construction

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Traffic Congestion

Proposal-Introduction

The overall purpose of this feasibility study is to outline the issues that concern the community and prepare a detailed proposal in order to solve those problems efficiently and permanently. Specifically, our problematic is to propose solutions to the severe problems of traffic congestion and lack of car park facilities in the area, problems which reach their climax during peak tourism periods, from May to September in specific. After having gathered baseline data about the area, its characteristics (geology, economy etc.), and the current situation, a broad range of issues have been raised and we have reached certain decisions on how the problems could be solved.

The town of Whitby generally faces numerous challenges in all domains, i.e. the declining fishing and cargo handling industries, and the need to boost revenue from other sources such as leisure and tourism. Tourism has gained a considerable place in the town's economy and any proposed solution should lead to its further development. In addition to this, our proposal should be able to offer career opportunities to the locals, so as to diminish or even prevent the moving of the younger ages from the town. Undoubtedly, any proposal made should have the locals' approval, that is why it is important that it had benefits for the people themselves and generally that it respects their will and needs. Especially middle-aged people could be negative to radical changes that would affect the quiet and unique character of the town. And finally, there is an important need to preserve the architectural style and historical ambience of Whitby, in order to keep the locals satisfied.

Various parameters and factors have been taken into account in order to prepare this proposal. Firstly, we have examined the erosive and degrading effects of the wind, the rain and the sea. Furthermore, the risk for floods, particularly close to the river Esk, which has reached an unacceptably high level, has certainly been outlined and considered in this process and flood level protection must be provided in Whitby. Our proposal will embrace the principles of sustainable construction and will ensure the minimum possible impact on the environment of the town.

Traffic congestion:

The most important problem the town faces, is the extreme traffic congestion that presents itself intensely during the tourist periods, and mainly on the West Cliff. It is essential to note that traffic could be caused not only by cars, but also by pedestrians and animals, and this is what we are asked to solve. The questions to answer are: WHAT to do, WHO will be involved and fund the project, HOW LONG will it take to finish, HOW MUCH will it cost.

Epigrammatically, we have reached the following decisions, to be analysed later on:

  • Preserve, but improve the existing Swing Bridge. Pedestrianism of the bridge. Use only by emergency vehicles.
  • Introduce a new river crossing for traffic (cars and pedestrians) within the Harbour Zone. Creation of a new cable-stayed swing bridge.
  • Replace the High Level Bridge, with a similar one and on the same place.

All these points will be analysed in detail onwards. All constructions, either improved, replaced, or built should be economical, safe and practical to construct, durable, with low maintenance cost, and aesthetically acceptable.

1. Swing Bridge

The Swing Bridge was built in 1909, and celebrated its 100th anniversary on August 8th 2009. We refer to a Victorian engineering construction, that locals are proud of and attached to, as it represents the main focal point of the harbour and a tourist attraction. It joins the two communities east and west of the River Esk together, and during high tides opens every 30 minutes on the hour and at half past the hour. It spans in two sections of 75 feet, of which each section be operated independently, swinging horizontally.

The effective function of the bridge is extremely limited, as with the presence of traffic lights on each end of the Bridge, it can accommodate only one-way traffic at a time, thus causing a serious vehicular traffic problem on both sides. The single-lane road of the bridge does not present its only problem, as it also consists of two narrow footpaths, whose width is the cause of the increase of the risk of pedestrians' accidents.

After having consulted the locals, we have decided not to demolish the Swing Bridge, as they clearly want it preserved, even though it most certainly presents a liability in many aspects. Nevertheless, repairs should be carried out urgently, as the bridge is in a really bad condition, but no change will be made in its place and size. Rising concerns about the safety of the 100-year-old bridge and its high annual maintenance cost call for immediate measures. As far as the foundations are concerned, the wooden piles in the ground will be replaced with steel, to ensure the stability of the bridge and extent its life limits. Mechanical and electrical changes in the gear will be made, to ensure the effective function of the bridge.

Finally, the bridge will be established as a pedestrian walkway, and will not be used by both the locals and the tourists (as for the latter, a new river crossing and new ways of access to the town centre will be provided.) The bridge will not seize to constitute a passage for emergency vehicles.

