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A Competency Based Syllabus Of English For Information Education Essay

This study is about redesigning the competency-based syllabus of English for Information Technology at Faculty of Information Technology UNISBANK Semarang of which the graduates are supposed to be able to speak English in accordance with the scientific field. This is an exploratory descriptive qualitative research because it will address issues defined by exploration and describe the symptoms to redesign the English syllabus for Information Technique Faculty Program to be competency-based syllabus. The finding of redesigning syllabus for Informatics Technique Program is a competency-based curriculum and give weight SKS, especially English into at least 4 credits to accommodate the interests of students who want a special competence in English informatics techniques. The competency standards are successfully identified is that, after completing the course in English, students can be experts in all four language skills. Competency standards will be further decomposed into basic competencies for each learning unit.

KEY WORDS: syllabus, competency, SWOT analysis, SKS

BACKGROUND

English has long been claimed as an international language because the language is most commonly used as a means of communication for people all over the world. This happens because of the nature of the English language is very accommodating to the development of technology in terms of vocabulary. New technical terms, for example, emerged along with the development of technology. With facts like these, there is the notion that the ability to speak English both oral and written will help a person to act in the international arena.

In response to the above phenomenon, there is a tendency for an educational institution to equip graduates with English proficiency. Some schools have bilingual education system. Too many colleges are launched into a World Class University . This is not a problem as long as the college University provides English language courses which can be offered to students to master the English language skills. Otherwise what happens is counter productive to the college concerned.

This phenomenon was greeted positively by a change in the paradigm of teaching English as a foreign language, which provides students with balanced capabilities of the four language skills by using a discourse and competency-based curriculum that ultimately revealed to be competency-based syllabus. The government also supports the efforts of foreign language learning to enhance the competitiveness (National Development and Language Development, Ministry of Education and Culture, 2011).

However, this kind of syllabus has not been developed in universities despite claiming the college of international standard. There are many courses delivered in traditional ways, such as English with 2-4 credits per semester so that students just graduate without English-language skills. That was then necessary to redesign the English syllabus into competency-based syllabus in order to produce graduates who are able to speak English in accordance with the scientific field. Generally the syllabus designed by the lecturer in question with a specific format given by the head of the study program under the direction of the quality assurance agency. Businesses in redesigning syllabus to be competency-based syllabus has actually been supported by Kepmendiknas No.232/2000 and No.045/U/2002.

Description implicitly stated in the introduction to the problems associated with the necessity of redesigning the syllabus of English language competency-based course Information Technique Faculty of UNISBANK Semarang. Operationally, these problems can be formulated as follows: (1)What are competency standards required by the students of Informatics Engineering Program in the mastery of English in order to compete in the global era? (2) What is the function of any language needed by students in Informatics Engineering Program mastery of English in order to compete in the global era? (3) What language features are needed by students in order to compete in the global era? (4) How can KEKEPAN analysis be applied in order to redesign the competency-based English language syllabus for Informatics Technique Program?

PREVIOUS STUDY

  Studies on the draft syllabus has been widely applied in academic contexts. Astika (2004), in his dissertation, proposed Tasks-Based Syllabus for the Department of Tour and Travel Satyawacana Christian University. In the proposed syllabus that students are given English skills in accordance with the job as a tour guide. Another study conducted by Sudarto (1999) who designed the syllabus for the Academy Secretary when he wrote his master's thesis on Atma Jaya Christian University. He stressed that it is important to have the process of designing. Another with Wang (2006), who designed the assignments that encourage students to communicate in College English Courses. He examines what tasks can encourage active student to communicate in English.

Curriculum vs. Syllabus

Allen (1984) in Astika (2004:13) defines curriculum from two perspectives. First, the curriculum is seen as a concept of education which includes administrative factors, social and philosophical order as the basis for the design of educational programs. On the other hand, according to applied linguistics, curriculum is an educational program that includes objectives, contents, teaching procedures, learning experience to achieve goals, and methods of assessment (evaluation) program (Richards, Platt, and Plait. 1992:94). So, the first definition refers to general curriculum, while the second definition refers language skills regarding specific language, which means it's very relevant to the study of English language syllabus design for English for Specific Purposes. In other words, ESP is part of the curriculum, which in this case Informatics Engineering Program Curriculum.

