also provides a significant role as an indicator against which the e-voting system's performance can be considered by its stakeholders. A strategic plan is not only used as a document set in tangible but also it is a realistic strategic guide for the election management and must clearly provides if considerable changes in the external or internal surroundings need a revised strategy. An election management without a strategic plan is similar to a pilot without a compass.

The strategic plan can promote a vision for the election management to make as an open, democratic, and responsible institution. To do so, it must be steady with the election mandate and implemented the structure of the institution with the election law. It takes all known issues which could affect the e-voting system's performance such as the regulatory surroundings, technology, probability of conflict, stakeholder contribution or voter apathy and government dealings.

The purpose of strategic plan is to develop election management's task for an e-voting system for the future while considering the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). It is very prudent for any organization to set its vision, mission, strategic objectives and priorities. This put the organization at ease in translating its policies and resources into action plans and budgets. Identifying the background elements for a potential e-voting system on which the proposed results of the strategic plan are based is essential to allow valid judgments of accomplishments.

2.5.2.2 Operational Planning

Operational planning guides to election management in setting priorities and accomplishing aspects in the organisation that need to be done to fulfil their mission for a potential e-voting system. It assists the election management in implementing, monitoring, and budgeting program in the organisation. In this way, operational planning ensures that program activities are best positioned to achieve strategic results for an e-voting system.

Voter registration, voter training, or voting and counting are essential procedure to every election system. It is a sequence of procedure that carried out together with a schedule and in a manner which fulfils with the election rule and regulations. Operational planning is set out apparently the execution of the strategic plan against explicit objectives. The key factor is to identify e-voting system task, its time frame and the election management is accountable for finishing it.

Operational plans of election management for a potential e-voting system can initiate from a clear easy timetables organizing key factors in the election procedure to complex plans providing a specific time frame to every activity. Similar to the strategic plan, operational planning is intended to be assistance for election management in the election procedure. There is no require for election management to keep an intricate plan if an ordinary plan will make sure that every person knows the errands and time scale.

An operational plan provides an action plan or a diary of actions for the election management according to their part of liability. Such a diary could specify what action has to be performed, a time frame for each action, and a cross-reference from the responsibility or activity to the proper sector in the election system. This kind of operational plan, if equipped from the election rule and regulations, make sure that there is no activity taken in the law is ignored by the election management.

It is suggested from management consideration that all election actions be integrated in any complete operational planning. Operational planning should capture into account courses from earlier elections. An entire review of the election procedure at the end of the election assignment will demonstrate whether the operational plan worked effectively. It will determine to election management what went good and what went incorrect, why several things went poorly, what could have been done in a different way, are there any cost saving to be done, and are there any procedures that can be done simpler and more efficiently. Learning from these factors can reduce a lot of time and cost for election management when planning for an introducing e-voting system.

The operational plan requires also providing understandable guidance to election management as to what actions taking in case of an emergency. Major disasters are not easy to predict, but problems could be happen any time like a fire in a polling station, or a inferior thing occurs in the election system's data centre, or for the period of vote counting, or a interruption of the poll by protestors require to be considered so that a clear process can be drawn in the instructional substance provided to the staff. On the above regards, election management should take the operational plans for potential e-voting system.

2.5.2.3 Development Planning

The developments plan sets out a proposal for election management by means of which it is determined to accomplish the objectives of the organisation, preferably converted into definite goal for a potential e-voting system. It should present an essentially co-ordinated, internally reliable set of principles and polices, selected as best means of implementing the strategy and attaining the goals, and determined to be used as a structure to guide consequent day-to-day decisions to election management.

There are various motives for planning in the organization. The plan provides guideline to the management, and encourages the organization's management to translate strategic planning and procedures. As such, public organizations with effective planning are in a good position to identify intricate situations, programme and funds precisely. A plan is normally define as a means to an ending and not an ending in itself. In this consider, the planning procedure is particular demand as it ensures buy-in, assurance and understanding. On this basis, all development plans in the municipal sector are typically crucial to be accepted by their legislatures or authorities.