2. New Bridge

One of the tasks to be completed is to introduce a new river crossing for highway and pedestrian traffic within the Harbour Zone. After having performed a detailed examination of the town's geology and conditions, and after having analyzed a number of different solutions possible (location, types etc), we have decided to construct this new bridge.

The location of this new bridge is also in the south of the Upper Harbour Zone, between the other two bridges. The new Bridge will constitute the junction between Langbourne Road in the West and Church Street on the East side, following a north-east direction.

  • Type:
  • The type chosen for this bridge is the cable-stayed swing bridge. The cable-stayed bridge is a new type of bridge that made its first appearance after World War II to solve the problem of lack of steel supplies and to replace suspension bridges that needed numerous set of cables, in contrast to the cable-stayed bridge, which has only one set of cables. Large upright steel supports are used to transmit the load into the ground and strong steel cables are stretched between the supports and the deck. This last characteristic gives a distinct appearance and allows architects to design some very elegant structures. The facts that it is lightweight in construction and less costly than a metal bridge, in combination with its minimum need for cable, represent the main advantages of this type and constitute it the appropriate for our purpose. However, in this case, we have decided to proceed to a modification of the bridge type, constituting it a combination of two types, the cable-stayed and the swing one. The reason we have reached this decision is because the land on the spot we chose for constructing the bridge is not high enough to allow boats to pass underneath and the fact that there is enough open space around the bridge in question to allow the swing permits as to do so. So, our cable-stayed swing bridge will turn around upon a large pivot mechanism to allow ships to pass underneath it. We will place the large gear wheel on the basis of the bridge, gear that will be powered by electricity.

  • Dimensions:
  • It has been measured that the river in the new bridge area has a span of 110 m but because of the better access to the bridge we placed it diagonally on the river and the proper dimensions of the new bridge are 175 m length and 15.2 m width, when the bridge is in the closing position. The swing bridge has a left diagonal opening of 45o from the southwest to the south. Furthermore, the bridge is supported by three columns. The two of them are located at the place where the movable part of the bridge is connected with the 28m stable part of it, and their dimensions are ( 1.0m x 3.0m x 10.0m ) each. The third one has a diameter of 3m and is the main pivot (rotation axle) of the swing bridge. There are 20 cables on each side which are connected on a 20m steel beam with diameter of 0.9m and the bridge deck which holds the bridge while opening. Moreover, when the bridge is set to open position the span of the river is 48m, securing enough space for ships to sail across. And finally, considering the two direction road and the pedestrian's footpaths the appropriate dimensions have been defined as 3.65m for each traffic lane and 2m for footpaths (both directions), which are connected with the main deck with 2.2m steel bars and are 1m higher and 1m outside of the main deck, forming a total width of the bridge of 15.2m. Moreover, the space for railings is included in the footpath dimension (0.2m in each side). Additional, having in mind the side view of the bridge, heights should be defined, and so: each column is 10m, deck 0.8m and railings 1.1m for the main deck and 1m for the footpaths.

  • Bridge Foundations
  • Foundations are the most important elements of a well-structured, safe and well-stabilized construction. Without the proper one the bridge may not perform properly or, more importantly, will fail.

    Foundations are designed to have an adequate load bearing capacity based on soil assessment by a geotechnical engineer. Bridge foundations must be matched to the site, the bridge superstructure and the installers' capabilities. With site and soil information provided, complete foundation plans would be offered.

    All bridge piers rest on foundations that transfer loads from the bridge structure into the ground. The foundations support the bridge, and their design is critical. Difficult conditions, such as deep water (existing case), could make foundation construction complicated and expensive. In such circumstances, a decrease in the number of piers by increasing span length will be chosen. Of course, greater span lengths often require a more expensive bridge type, and therefore the tradeoffs must be evaluated carefully. Although, in this case three piers are enough bearing in mind the swing type of bridge.

    Considering the soft soils ground deep foundations are required. Driven piling works well for these applications and often requires less material. All types of driven pile (timber, steel shell, steel H, etc.) can be backed and capped with treated timber or the bridge seat can be built with poured-in-place concrete.