The New Paradigm for Higher Education

Referring to the Minister of National Education No. SK. 232/U/2000 and No.045/2002, the concept of higher education refers to the consensus of UNESCO of the 21st century in which university graduates must have special competence for their future. Therefore, it needs to be designed competency-based syllabus for each course, including the English for specific purposes (ESP). Consensus UNESCO stated that learning should be designed based on 4 (pillars) competency-based education, namely: (1) Learning to know, (2) Learning to do, (3) Learning to be and (4) Learning to live together. Each pillar is competency-based education together and work together to form the learners or students to be literacy and ready to work in the field.

The first pillar competence-based learning Learning to know, learning to think (http://www.unesco.org/delors/ltoknow.htm) not only includes the acquisition of knowledge but also about learning tools. Therefore, Learning to know can be viewed from two different sides, namely as a means to an end, and the end in itself. As a tool, students can use the knowledge for survival together with other people around. As for as a final destination, Learning to know could mean that people are satisfied with the knowledge and findings from the learning itself. Furthermore it is said that Learning to know should not be happening at school, so it is certain that people can learn anytime and anywhere that air can adapt to an environment that has almost everything new and is worth studying the Lifelong education.

Next is learning to do. The second pillar, according to the UNESCO link (http://www.unesco.org/delors/ltodo.htm) is correspondence between learning in college to the needs of industry for labor, better known by the program link and match. In short, after finishing college, students should know what to do in the world of work with a practice or a practice that has been studied in college where it has been introduced competency-based curriculum.

While Learning to be educated how a person becomes himself with competence he possessed (http://www.unesco.org/delors/ltobe.htm ) by participating as a person with certain professions that shows who he is and what to do to contribute to the community through competency that has been built in college. Last is learning to live together. It clearly shows that an individual can not live alone. He needed skills how to live with other individuals. This is often referred to as soft skills, which is a skill that is not contained in the subject of yet more learned outside the classroom in the form of activity of non-academic student.

Competency-Based Syllabus Design

After taking a particular course of curriculum, there are at least six steps create competency-based syllabus. These steps include (1) determination of competency standards, (2) the determination of basic competence, (3) determination of learning materials, (4) determine indicators of achievement, (5) determine the type of evaluation, (6) determine the type of learning experience to achieve competency particular, as well as writing syllabus in the format prescribed by the Institute of Quality Assurance (Academic Directorate, Directorate General of Higher Education, 2008). In determining the standard of competence, the syllabus designer determines the 'general skills' that will be obtained after completing the course. Then the second step which determines the basic competencies supports the achievement of competency standards. Once defined basic competencies, the next step is to determine the learning materials so that students can achieve basic competence. The fourth step is to determine the indicators of achievement that was later determined was also a means of evaluation. The sixth step is to determine a learning experience, or other types of learning activities so that students can achieve basic competence.

After six steps to go through, then the syllabus is prepared by following a certain format, where until now there has been no standard format for competency-based syllabus. However, there is a guiding principle that should be followed, namely: the syllabus should be short, that should not be too long; syllabus should use language that is easily accessible by the user (teacher); syllabus should be able to refer to a clear learning resources (Slatterly and Carlson, 2005) .

In practice the process of competency-based teaching, teachers must change teaching behavior of teacher-centered to student-centered covering, small group discussions, and role plays or simulation, case studies, cooperative learning, collaborative and contextual (Academic Directorate, Directorate General of Higher Education, 2008 ). It is certainly not easy to remember as the teachers will not be easy considering the lecturers who have many years of teaching the old patterns will encounter difficulties in the field related to the pattern of teaching.

METHOD

This study is exploratory descriptive qualitative research because it will address issues defined by exploration and describe the symptoms to redesign the English syllabus Engineering Program Information to be competency-based syllabus.