The development plan provides to election management to make macro planning for a potential e-voting system intended at development that is usually multi-sectored and incorporated in nature. On this basis, rigorous appraisal of the costs, benefits, and efficiency of alternatives are drawn in planning. The purpose of the development plan in this considers is the election management attains a public institution's or organization's objectives.

The development plan provides to the election management time-frames or identifies their duration for a potential e-voting system, for example, whether they are for short period, medium period or long period. In common terms, most organizations or countries desire to plan with a short-period of one or two years. Planning, programming and budgeting covers the way to observe and evaluate recital. As the organization adapts to its short-period plan, election management can also plan for the medium-term period (normally 3 to 5 years) followed by longer-period plan, usually 5-10 years. Further to this, and with particular situation to the development plan, election management can use development plan to determine the necessary resources, the number of qualified staff, infrastructure, and budgets that will be required in future to reach the desired results for a potential e-voting system.

2.5.2.4 Regional and Spatial Planning

Spatial plan refers to the methods that can be used by the election management for a potential e-voting system to influence the allocation of people and actions in spaces of different scales. The plan is considered as a tool connected to intercession in a given territory and as a result it is to be understood not only as a legal requirement or a public investment plan, but also as an operational and programmatic instrument for the improvement of public policies as well as of private investment strategies and local initiatives. Local election managements are expected to play a proactive role in both the drafting and implementation of the plan. The idea of sustainability is essential to spatial planning as it incorporates long-term objectives for the territory as well as the incorporation of social and environmental with financial considerations. However, spatial planning has retained its centrality as a tool of local government policy (and for the purposes of local, national and regional planning) in the new dispensation. In essence, spatial planning has a great role in the improvement policies of cities with the influence of local government on improvement.

The attraction and encouragement of firms is still reliant on some site-specific characteristics, such as economic, social and technological infrastructures, skilled human resources, flexible and effective institutions and the quality of life. These cannot be developed throughout a top-down surface, but need an alert and mobilised local community. Regions and, over all, cities and towns should establish communication links between the variety of social groups to assert and improve their own identity. Local communities can also more suitably manage the global flows of information and adapt new information and relations technologies to their own require integrating the huge array of concerns and cultural societies.

The benefit of regional and spatial planning is that it usually moves beyond historical boundaries and acknowledges flows and interaction across borders. In the case of elections, this is very pertinent as voters move freely across historical voting areas, even internationally. Regional planning also has the benefit that it encourages contribution among stakeholders that do not generally interact with each other and therefore make sure ownership at a macro level. The election management requires doing planning for a potential e-voting system at regional, national, provincial and local level with the contribution of the community and all stakeholders.

2.5.3 Critical Planning Implications for Successful Implementation of a Potential E-Voting System

The foundation of the planning process is based on the aim or mission of the institution or organization. Once the organization has formulated its mission or aim, it needs to establish a strategic plan. The broad goals in this regard are subject to be indicated that the organization must strive for in its aim. The next step of the organization is to details its activities on a day-to day basis. In this regard, the goal in the strategic plan is directed at clusters of activities of the organization. It is in this manner that the broad outline of the goals is reflected in the real situation of the organization. It is therefore worthwhile to inspect the issues that, to a great scope, agree on whether the implementation will be successful. The study investigates critical planning factors for election management to successful implementation of a potential e-voting system. The most prominent of these are described below:

2.5.3.1 Project Plan and Vision

Project planning is the key to the success of any large project. An apparent project plan and vision guides the election management to get the route of the project. A project plan sketches proposed strategic and considerable benefits, resources, costs, risks and timeline. This will help the election management to keep focus on benefits of the system.

There should be a clear model of how the organization should supervise behind the implementation of an e-voting system. There should be a validation for the investment based on a trouble and amend straight to the route of the organization. Project mission should be associated to system desires and should be visibly stated. Goals and advantage should be identified and tracked. Project plan will make easier to work for management of e-voting system.

