Social And Cultural Aspects Of Thailand Cultural Studies Essay
Historical background: Thailand has a wide variety of fauna and flora and boasts wide ethnic diversity as well. Thanks to its abundant resources and fertile land, it has attracted peoples of many country’s, who have settled and thrived here.
The origin of the Thais is not agreed on amongst academics. Three decades ago it could be said with presumed certainty that the Thais originated in northwestern Szechuan in China about 4,500 years ago and later migrated south to their present homeland. However, this theory has been altered by the discovery of remarkable prehistoric artifacts in the village of Ban Chiang in the Nong Han District of Udon Thani Province in the Northeast of Thailand. These include evidence of bronze metallurgy dating back 3,500 years, as well as other indications of a culture far more sophisticated than previously believed by archaeologists. It now appears that Thais might have originated here in Thailand and later scattered to various parts of Asia, including some parts of China.
"Siam" is the name by which the country was known to the world until 1939 and again between 1945 and 1949. On May 11, 1949, an official proclamation declared that the country would henceforth be known as "Thailand." The word "Thai" means "Free," and therefore "Thailand" means "Land of the Free."
The words of the Thai Royal Anthem, performed at most official ceremonies and before the start of every movie, may strike a Western ear as somewhat archaic. After all, the system of absolute monarchy ended in 1932, following a revolution staged by a small group of disaffected civil servants and military men. Since then, Thai kings have ruled under a constitution; their powers theoretically no greater than those of European monarchs. Yet, since he was officially crowned in 1946, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej has assumed the role of constitutional monarch and has worked tirelessly on behalf of his people, gaining a measure of personal devotion that is probably more intense than that felt for any of his all-powerful ancestors. It has been said that Their Majesties King Bhumibol and Queen Sirikit are the hardest working royal couple in the world with a work load once estimated to be equal to at least one function every day of the year. Of the several institutions that form the foundation of modern Thai life, the one His Majesty represents is not only the most visible but also the most revered.
His Majesty has devoted himself to public service and made enduring contributions to Thailand's development, initiating vital "royally-suggested" projects such as crop rotation, fish breeding, irrigation, natural watershed programs, dairy farming, reforestation, road building, and the establishment of self-help villages.
His Majesty has traveled countrywide by helicopter, jeep, train, boat and on foot, often to the remotest corners of his Kingdom, in pursuit of his projects. He is held in high esteem nationwide for his profound interest in his people's welfare. Her Majesty Queen Sirikit frequently accompanies His Majesty and shares a close interest in the welfare of rural Thais. Her Majesty has wholeheartedly helped establish foundations such as SUPPORT which assists Thailand's rural population to produce and sell traditional craft products for supplementary income.
The Thai monarchy is revered and regarded as the central, unifying element in the pillars of the nation. King Bhumibol was born on December 5, 1927, ascended the throne on June 9, 1946, and married Her Majesty Queen Sirikit on April 28, 1950.
Their Majesties have four children; Their Royal Highnesses Princess Ubol Ratana, Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, and Princess Chulabhorn. The Royal Couple are conscientiously assisted by their children, who frequently accompany them and represent Their Majesties at official functions and ceremonies.
Thailand's national flag, ceremoniously raised each morning at 08.00 and lowered at 18.00 in every town and village. The flag is composed of five horizontal bands of red, white, and blue. Outer bands of red representing the nation enclose equal inner bands of white evoking religion. The blue band, occupying the central one-third of the total area, symbolizes the monarchy. The harmony of design expresses the complementary nature of these three pillars of the Thai nation. The tri-colored flag, first introduced by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) in 1917, replaced an earlier design which featured a white elephant on a red background.
Most national holidays and festivals are of a religious nature and serve to evoke a sense of devotion to the monarchy, the religion, and the nation. Some are celebrated by the lunar calendar and thus vary in date from year to year, while others are celebrated according to the solar calendar. Bank Holidays for 2010 are:
Thai culture and customs
Informality and general friendliness in relationships of all age, economic and social groups characterize the Thai culture and people. Thai people are tolerant of almost all kinds of behaviour and never expect foreigners to understand the intricacies of Thai social customs.
A Thai greeting
In Thailand people do not normally say 'good morning', 'good afternoon', 'good evening' or 'good night'. They greet each other with the word Sawadee, and instead of shaking hands, they put their palms together in a prayer-like gesture and bow slightly. It is customary for the younger or lower in status to begin the greeting. When taking leave, the same word and procedure is repeated. This gesture is called a Wai. If you are greeted with a Wai you should reply with the same gesture, though it is not necessary to return a Wai to a child. Think of a Wai as you would a handshake. Initiate a Wai because of sincere pleasure at an introduction. You will not cause offence if you Wai inappropriately in Thailand, but you may create confusion. Don't return a Wai from waiting staff, drivers or other help. You might hope to strike a blow for equality, but will in fact cause embarrassment. A Wai to your teacher (any kind of teacher) is definately appropriate; any smiles you receive in return are of appreciation.