Units of Analysis

The unit of analysis is the fourth English language skills. Thefour language skills are as the unit of analysis because it refers to institutional goals od study program of Technical Information which are contained in the vision and mission, which is to produce graduates who are experts in global competitiveness. (FTI UNISBANK Pedoman Academic, 2011-2012:50). With the keyword 'global competitiveness' can be indicated that the graduates should master the English language actively.

Data collection techniques

Source of the data is 4 (four) speakers, namely, Kaprogdi IT, IT English lecturers, one professor of IT by providing the questionnaires. In addition, 40 (forty) students were selected at random stratified and also surveyed about the needs of English.

In addition, the English curriculum documents which form the syllabus will also be examined to determined which parts that should be redesigned so that it can be a competency-based syllabus.

Data analysis techniques

SWOT Analysis will be made to provide justification and need for redesign IT syllabus for English language by Freedy Rangkuti (2005) in Prawitasari (2010:27) that "SWOT is the identity of the various factors in systematis to formulate a service strategy. This analysis is based on the logic that maximizes the opportunity but at the same time can minimize the disadvantages and threats. "While the English syllabus needs analysis will be conducted using a Likert scale. The overall research steps are as follows:

Make contact with relevant officials in the FTI and IT Head study program

Conduct a survey to officials about the policy of English course.

Conduct a survey to students regarding English language requirements

Perform analysis of the survey results in the form of a SWOT analysis policy (KEKEPAN) as evidence of the need to justify the redesignated English syllabus

Conduct needs analysis and develop a competency-based English Language syllabus in coordination through meetings with the English lecturers.

FINDINGS

In redesigning of the basic competencies will be assessed for each skill. This answers the research problem what the competency standards required by graduates of IT Faculty. According to the curriculum downloaded from the course turns http://www.unisbank.ac.id, English only weighs 2 credits and given one semester. And the results of a survey of the Head of study program(Kaprogdi) also showed similar results. Kaprogdi also stated that English language courses only requires 2 credits for 1 semester plus a special English training. It is quite contrary to the answers given by the English lecturer who wants English courses are weighted 4 credits for 2 semesters plus training English for Informatics. Likewise, the answer given by the faculty of IT, which are 4 credits for 2 semesters and training plus English for Informatics. Therefore, redesigning for the curriculum needs to be followed up.

In the redesigning the basic competencies will be assessed for each skill. This answers the research problem that is what the competency standards required by graduates of IT courses.

Survey results of Listening skill shown on competency mapping shown in Table 1 below:

Tabel 1. Competency Mapping: Listening

No

Kompetensi

5

4

3

2

1

1

Dapat mengerti kuliah dalam bahasa Inggris sederhana berkisar pada TI

5%

85%

10%

2

Dapat merespon secara fisik instruksi dalam bahasa Inggris sederhana berkisar pada TI

10%

90%

3

Dapat berpartisipasi dalam diskusi sederhana dalam bahasa Inggris TI

90%

10%

4

Dapat merespon secara lisan bila berhadapan dengan orang yang berbahasa Inggris sederhana

80%

20%

Jumlah Subyek = 40 mahasiswa

In designing competency, the team only assumes on the vision and mission of both the faculty and the university, namely “to compete at the regional, national and global world. From the results questionnaire research, it is found out that most students do not have the intended competence.

For competency-1 as only 5% of students admitted that they can understand simple English courses about english technology, and 85% and 10% feel they have no competence.

Furthermore, the competence-2, 10% of students claimed to have competence but 90% say it has not been able to. Competency-3 also shows the fact that the students feel they have no competence, 90% are unable , and 10% say significantly below competence.

Here are shown Table 2. on competency mapping for speaking skills as the basis for the formulation of basic competence in speaking skills .

Tabel 2. Competency Mapping: Speaking

No

Kompetensi

5

4

3

2

1

1

Dapat melakukan presentasi singkat dalam bahasa Inggris tentang TI

90%

10%

2

Dapat berpartisipasi dalam diskusi sederhana dalam bahasa Inggris TI

30%

65%

15%

3

Dapat memulai berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris dengan orang yang dapat berbicara bahasa Inggris

57%

43%

4

Dapat member instruksi sederhana dalam bahasa Inggris seputar TI

70%

30%

Jumlah subyek = 40 mahasiswa

In Table 2 above it shows no one admits that he has the ability in speaking competence . It is increasingly convinced the need to redesign the English syllabus so that all four can be accommodated integrally skills. The research team believes they have got competence in English, but a new stage of cognition, not to practice and use the psychomotor level.