2.5.3.2 Management of Risk

Every Information technology implementation system holds important elements of risk; hence it is possible that development will deviate from the plan at several points in the project life cycle. IT implementation project risks are depicts as uncertainties, responsibilities or vulnerabilities that may cause the project to diverge from the defined plan. Election management is the competence to tackle unpredicted crises and deviation from the plan.

The implementation of e-voting system is considered as complex activity and involves a probability of occurrence of unforeseen events. Hence, the election management should reduce the impact of unplanned events in the project by classifying and addressing potential risks before major consequences occur. It is implicit that the risk of project failure is significantly reduced if the election management follows the risk strategy appropriately.

2.5.3.3 Engagement of Stakeholders

During all phases of planning, observing, evaluating, learning and improving, it is critical to connect stakeholders, encourage buy-in and commitment, and motivate action. The election management should aims to engage stakeholders in thinking as frankly and creatively as probable about what they want to attain and encourage them to organize themselves to attain what they have agreed on, including putting in position a procedure to monitor and evaluate improvement and use the information to develop performance.

Insufficient stakeholder participation is one of the most common facts programmes and projects fail. Hence, every effort should be made to promote broad and active stakeholder engagement in the planning procedures. This is particularly appropriate to crisis circumstances where people's sense of security and vulnerability may be subtle and where tensions and factions may exist. In these conditions, the election management should aim to make sure that as many stakeholders as possible are involved, and that opportunities are produced for the different parties to hear each other's viewpoints in an open and reasonable manner. The concentrate of the consultative approach aids to share activities like infrastructure design and approval, project execution, project financing, resource mobilization and infrastructure maintenance. In this consider, there is a common strength of project possession among stakeholders since they are involved in decision-making for an e-voting system.

2.5.3.4 Overall Transparency and Public Confidence

Overall transparency can be improved by different factor. Where any element or procedure of the system is secret or protected from disclosure by rule, then overall transparency reduces. As elections are a public procedure exercised together by voters in order to understand basic human rights, the e-voting system should not be made secret by a confidential contract between a vendor and the election management. Elections are not for vendors or the election management; elections belong to the voters.

One issue that impacts overall transparency is the fact of source codes for the software that works the e-voting system. Where the source code is an issue of public information and simply viewed, then on the whole transparency is improved. The source codes for all software utilized in the e-voting system should be made civic.

Where electronic voting happens in a polling station on a machine such as a DRE, transparency can be improved if there is the essential requirement of a paper proof for every ballot that has been cast. A paper proof requirement must be executed accurately to attain the goals of transparency and public confidence.

Polling stations and advanced levels of election management should produce paper protocols of their outcome tabulations so that political parties, applicants, and observers can inspect that the upshots at lower levels can be established against the centrally recorded e-voting results.

2.5.3.5 Secrecy of the Ballot

A voter must have guaranteed that the voter's election selection will not be disclosed to anybody. Not only must the voter be capable to mark the vote in privacy, the system must also make sure that the voter can't be associated with his or her preference.

Though ensuring privacy of the ballot in the polling station is same to guaranteeing a clandestine place to vote in a usual system, it also is a practical question where voting is completed by an electronic system. Therefore, election management must need to place safeguards to ensure confidentiality of the ballot and must evaluate the efficiency of those safeguards.

Remote e-voting, including internet voting, increases additional troubles for ensuring privacy of the ballot. There are no supreme safeguards to certify secrecy in an uncontrolled surrounding. In this consider, election management must need to provide sufficient encryption for remote e-voting in order to ensure that the transmission of the vote is not captured by a third party.

2.5.3.6 Excellent Project Management

While various in the IS consider project management an oxymoron, its significance in IT projects is well-documented, and various methodologies and management instruments exist. Project management responsibilities of an e-voting system are span the time of the project from starting the project to finishing it. The emergency approach to project management proposes that project planning and organize is a role of the project's descriptions such as project range, familiarities with the technology, and project constitution. The vast integration of hardware and software and the numerous of organizational, human and political matters make many IT projects huge and really complex, entailing new project management skills.