Sanuk means fun
One of the first things you will notice when you visit Thailand is the Thai people's inherent sense of playfulness and light heartedness. Sanuk is the Thai word for fun, and in Thailand anything worth doing, even work, should have some element of Sanuk. This doesn’t mean Thai people don’t want to work or strive. It is just that they live more in the moment, and do their best to enjoy it. The famous Thai smile stems partly from this desire to make Sanuk.
The concept of saving face
Thai people have a refined sense of public image and believe strongly in the concept of saving face. That is, they will go to great lengths to avoid confrontation and endeavour not to embarrass either themselves or other people (unless of course it is Sanuk to do so!). The ideal face saver does not bring up negative topics in conversation, or talk in an argumentative, judgemental or aggressive manner. Raising your voice or losing your temper will never be constructive in Thailand. It will result in loss of face for everyone involved, and you may be ignored as a result. You may notice Thai people smiling in the face of another’s misfortune. This is not a sign of callousness, but an attempt to save face for the person suffering misfortune. Saving face is the major source of the famous Thai smile. It is the best possible face to ease almost any situation.
Social status in Thailand
According to simple lines of social rank defined by age, wealth, and personal and political power all relationships in Thai society are governed by connections between Phu Yai (‘big’ people) and Phu Noi (‘little’ people). When meeting someone new a Thai person will automatically make an assessment regarding their Phu Yai or Phu Noi status. They may ask quite probing questions in order to place them. A set of mutual obligations requires Phu Noi to defer to Phu Yai through demonstrations of obedience and respect. In return Phu Yai are obligated to care for and offer assistance to Phu Noi they have regular contact with. Phu Noi may ask Phu Yai for favours such as financial help or assistance securing employment. It would cause Phu Yai some loss of face to refuse these favours. When eating out in restaurants, Phu Yai will normally settle the bill. Examples of automatic Phu Yai status include: adults over children, bosses over employees, elder classmates over younger classmates, elder siblings over younger siblings, teachers over students, military over civilian, Thai over non-Thai. As a visitor to Thailand you may be assigned Phu Yai status as a sign of courtesy, stemming somewhat from assumptions regarding your wealth and education. Do not be offended by these assumptions. If you are lucky enough that Thai people hold you in high regard, take it as a compliment.
Mai Pen Rai - never mind
Mai Pen Rai means 'never mind' (or more literally 'it's nothing'). Symbolising Thailand's unofficial national philosophy these three little words help to calm the heart of a nation. Mai Pen Rai enables the Thai people to retain their composure, keep smiling and be happy in everything they do. Thai people care little about trifling things. If they are frustrated, instead of getting angry they simply say Mai Pen Rai and solve the problem by some other means. Thai people believe strongly in avoiding confrontation, which is one of the reasons travel in Thailand is such a pleasure. To the Thais, foreigners over-worry, see trouble where there is none, and are constantly fretting over the future. When Thai people think about their future, they are optimistic. If they are not so happy now, they believe they are sure to be in their next life!
Concept of time in Thailand
The Mai Pen Rai philosophy is well demonstrated by the Thai concept of time. Estimates of time, in terms of the past or the future, can be vague or even wildly inaccurate in Thailand. Thais are often late for appointments, but nobody seems to mind waiting. Traffic jams are common, restaurant service, and hotel check-in procedures can seem slow and inefficient, but you won't see Thai people getting upset about it. In fact, most Thai people find it pathetic to see a person childishly expressing their irritation. Such behaviour will set you apart as someone less than properly evolved. The best thing to do is to relax and let things proceed at their natural pace. Trying to pin Thai people down about times will generally get you nowhere. If you must ask 'when will we be ready to leave?' or 'when will this job be done?' go ahead. But be prepared for an answer that proves wrong, not because of bad planning, but simply a different attitude towards time.
Thai business customs
In business circles some Thai people will have a reasonable command of English. However, most Thais do not feel comfortable speaking English. Address a Thai man or woman by their first name, not their surname, using the prefix Khun instead of Mr or Mrs. It is not considered informal or familiar to call Thais by their first name. Although Thai people appreciate punctuality when conducting business, there is a differentconceptHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ"ofHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ"timeHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ"inHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/culture.html#time&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGM8gGK4onIOzD8qdDEh5sO7ma2LQ"Thailand. Deadlines are often overlooked and it is necessary to allow for this when scheduling meetings. Don't contradict or criticise people in public. An essential tool for success in Thailand is patience. A person who lets inconveniences pass and forgives easily is respected.