    "Driven piles" have various advantages which constitute their use adequate for this construction. Firstly, we should note the fact that the material of the pile can be inspected before it goes into the ground and also that it is kept stable in squeezing ground as mudstone. Another advantage is that they cannot be damaged by ground heave when driving adjacent piles. The contraction procedure is not affected by ground water and can be readily carried above ground level especially in marine structures. It also can be driven in long lengths.

    After concluding that driven piles was the category to choose from the design team had to decide which type of driven pile would use. Driven piles differ in material. There are 3 types for driven piles to choose from (timber, concrete and steel). Regarding the new swing bridge, the piles should be concrete piles and the method of drilling them is driven foundation and is described analytical below. Concrete piles are typically made with steel reinforcing and prestressing tendons to obtain the tensile strength required to survive handling and driving, and to provide sufficient bending resistance. Long piles can be difficult to handle and transport. Pile joints can be used to join two or more short piles to form one long pile. Pile joints can be used with both precast and prestressed concrete piles.

    Concrete piles are available in square, octagonal, and round cross-sections. They are reinforced with rebar and are often prestressed. Historically, wood piles were spliced together when the design length was too large for a single pile; today, splicing is common with steel piles, though concrete piles can be spliced with difficulty. Driving piles, as opposed to drilling shafts, is advantageous because the soil displaced by driving the piles compresses the surrounding soil, causing greater friction against the sides of the piles, thus increasing their load-bearing capacity.

    The dimension for the proposal foundations are: Length 7m, width 7m, height 2m and (2.6m x 2.6m x 3.5m). In each foundation there are 5 piles with dimensions ( 1m x 0.5m x 2m).

  • Materials:
  • A number of factors were considered in order to reach a decision about the choice of materials. For bridges one should use that material which results in the best bridge regarding shape, technical quality, economics and compatibility with the environment. The main properties of different materials that have been examined and are of particular importance to the bridge designer include: yield strength, ductility, toughness, modulus of electricity, coefficient of thermal expansion, wield ability and corrosion resistance.

    When deciding between steel and concrete, designers evaluate the tradeoffs among weight, strength, and expense to determine which material is best for a particular bridge. Concrete is heavier than steel, but steel is much stronger. The major advantages of concrete are that it is considerably cheaper than steel and can be formed into a greater variety of shapes. Steel tends to be preferred for large bridges because less material has to be handled and supported during the construction process, so even though concrete represents the economical choice, in our case, both our bridges will be made with steel, due to their weight. Regarding the above information, the new cable-stayed swing bridge would be constructed with steel as a basic material.

    Apart from steel, as a basic structural material for the new bridge, there are other materials which should be used in order to cover the entire range of material used for the bridge. These include the material for footpath construction, railings and asphalt paving.

  • Footpath construction
  • Both bridges will include two corridors for pedestrians, one on each direction. The width of the footpath will be 2m, including the railings. The benefits of this investment are to improve public safety, the usability and enjoyment of the streetscape environment, the quality and maintenance and local, neighborhood and citywide linkages. For this purpose, the appropriate material should be used in the sidewalks area providing all the above. There are numerous options of materials for pavers such as brick, stone, granite, concrete etc. After analyzing each material and its specifications, we have concluded to use concrete pavers, as they undoubtedly have a large number of benefits, in contrast with our other choices.

    Concrete pavers exist in a vast variety of styles and colors and permit design creativity, adding value and visual appeal to every property. They have a low cost, and are in need for no maintenance, when they have more than 50 years life expectancy. Generally, concrete pavers are less expensive than clay pavers, granite pavers or sandstone pavers. When considering maintenance and replacement costs, pavers offer an economical long-term alternative to other types of pavement They constitute a material three times stronger than poured concrete, they are extremely dense units that posses exceptional strength and durability, superior stability under severe loads, and are unaffected by the extremes of heat and frost.

    Manufactured to tight dimensional tolerances, pavers are stronger than regular poured concrete surfaces and more durable than black asphalt. They can take more abuse and last for generations. A segmental paving system allows for expansion and contraction without producing surface cracks, unlike monolithic concrete surfaces and stamped concrete.

    Pavers are low and easy maintenance and offer low life-cycle costs. Regular sweeping and occasional rinsing are usually the most maintenance needed. For heavy soiling, pressure washing with appropriate clearing solutions (re-sanding of joints will be necessary) or a simple spot treatment with a brush, cleaner, water and some elbow grease will solve the problem.