Especially, appropriate management of scope is essential to avoid timetable and cost over runs and requires having a plan and sticking to it. Customization enhances the scope of new e-voting system and adds time and expenditure to an execution. The high execution risks of an e-voting system entail the needs for multiple management tools such as external and internal amalgamation devices and proper planning and results-controls.

2.5.3.7 A Great Implementation Team

E-Voting system execution teams should be composed of top-notch people who are selected for their skills, past completions, reputation, and plasticity. These people should be trusted with crucial decision making liability. Election management should regularly communicate with the team, but should also enable authorized, quick decision making. The execution team is significant because it is accountable for creating the preliminary, complete project plan or overall schedule for the complete project, assigning responsibilities for different activities and shaping due dates. The team also ensure that all essential resources will be obtainable as required.

2.5.3.8 Certification of the System

Certification is a procedure to establish whether a given e-voting system satisfies earlier established standards and acceptable requirements. It is the accountability of the election management in the country to make sure that the e-voting system has been appropriately certified before it is applied in elections.

The election management should consider whether there are any possible gaps in the certification criterion. Certification of the system, both software and hardware, should be completed by a specialist body independent from vendors, suppliers and election management. It is helpful if the election management can obtain civic information that is accessible on the certifying body. This comprises prior certification knowledge, whether the certifying body has familiarity in more than one country, and a variety of opinions of election management who have relied on the certification body. Concern should also be specified to how the certifying body accomplished the certification procedure, including the steps, persons, and quantity of time devoted to the certification procedure. Was the procedure a meaningful one? Were any changes finished to the system's hardware or software consequent to the new certification? If so, were these changes certified? What payment was waged to the certification body if related? Was this amount satisfactory for a meaningful certification procedure or obviously insufficient to include more than a short look at the system?

2.5.3.9 Testing of the System and Troubles Shooting

In addition to certification, the election management should effort to determine to what scope the system has been subjected to testing and to what scope the testing procedure is fully independent, apparent, and comprehensive.

The election management should consider to what scope candidates, political parties, and other groups were allowed to test in the e-voting system. Apparently, such testing may be inadequate as technical, safety, logistical, and time limitation prevent the chance of complete or improved testing beyond the original testing required by election management before the system is accepted for utilize in elections.

Regardless of the degree of supplementary testing that the election management allows to be conducted by other persons and groups, election management must make sure that the system has been entirely tested before it is utilized. This comprises “end-to-end” testing as well as testing of individual apparatus. Election management must also make sure that there is complete and whole documentation launching that the system has been sufficiently tested. Use of an e-voting system in elections, where it has not been entirely tested or for which there is inadequate documentation of such testing, threats jeopardizes the legitimacy of the election procedure.

Troubles shooting errors are important. The election management should work with vendors and experts to resolve software troubles. Fast response, persistence, patience, difficulty solving and fire fighting abilities are significant. Energetic and sophisticated software testing relieves execution

2.5.3.10 Security Policy

An information security policy document is necessary in the new e-voting system for several reasons. Clear of the definition of roles and responsibilities for employees, a policy document sensitizes employees to the potential troubles associated with the new systems. This assists to minimize the cost of security events, aids accelerate the improvement of new application systems, and aids assure the consistent execution of controls across an organization's information systems. The election management needs to set a security policy that is defined a set of rules stating what is allowed and what is not allowed in the system through normal operation.

All tools of the e-voting system, including apparatus, places, and data, should be protected at all times. It is extremely essential to sustain protection of all data that is electronically procedure or stored. The e-voting system should be protected from external assault or attempts to decipher information, interior manipulation, and technical failure. Overall, election management should discover whether suitable safeguards are in situating to prevent or identify illegitimate involvements in the system.

Physical and electronic access to the e-voting system must be severely regulated by written dealings. Substantial and electronic access to the system should be inadequate so that an election employee or vendor has right to use only to components that essentially come in the performance of his or her responsibilities. The performance of receptive system functions should be performed by more than one person in order to shun interior manipulation by one person. There should be a distribution of duties within election management to minimize the opportunity for interior manipulation.