Why so? When it is viewed from the high school curriculum, almost all language function and language features and text types (genres) are taught. Vocabulary is also very appropriate. All presented in a discourse approach that actually leads to the achievement of communicative competence. That's the name of national curriculum. When it came to the education of the smallest units, the output can be different, depending on local capacity.

There are some schools that really are ready with all the ability in the form of human resources (teachers) and the subject of learning (students), including learning facilities

Here is competency mapping for reading skill is shown in Table 3. below:

Tabel 3 Competency Mapping: Reading

No

Kompetensi

5

4

3

2

1

1

Dapat memahami teks bahasa Inggris sederhana seputar TI

10%

50%

40%

2

Dapat merespon secara lisan terhadap teks bahasa Inggris sederhana seputar TI

70%

30%

3

Dapat merespon secara tertulis terhadap teks sederhana seputar TI

65%

35%

4

Dapat memberi argument (pro/contra) dalam bahasa Inggris sederhana seputar TI

78%

22%

Jumlah Subyek = 40 mahasiswa

For reading skills that are passively receptive, 10% of study subjects claimed to be able to understand simple English text about technology but 50% admitted under these competencies and 40% claimed to be significantly below competence. The question arises: what is the model of learning reading skills currently?

As for the writing skills, the researchers deliberately proclaimed tip writing skills and CV writing job applications, because they are needed later if the students want to apply for jobs in companies that require active skills in English. It is pretty good to consider they are not a student majoring in English language and literature. At the department / progdi writing skills in English literature course, of course refers to the skills of preparing thesis in English so it's really reached the level of epistemic literacy survey results contained in Table 4 below:

Tabel 4. Competency Mapping: Writing

No

Kompetensi

5

4

3

2

1

1

Dapat menulis lamaran pekerjaan dengan merespon iklan sesuai dengan profesi TI

60%

40%

2

Dapat menulis lamaran pekerjaan dengan merespon iklan di luar profesi TI

55%

45%

3

Dapat menulis CV dalam bahasa Inggris untuk pekerjaan di dalam lingkup profesi TI

30%

70%

4

Dapat menulis CV dalam bahasa Inggris untuk pekerjaan di luar profesi TI

72%

28%

Jumlah subyek = 40 mahasiswa

From Table 4 above, it turns out no one admitted that he/she can make a good application letter and CV to apply for a job related to technology, as well as outside of the technology profession. Thus, the syllabus will give special emphasis in discussing teaching CV writing and job applications; considering both of which are essential skills to students who will apply for jobs in the future.

As we realize that an application letter and CV is a sort of letter of offer for graduates who are actively looking for work though they have graduated from entrepreneurial university, which should create jobs as entrepreneurs, and apply for jobs is a last choice.

From the above description of each skill, the standard of competency to be held by the study progamer of informatics technique graduates in the mastery of the English language is that students can master the English language covering all four language skills in order to compete in a professional in the field of information technology at the international.

CONCLUSION

Since this study is the policy, then the research team based on the results of the swot analysis, and students concerning special competences of English informatics, authorities conclude that it is the time to redesign the Informatics Program into a competency-based curriculum and give weight SKS, especially English into at least 4 credits to accommodate the interests of students who want a special competence in English informatics techniques.

The competency standards are successfully identified is that, after completing the course in English, students can be experts in all four language skills. Competency standards will be further decomposed into basic competencies for each learning unit.

Regarding language functions and language features, the team decided to adapt the Halliday’s idea, which will be reflected in the syllabus and the recommended text books.

English language competency-based syllabus is organized through six stages (1) to determine competency in English corridor (2) determining the competency standards lowered to basic competence, (3) collecting teaching material, (4) determining the subject, (5) determining syllabus format, and (6) writting draft and consulting the draft syllabus to English language teachers who teach English of informatics techniques in order to get feedback for improving the syllabus.

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