    As far the pavers' durability during the winter, snow can be plowed, blown or shovelled just like asphalt or concrete pavements. The chamfered edge of pavers will prevent you from catching an edge with the plow or shovel. Using de-icing products like salt or calcium chloride will not harm or pit the pavers. Electric or liquid snow-melting systems work well under concrete pavers, eliminating snow removal while reducing slip hazards. Smooth surface allows for easy snow removal. Pavers can be colored dark to help melt snow faster. Snow-melt systems can be installed to eliminate snow and ice removal. Concrete pavers resist deterioration of freezing and thawing cycles and deicing salts better than asphalt and better than ordinary poured in place concrete. In general, pavers can be used in any climate and can be trafficked immediately upon compaction.The joints between the pavers eliminate the cracking common with traditional asphalt and concrete pavements, and constitute a sensible and aesthetically attractive choice for all outdoor surfaces.

  • Asphalt paving:
  • For the two direction road on the bridge, the most appropriate material is considered to be asphalt. Asphalt is usually black in color and has a cement-like consistency, which happens to be formed by the distillation of crude petroleum. The cement like consistency is obtained through additives such as sand, filler and bitumen. The sand and bitumen aggregate must be dried so as to obtain the correct fluidity of the asphalt. Both then must be heated before mixing takes place, this is what is known as "hot mix". Asphalt is totally recyclable, and is made using recycled materials; hence it leads the way for preserving the world's resources.

    There are four main advantages of using asphalt for paving: Economical, durability, safety and recycling. From an economical point of view, asphalt is a low-cost building material. It is less expensive not only in actual cost, but in terms of the time it takes to complete construction. Moreover, as far as durability concerns, asphalt is a reliable weather resistant material and can be designed for low and high traffic conditions. It can withstand the harshest of weathers and the heaviest of semi-trailers. Asphalt can be designed in consistency for each specific purpose. And finally, asphalt is a recyclable material, it can be used over and over, and its life-cycle never ends. Asphalt roads can be dug up and then re-used again. This is what makes asphalt such a popular, modern day material. For by using it we are preserving our natural resources, whilst reusing the same material over again.

  • Railings :

Railings or Guard rail is a system designed to keep people or vehicles from straying into dangerous or off-limits areas. A handrail is less restrictive than a guard rail and provides both support and the protective limitation of a boundary. In traffic engineering, guardrails prevent vehicles from veering off the roadway into oncoming traffic, crashing against solid objects or falling into a ravine. A secondary objective is keeping the vehicle upright while deflected along the guardrail. The problem with this is that a guardrail of the optimum height for a car might not keep a truck from toppling over it, while a motorbike might slip under a higher rail.

There are four general types of guardrail, ranging from weakest and inexpensive to strongest and expensive cable and wood posts, steel and wood/metal posts, steel box-beam, and concrete barriers. While cheaper guardrail is the weakest, often being destroyed from the impact of a light vehicle, it is inexpensive and quick to repair, so this is frequently used in low-traffic rural areas. In this project steel railings should be used.

Construction method:

Planning and executing the construction of a bridge is often very complicated, and in fact may be the most difficult parts of the entire procedure.Certain bridge types, require the appropriate construction techniques. In our case, both the bridges we have designed will follow the same pattern, as concrete and steel bridges are generally built using similar techniques, although concrete bridges are built in shorter sections than steel bridges because of the greater weight of the material.

Having examined different types of methods, we have reached the conclusion that the appropriate method of construction for both the new High Level Bridge and our New Bridge is cantilever construction. The use of the cantilevering construction method, for medium and long span concrete bridges, is recommended especially where a scaffolding is difficult or impossible to erect as e.g., over deep valleys, wide rivers, which is the actual case for us, traffic yards or in case of expensive foundation conditions for scaffolds.