Exterior manipulation - “hacking” - is an important risk but one which may be reduced if different levels of safety in the system make hacking complex. Internet voting or the connection of any system with exterior networks, however, enhances the threat of the system being hacked. So, measures should be in position to ensure that efforts at external manipulation and/or efforts to decipher information can be identified, reported and prevented. Transfer of software and apparatus to polling stations should be measured as well as the controls in place through these operations.

2.5.3.11 Election Management and Training of Polling Station Officials

Training of election management is significant for the conduct of e-voting. E-Voting presents larger challenges and saddles than paper voting systems. As an outcome, more training must be offered to election employees. Election employees must be capable to aid voters as well as respond to slight problems and major urgent situations. This entails that election employees must have some basic considerate of how the e-voting system workings, not only in order to reply, but to assure and instil confidence of voters in the system. A credential or exam for system machinists may be advisable.

2.5.3.12 Voter Accessibility and Education

There are number of areas in which election management can make assessments regarding accessibility of the electronic voting system for voters and the provision of voter education. The electronic voting system should be understood and easily used by voters. The system design should take into account the level of education and computer literacy in the country and the existence of similar systems used by the populace for other purposes.

An electronic voting system should facilitate voting by voters with special needs.

Consideration should also be given as to whether a voter may use the electronic voting system in a minority language. Where it is possible to vote in a minority language, it should be verified that the minority language ballot contains the same information as regular ballot. Consideration should also be given as to how a disable voter may use the e-voting system.

Voter education is critical for the implementation and use of an electronic voting system. This requires voter education on not only how to cast the ballot electronically, but also on how the electronic voting system should perform during the voting process. Voters should also be educated on the security measures introduced to protect the system.

2.5.3.13 Audits of the System

Mechanisms for audits are important considerations for elections. Audits may be of different sorts, including audits of the working of the voting machines and audits of the processes followed in administering and protecting the system, as well as audits of the outcomes. The election management needs to provide a process for mandatory audits to establish whether the e-voting system has described the results accurately can also build confidence in the system. The law should be apparent what additional event is required should a compulsory audit or recount disclose discrepancies and what concern, if any, it has on the outcomes.

2.5.3.14 Recounts and Challenges to Results

In order to make sure that votes are counted sincerely and the outcomes are reported perfectly, it is essential that mechanisms be in position for a chance to recount the votes where reasonable by the conditions. One instance would be where an identified election system collapse, that could have changed the outcomes, is brought to the concentration of the election management. Another instance is where the margin of win is narrow. The lawful framework should offer the option of a meaningful manual recount of ballots cast electronically. In the case of an inconsistency between the paper record and the electronic record, the law should obviously state how the inconsistency affects the outcomes and whether any part of the outcome must be nullified. Though the paper evidence is generated by the e-voting system and the two outcomes should be the similar, system errors, printer failures or intentional malfeasance may result in a condition where the two are not the similar. The legal framework regulating disagreements to election results should tackle the issue of whether paper or electronic evidences prevail in the occurrence of legal disputes.

2.5.4 Conclusion

Without proper planning, the new e-voting system may be executed at the wrong time or in the wrong manner and result in poor outcomes. There will always be unexpected circumstances in the system. However, a proper planning exercise aids the election management to decrease the likelihood of these and prepares the team for dealing with them when they occur. The planning procedure should also engage assessing risks and assumptions and thinking throughout possible unintended consequences of the activities being planned. The results of these exercises can be very supportive in expecting and dealing with problems. An apparent plan assists the election management to focus limited assets on priority activities, that is, the ones most likely to carry about the desired change in the new e-voting system.

Against the above background, it is obvious that the various practices in planning contain a valuable body of knowledge that can be usefully employed in the area of e-voting. For the purpose of this study, the key experiences in planning are being summarized as key principles that can be translated to implement an e-voting in order to determine the essential issues to be addressed.