Dos and don'ts in Thailand
Loud voices, calling attention to yourself, pointing at people or things, throwing or dropping things, and making big hand gestures all seem graceless to the Thai sensibility. Preferred modes of comportment are those that reflect the quiet, subtle and indirect as opposed to the loud, obvious and direct. Although the southernHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Koh%20Phangan/people.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNFO_U149i3qhoxZw4kCnw5vfMHhwQ" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Koh%20Phangan/people.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNFO_U149i3qhoxZw4kCnw5vfMHhwQ"Thais can at times be alarmingly direct in their interactions with others.
The monarchy remains highly respected throughout Thailand and visitors to the country must be respectful also. Avoid disparaging remarks or jokes about the royal family; they will not be appreciated. All Thai people love their king, HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/monarchy.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGHxdr0A9teNyRnx41X2lBm06yLSw"HMHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/monarchy.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGHxdr0A9teNyRnx41X2lBm06yLSw" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/monarchy.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGHxdr0A9teNyRnx41X2lBm06yLSw"KingHYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/monarchy.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGHxdr0A9teNyRnx41X2lBm06yLSw" HYPERLINK "http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.horizonmuaythai.com/Thailand/monarchy.html&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGHxdr0A9teNyRnx41X2lBm06yLSw"Bhumibol; if you want to know why, ask them politely.
Public displays of sexual affection are not acceptable in Thailand, although this may be changing with the younger generation in some areas. Thai people are extremely offended by public nudity, along with just about everyone else in the world. Thai people are modest in this respect and it should not be the visitor’s intention to ‘reform’ them. A polite man in Thailand will not touch a woman.
The feet in Thailand are considered spiritually as well as physically the lowest part of the body. Don’t step over people’s legs, even in a crowded place such as on a train; wait politely for them to move out of the way. Do not point things out or pick things up with your feet. And do not wave your feet around people's heads! If you accidentally touch someone with your foot, apologise. Food in Thailand is often eaten on the floor. Stepping over food is really a bad thing in Thailand. Shoes are not worn inside people’s houses, or in some guest houses and shops. If you are not sure watch other people. A pile of shoes at the entrance is your clue to remove yours (socks are OK). To Thai people wearing shoes indoors is disgusting.
Show respect for religious symbols and rituals, and avoid touching spirit houses and household alters. Thai people, particularly those in rural areas, can be highly superstitious and may feel the need for lengthy ritual should you ‘contaminate’ their sacred areas.
Do not stare at Thai people. They may be smiling, but still do not look into their eyes too long. Particularly in rural areas young and old may react violently to such a gesture, which is considered a rude insult. During normal conversation most Thai people do not look directly at one another, and will avoid anything but the briefest eye-to-eye contact. Phu Nawy (‘little’ people) often keep their head bowed when conversing with Phu Yai(‘big’ people) as a sign of respect. As a foreigner it can be hard to know if you have a person’s attention. And it is difficult to hear what people are saying if they speak with their back to you.
Laundry and bathing
Modest dress and a clean, neat appearance will create a very good impression in Thailand. Keep up with your laundry and you will receive better treatment everywhere.
Most Thai people bathe in cold water. This is not a problem, as it is almost always hot enough for you to feel the need to cool down. Most Thais shower and put on fresh clothes at least twice a day. You will be more comfortable and sleep more soundly in the hot and humid climate if you do likewise. Many washrooms in Thailand do not have showerheads fitted to the wall. There is a cement trough or other kind of water reservoir provided for use. A plastic or metal bowl is used to sluice water over the body. This water is meant for cleaning and should remain clean for other people’s use. Do not contaminate this water. And do not climb into the reservoir in order to bathe! In rural areas many Thai people still use rivers and streams, or will bathe from an outdoor reservoir at home. When bathing in view of others men wear underpants. Women should wear a Pha Sing (cotton wraparound). Nude bathing in public view is not acceptable.
In Thailand the squat toilet is the norm except in hotels and guesthouses geared towards foreigners. If you have never used one before it may take a bit of getting used to. Contrary to what some people seem to think, these are flushing toilets. They are flushed in the same way as western toilets, i.e. by dropping water through the hole. The difference from Western-style toilets being, you must scoop water with a bowl from a nearby reservoir and drop water through yourself, rather than release water from a tank using a lever. You can chuck water all over the place in a Thai toilet, so when you are finished it is a good idea to rinse the floor of any sand or mud you may have brought in on your feet. Thai people do not normally use toilet paper, prefering to rinse themselves thoroughly with soap and water. If you absolutely must use paper don’t drop it down the toilet. Place it in the bin provided. If there is no bin provided, find another facility. Plumbing in Thailand simply isn’t designed to handle paper, and in most places you will cause a great deal of inconvenience if you drop anything other than your natural waste through the toilet.
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:
More from UK Essays
- Free Essays Index - Return to the FREE Essays Index
- More Cultural Studies Essays - More Free Cultural Studies Essays (submitted by students)
- Cultural Studies Essay Writing Service -find out more about how we can help you
- Example Cultural Studies Essays - See examples of Cultural Studies Essays (written by our in-house experts)