The function of this method is the following: A simple cantilever span is formed by two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of the obstacle to be crossed, meeting at the center. Whereas as far as the suspended span is concerned, the cantilever arms do not meet in the center; instead, they support a central truss bridge which rests on the ends of the cantilever arms. A common way to construct steel truss and prestressed concrete cantilever spans is to counterbalance each cantilever arm with another cantilever arm projecting the opposite direction, forming a balanced cantilever; when they attach to a solid foundation, the counterbalancing arms are called anchor arms. Thus, in a bridge built on two foundation piers, there are four cantilever arms: two which span the obstacle, and two anchor arms which extend away from the obstacle. Because of the need for more strength at the balanced cantilever's supports, the bridge superstructure often takes the form of towers above the foundation piers.

3. High Level Bridge:

The High Level Bridge, also called the New Bridge, is located in the southern part of the city, carrying the A171 highway over the River Esk. Due to its severe stabilization problem, and its unlikeness to be maintained, we have decided the demolition of this bridge, and its replacement with a new one, on the same exact place.

For the demolition process the following tools will be used: a hydraulic excavator, pneumatic tools, a truck-mounted crane, a hydraulic hammer and a barge. In general, the process should take the appropriate precautions to maintain the condition of conserved areas, ensure the safety of the workplace for all those involved and minimize the noise pollution in the area. Furthermore, all procedures must take place in a minimum timescale, so as to minimize the traffic problem in the A171 highway and also minimize the economic effects the non-existence of a river crossing in that place could have.

  • Type:
  • The first decision that had to be taken was the type of the new bridge, a decision that depends largely on the required dimensions for the bridge and the type of traffic to be carried. The type chosen for this project is the beam bridge, the ideal bridge type for highway overpasses. It is the simplest type of bridge today. Like most bridges that are characterized by the way they are supported, beam bridges consist of one horizontal beam with two supports, usually on each end. We will rebuilt a replica of the current bridge in the same exact location, without raising the level of the land on any side, as the height of the road on that position is enough to allow boats to pass underneath.

  • Dimensions:
  • First of all, the river span and the exact location of the new bridge should be illustrated and described. As we have already mentioned, the location of the new bridge is at the South side of the Harbour, uniting the A171 highway with Helredale Road. Our measurements showed that the river in the new bridge area has a span of 83m and the proper dimensions of the new bridge will be 213m length and 15.2 m width. Furthermore, the bridge will be supported by eight columns at each side with a distance of 30m between each two and their dimensions are: [ 2 x ( 2.0m x 1.0m x 3.0m ) ], [ 1 x ( 2.0m x 1.0m x 11.25m ) ], [ 3 x ( 2.0m x 1.0m x 22.5 m ) ], [ 1 x ( 2.0m x 1.0m x 17.5m ) ], [ 1 x ( 2.0m x 1.0m x 13.75m ) ]. The bridge will consist of a two-lane road and two footpaths for pedestrians, one on each side. The appropriate dimensions have been defined as 3.65m for each traffic lane and 1.9m for footpaths (on both directions), thus forming a total 15.2m width of the bridge. Also, it should be noted, that the space for railings is included in the footpath dimension (0.2m in each side). Additionally, having in mind the side view of the bridge, heights should be defined, and so: deck will be 2.7m including beams and railings 0.9m.

    As far as the construction method and the materials used for the foundations, the footpaths, the railings and the asphalt, the same rules and ideas apply to both bridges. They differ only in the material chosen for the main structure.

  • Material:

The adequate considerations to be taken into account in order to choose the right material for a construction have already been mentioned and analysed. Therefore, in the case of this bridge, I will proceed to the immediate choice of material and the properties that constitute it adequate for this specific case.

For the replica of the High Level Bridge, the appropriate material would be reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete is concrete in which steel reinforcement bars, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the material that would otherwise be brittle. Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without reinforcement, many concrete structures would not have been possible. Reinforced concrete can encompass many types of structures and components, including slabs, walls, beams, columns, foundations, frames and more.

The main advantages of concrete in this case are the following: Concrete undoubtedly represents an economical choice, and specifically it provided us with a far more reduced cost of construction and lower maintenance costs than steel. Secondly, concrete constructions have a high service life, due to the employing inside it of mineral admixtures that strengthen resistance to extreme temperature changes and corrosive chemicals. In addition to the above, concrete is consistently recognized for value, quality and versatility. Moreover, aesthetically, concrete constructions constitute a beauty appeal to tourists and encourage economic development.