Chapter- 3 Methods

3.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

This research undertook an extensive literature review as a basis for answering all of the above considerations. This research will be engaged in both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. According to Bryman and Bell (2006) the main purpose of qualitative methodology is to measure the perceptions, understandings and behaviour. The qualitative approach is used not for establishing the theory but to derive conclusion from theory. In this research, the researcher has not focused on directly qualitative approaches of research rather an informal discussion has been taken part for collecting relevant knowledge and to justify the research objectives. On the above considerations, this research can be said that qualitative approaches are involved in this research to create a possibility of seeing pictures.

By contrasts, a quantitative approach is used for identifying any relationship between two or more variables. In some case cases, it is used to justify different hypothesis. In this research, question has given a wide range of perception measurement of the respondents regarding the approaches of consumer behaviour. To avoid data biasness the researcher has given some distinct open ended question. According to Bryman and Bell (2006) quantitative approaches is measurement of numerical value to project future behaviour of particular objects. Based on the above statements, it is clear that the appropriate research strategy for this particular study is the quantitative analysis and the qualitative approach has also been taken under that consideration. So, it can be said that this research is the blend of both qualitative and quantitative approaches; however the emphasis was put on quantitative approach.

3.2 Fieldwork Results

60 people took part in the interview amongst them were from the University of Greenwich, the University of East London, Middlesex University and some people of different areas. The mix of contributors were cross sectional as participants where drawn from different departments and year groups.

This questionnaire asked the participants to provide information about gender, age, occupation, about earlier voting behaviour, about the feature of the system in terms of secrecy (privacy) and safety (against fraud), about their viewpoints related to voting types, about the advantages and disadvantages of e-voting and how should be addressed those disadvantages, about the important planning principles of e-voting. Finally, this questionnaire asked the participants to provide information about their opinion about e-voting and about the how the election system will be effective for an e-voting system.

Many of the qualitative questions were left unanswered perhaps because they were demanding and hence put off the participants. Hence it is fair to consider these results as a fairly accurate representation for the entire research.

3.3 Comparative International Case Studies

Relative international case studies of Brazil, India and Estonia have been analysed in this research with case development experiences for a broader discussion. The international cases have drawn lessons of understanding on how to plan and design for successful implementation of an e-voting system. Such key lessons will give the consideration to achievements and negative experiences to be shunned when planning for a potential e-voting system. In addition, lessons discovered from the case studies will also look at the factual errors that should be shunned in implementation of a potential e-voting system.

Chapter- 4 Findings

4.1 Turnout

Based on opinion of the participants showed that the most common expectation of the e-voting will increase turnout. There is a perception that a number of people are not attending in election because of a variety of causes. The major problems were containing long queues, lack of staffs, the inadequate number of accessible polling stations, shortage of ballot papers and political intimidation. Some contributors were optimistic about their election experiences and mentioned that voting has enhanced their quality of living. Majority of the contributors agreed that only e-voting can resolve those inconveniences. In this consider, this ensures more reliably that e-voting will increase voting turnout.

4.2 Essential Facts Regarding for an Introducing E-Voting System

After explaining the underlying security system which surrounding in the e-voting systems, many contributors considered that e-voting is secure in term of confidentiality and integrity and also will produce a fair election. Only a few contributors were doubt about the security protection of e-voting system and they believed that e-voting will not produce fair election. The majority participant believed that e-voting system should replace the traditional paper ballot currently in place of elections. Most of the contributors also showed that the most common expectation of the e-voting will be user friendly if the system provides the option for using in different languages. Most of the respondents strongly agreed that there need to provide the facility to inspect the e-voting system software by the representatives of political parties and civil society. They also agreed that source code for all software utilized in the e-voting system should be made civic. They believe that this will protect the chance of partial election. Most of the contributors supported that there should provide the facility to the voter to verify the paper ballot matched his or her choice before the vote is cast. They strongly agreed that paper proof requirement will enhance the transparency and public confidence.

The fieldwork results also showed that many contributors considered telephone and internet voting are more suitable because those are universal. They will be able to make a call to their related municipalities to enquire regarding their status of registration. Furthermore, they will be able to vote by sending SMS or via the telephone to cast their votes. By using internet, they will be able to vote from anywhere of the globe. Regarding the above background, the below diagram expresses the results of survey.

4.3 Precedence of an Introducing E-Voting System

The fieldwork results showed that majority of the contributors agreed that e-voting is essential because of its important improvement on the existing inconveniences in elections. The major inspirations of an introducing of e-voting system considered including simple access, usefulness and efficiency, potential accurateness, fast results, reduction time and money, decreasing long queues, decreasing political intimidation, decreasing fraud and corruption, decreasing human error, decreasing travelling long distances, offer facilities to disable citizens, employment of IT students and enhance voting turnout.

When requested to contributors about any specific advantages or considerations concerning e-voting, most of them believed that there would be no require travelling the comparatively long distances and there would be dependable infrastructure. Some participants said that there will be availability to the e-environment. They also cited some important matters that should be addressed prior to e-voting can be situated in place. These included advance education and training operations, consultation and contribution, accessibility, and financial support. The major benefits that were at the heart of the substances, in their sight whoever experienced troubles on Election Day, comprising physically challenged voters.

Subsequently, contributors also had views about the drawbacks of e-voting. The major disadvantages were cited including too much costs, being issue to manipulation, being extremely sophisticated, lack of protection and privacy, computers could be affected by viruses, attacks by computer hackers, electronic failure, inadequacy of audit transparency and not every voters having online services. Retrenchment was also highlighted to such a point in the logic that this might have a negative impact to the electoral employee who is not computer literate at present.

When requested how the rated drawbacks should be addressed, contributors suggested community involvement, training and education, observing and evaluation of communications in rural areas are the major solutions. A dependable power system should be put in situate, mostly in remote areas where electrical energy is non-existent. This would also certify electricity back-up in case of urgent situation. They also suggested providing training to the illiterate electoral staffs on how to operate the voting machines. The fieldwork results also showed that e-voting elections need to be monitored 24 hours by electoral representatives and possibly by party agents in all station. This needs to be done in order to shun malpractices, viruses and other troubles pertaining to corruption and fraud like double-voting. Strong penalties were also recommended to those who would be caught up in crime or fraud.

4.4 Planning Deliberation Regarding for an Introducing E-Voting System

Majority of the contributors are strongly agreed that participation and communication can improve a potential e-voting system. The regards that were at the heart in this consider which comprised starting primary and secondary voter education, improvement of applicable technology, political buy-in, graphic and consistency of e-voting. Majority of the contributors agreed that all stakeholders, mostly at the grass-root stage, must take measurement in the planning of e-voting. This procedure can lead to the brilliant planning achievement of the project. Majority of the participants believed that planning of resource mobilization and allocation could be at heart for potential e-voting. This is quite important to tackle the technological infrastructure backlog.

The fieldwork results also revealed that in executing e-voting, should set organizational desires such as sufficient assets, a code of conduct and enough records. In regard of the above, it is found that the election management should consider this planning principle because it provides as a basis for organizational improvement. Majority of the contributors agreed that the planning principle providing a basis for contingencies and alternative strategies of classifying matters that may have a dramatic impact on e-voting. In this consider, the major facts cited included fraud and corruption, viruses, power breakdown and hackers. The fieldwork results also showed that planning provides project management in any organization. The meaning of this principle was considerable because it notifies about starting pilot projects (i.e. e-voting) in the organization, particularly where the organization was still inexperienced or not specific about how to execute a programme/project.

The fieldwork results exposed that proper programming and sufficient time-frames were essential planning principles because it provides an apparent cut way on how e-voting should be planned in future. Most of the contributors agreed that contingency planning and alternative strategies principle were consequential because it will specify which project requires to be planned for in periods of short, medium and long-term time frames. The fieldwork results also showed that monitoring and evaluation are vital because monitoring will provide crucial information or data regularly for evaluating e-voting.