Traffic Control and Car parking facilities

Until now, expansion to Whitby's transportation system has been limited to local and collector streets. While some town arterials have been widened in the past two decades, the majority of the expansion to the arterial system has been on Regional facilities. Many transportation corridors in Whitby have been developed to provide auto and sidewalk access to adjacent residential land uses and not for other modal opportunities for moving persons, such as bicycle facilities and transit ways. It is important to update and refine the Town's transportation network plans to enable Whitby to function in the long term in a safe and prosperous manner.

One of the main aspects in order to improve the Town's transportation system is the car park facilities in or out of the town. Since the mid 1980's, the population of the town has grown considerably, reaching the number of 115,000 residents. The population of Whitby has the potential to increase to as much as 200,000 within the next 20 years. Tourism is also a sector in development in the area, also adding a great number to the town's population, during peak tourism periods. Many tourists visited Whitby every year during summer period, some of them arriving by bus, train or their car. In the end, though, this growth of population, and most importantly, the arrival of many tourists every summer causes a huge traffic flow problem and hence a problem linked to the lack of parking facilities in the town, thus causing the augmentation of the risk of accidents and the general frustration of the locals. Speeding and dangerous driving are highlighted as major problems in the community, and the large number of parked cars along the main roads of the town exacerbates the danger caused by speeding traffic, and also increases the actual risk for pedestrians. Parking at the junctions of these roads also restricts visibility and thus can be considered as a cause for the increase of car accidents in the area. The areas which deal with the most severe form of the problem are the Green Lane and Church Street areas.

A solution to this problem must be found and our team has examined a large amount of initial ideas, in order to reach the final, effective scenario, based on the same general criteria used before to solve the problem of traffic congestion, i.e. economical, social and environmental factors, traffic flow current condition and need for a change, and public opinion.

Traffic can be controlled with a series of simple measures, by using traffic control systems and parking schemes such as traditional toll booths, moving columns, share bike program, park and ride schemes, expanding existing parking to manage the traffic flow and help reduce the unnecessary use of vehicles. Some of the initial ideas considered are the following: the creation of seasonal parking areas in courts and pitches around Whitby, the creation of small car parks in different locations inside and outside the town. Another idea was to design park-and-ride facilities as a part of a coordinated transportation system, than to plan individual facilities and need to try and tie them together later. Most of these ideas were rejected, especially due to public opinion; the locals want a calm center of the town, without radical changes, so we will take action in this matter mostly outside the town, and also by the pedestrianism of certain roads.

It is also very important to encourage public transportation, which could easily and effectively result in the reduction of the amount of cars used in the town and thus largely help in solving the problem. Despite its isolated location, Whitby is well connected by interurban buses. Arriva run services along the coast, with the X56 running every hour to Middlesbrough and Scarborough, and the 93 running every hour to Scarborough during the summer season, and less frequently to Middlesbrough throughout the year, as well as several local bus services. Coastliner runs their renowned luxury spec buses four times a day from Leeds and York on the 840. Through tickets from any railway station are available on the Coastliner service from York, ask for "Whitby Bus Station" when buying your ticket. Additional services run on many routes during the summer. The bus station is located on the west of the River Esk in the Town Centre, next to the train station. We need to provide public transport at all times and from all locations, from the inside and the outside of the town, and also find a way to make it essential to choose public transport, by eliminating any other options.

Existing car parking facilities in the town

Nowadays, the most convenient car park found in Whitby is the one on Church Street, which has 92 parking spaces. Although not the largest car park in the area, you can usually get a space throughout the morning, but by the afternoon it can be very busy. It is located opposite Rods & Reels tackle shop, has a public toilet next to it, is reasonably priced and is not a massive distance away from either pier or The Scar (about a 5 minute walk).

On the other side of the River Esk is the Railway Station car park which again is within a reasonable walking distance from both piers and The Scar. It is however considerably more expensive than any of the other car parks.

The largest car park in Whitby is the one up by the Abbey, as it can easily accommodate 415 cars. This is a seasonal car park and tickets are only required between 1st March and the 31st October. This is closer to the East Pier and The Scar than the other car parks but you have to negotiate the 199 Steps.

A special arrangement has been made for parking in the marina car park. The cost to park there is £5.00 per day. The car park is a temporary solution until a better approach take place.

The increasing demand for parking space has lead as to the following proposal of solutions:

Firstly, we have decided to proceed to the creation of a new car park in the Abbey area, on the same place as the existing parking, which is, as we have already mentioned, the largest parking facility in Whitby and has a capacity of parking space of 415 car spaces. The new car park will be even larger, reaching the 549 car spaces. The area expansion should be performed on the upper side of the existing car park which is an area with no use at the moment.

We have also reached the decision that parking facilities should be created outside the town. A new development area has been chosen to serve this cause, the place inside Stakesby Road. This is an open area, which could be used and benefit of constructing this on-ground car park. The capacity of the car park there will be 442 car park spaces and will cover a total area of about 19000 m2. The idea to solve the problem of traffic within the Harbour Area by creating a parking facility outside the town is that people who arrive with their own cars would park them in the new parking and use the public transport system as is described below. This is called a park and ride facility, i.e. public transport stations that allow visitors wishing to travel into city centres to leave their personal vehicles in a car park and transfer to a bus, rail system or taxi for the rest of the trip. Park and ride schemes also represent a way to avoid the difficulty and cost of parking within the town, thus benefiting the tourists in this way and making them prefer to leave their cars there, than drive to town themselves.

Our proposal includes that park and ride facilities will operate from Monday to Saturday, from 8.00 am to 6.00 pm, and also on Sundays from 10am to 5pm. Car parks would be staffed during opening hours. Overnight parking will not permitted at any of the sites and all sites will be secured with barriers after the last bus.

The bus path that will be followed form the park and ride facility to the town center will be a large enough circle, which should pass in front of some specific and important points such as: hotels area (Royal Crescent Road), Abbey (Abbey Ln, Church Ln), Whitby Rail Station (Station Square).

In general, these park and ride schemes are a suitable and extremely effective way to solve the problem we are dealing with, as they maximize the use of public transportation and minimize the use of private vehicles, thus reducing the traffic flow within the town, and also the environmental impact of transportation related to Whitby(pollution). Furthermore, speed limits inside the car park area should be considered and shown with appropriate signage.

Car parks need to accommodate visitors of differing abilities. These requirements include dedicated parking bays that comply with the minimum standards for disabled people. At least 5% of all car parking bays must be reserved for disabled visitors. They must be clearly identified, both on the bay surface and with a vertical sign immediately adjacent to the bay.

It is also important to assure a safe and secure environment within the park and ride facilities. Emergency telephones should exist within the facility, as well as adequate illuminations and signance to identify the facility. Safe pedestrian routes will exist from the car park to bus station and an enclosing waiting area will also be created.

Materials:

A vast range of materials in different finishes and colours is available for paving purposes. Selection must be based on engineering and aesthetic qualities and successful application will depend on good detailing and thorough understanding of the product.

The basic material which has been chosen for the car park is porous asphalt (PA). It concerns an open graded material designed to facilitate rapid drainage of surface water from the road, reducing spray. It also has the added bonus of reducing traffic noise. The material is less stiff and a 50mm layer makes only a 20mm contribution to the combined bituminous layer.

Pedestrianism of the town center

Besides the park and ride facility, which will ensure that tourists will not drive their private vehicles to reach the town center, there is another important solution to the problem of traffic flow in the city. Certain roads within the center will stop accepting vehicular movement, by tourists, and will only be used by the locals who own houses or enterprises in those specific roads. Pedestrianism should not cause a problem with supplying goods to the cafes and restaurants in the area or the passage of emergency vehicles as well.

This solution will be applied to the following directions: The New Quay Road will be turned into a pedestrian footpath, from the roundabout in the Upper Harbour Area until its end, i.e. to its full extent. On the other side of the River Esk, pedestrian walkway will be created in the extent of Church Street and will reach the end of the marine.

Pedestrianism, supported by the park and ride scheme proposed earlier, will result in decreasing conflict between pedestrians and vehicles, providing a smooth traffic flow while keeping tourists' vehicles outside the town, and improving road safety. Another important positive aspect of this solution proposed is the fact that it gives the visitors the chance to enjoy a long walk admiring the archaeological sites and monuments, and generally the unique character of the town, while also keeping the locals satisfied as their city will preserve her calm character.


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