Chapter- 5 Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Recommendations

The intention of this part is to make recommendations on the manner in which e-voting should be designed and planned. Furthermore, recommendations suggested below are critical for election management for a potential e-voting system. The recommendations are the heart of this research includes thorough research, proper planning and consideration of international cases. It is recommended that the election management initiates and manages a research programme for a potential e-voting system. Prior to this, the departure of this research found the following recommendations for an introducing e-voting system.

* Political consultation with the civic and all key-stakeholders.

* An operational strategy as an action plan for the implementation of the proposed policy.

* Complete financial projections and budgeting about the cost of the project.

* A voter-education course and the retraining of related officials.

* A suitable infrastructure and the acquisition of related software programmes.

* Usability or user-friendliness of the e-voting tools, including for disabled people, the elderly or speakers of minority languages.

* Terms of deliverance of tools and conditions of storage/security of the hardware and software in the polling station.

* Access power to voting equipment and other apparatus of the e-voting system in the polling station.

* In case of observable trouble, such as a voter having trouble with the voting tools or non-functioning of equipments, how election management respond to the difficulty.

* Inclusive and apparent certification of the e-voting system by a skilled independent body, in either national or international values.

* The inclusive testing of the system earlier to its introduction and regularly thereafter.

* Access for global observers to the marks of the certification procedure and domestic observer verification procedure;

* Secrecy of the vote must be guaranteed

* Security requirements and events those apply at every level of the system and make sure protection against external involvement, internal manipulation, and technological crash, and which make sure transparency and responsibility.

* Access to permit relating to the development and execution of standards, certification and authentication of the election system.

* The e-voting system must create voter verifiable paper evidence that the voter can view prior to leaving the voting stand in order to make sure that the voter's option has been recorded correctly and to produce the possibility for observers without technological expertise to examine a re-count.

* Improvement of the legal structure to take full account of the implications of innovative technologies, as well as sufficient provision for access of observers, system reviews and other transparency measures, including the possibility for recounts, compulsory audits of results, opportunity for recounts, and permissible challenges to election outcomes under the new e-voting system.

* Policies that ensure against potential conflicts of interests of dealers, certification agencies and election management, with a strict code of morals to prevent the exterior of partisan activity and the acceptance of everything of financial value between vendors and officials concerned in the procurement, management, and mistake of election systems.

* Establishment of an apparent distribution of responsibilities between vendors, certification agencies and election management to fully ensure responsibility and an efficient response in the case of system fail.

The final recommendation is that concern the role of international cases or best practices. In this consider, election management must draw from lessons on how selected international cases planned and implemented e-voting in their countries. Furthermore, it is recommended in this research that e-voting should be piloted in urban areas first and then extended to rural parts.

5.2 Conclusion

E-voting is not just a probability but a reality in both developing and developed countries. In consider of the above, the prominence could be on how to build the possibility of e-voting in a reality. In regard of this statement, this research argued that a planning proposal can offer a possibility into realism by offering a basis for the designing of an e-voting system. Given the reality that e-voting is quite complex, the appliance of planning principles will cover the way in this consider to ensure that a variety of requirements are met to execute an e-voting system successfully.

Furthermore, on the above discussions of general concepts of e-voting systems, technologies analysis, security analysis and international case studies will draw lessons of knowledge on how a potential e-voting system should be introduced.

5.3 Future Directions

Limited time and resources was the key bindings for this research. While doing the study many important features had been skipped for the simplicity of this research. Below some points showing the future considerations for this research:

* An analysis and evaluation of the nature and accessibility of e-voting software.

* The accessibility of the outsourcing of e-voting sub functions.

* Suitability of different kinds of voting types for e-voting (i.e. Internet voting, DRE and telephone voting).

* The use of a smart card/pin code and other technological options.

* Details planning and design of an e-voting pilot exercise.

* The possibility of fraud and corruption, and the potential impact of computer viruses.

* Estimation projections for technological infrastructure.


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